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industrial design concept og automatic wheel chair for disables
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b51a315da9b288b813bd7/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b51a315da9b288b813bd7/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mec<span class="_ _0"></span>hanism<span class="_ _1"> </span>Syn<span class="_ _0"></span>thesis<span class="_ _1"> </span>Theory<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>Design<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>Rob<span class="_ _2"></span>ots</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">J.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Mic<span class="_ _0"></span>hael<span class="_ _3"> </span>McCarthy</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Dept.<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>Mec<span class="_ _0"></span>hanical<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>Aerospace<span class="_ _3"> </span>Engineering</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Univ<span class="_ _0"></span>ersity<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>California,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Irvine</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Irvine,<span class="_ _3"> </span>CA,<span class="_ _3"> </span>92697</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _4"> </span>synthesis<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span>ory<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>sp<span class="_ _0"></span>atial<span class="_ _4"> </span>linkage<span class="_ _4"> </span>systems<span class="_ _4"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>an</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">b<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _1"> </span>formulate<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>way<span class="_ _1"> </span>that<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>omp<span class="_ _0"></span>atible<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y9 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ge<span class="_ _0"></span>ometric<span class="_ _4"> </span>design<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>serial<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _2"></span>lel<span class="_ _4"> </span>chain<span class="_ _4"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ob<span class="_ _0"></span>otic</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 ya ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Me<span class="_ _0"></span>chanism<span class="_ _3"> </span>design<span class="_ _3"> </span>gener<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _2"></span>ly<span class="_ _7"> </span>se<span class="_ _0"></span>eks<span class="_ _3"> </span>exact<span class="_ _3"> </span>so-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 yb ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lutions<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;nite<span class="_ _3"> </span>appr<span class="_ _0"></span>oximation<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>tr<span class="_ _0"></span>aje<span class="_ _0"></span>ctory<span class="_ _3"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 yc ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _3"> </span>moving<span class="_ _3"> </span>fr<span class="_ _0"></span>ame.<span class="_ _5"> </span>In<span class="_ _3"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>ontr<span class="_ _0"></span>ast,<span class="_ _3"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ob<span class="_ _0"></span>ots<span class="_ _3"> </span>must<span class="_ _3"> </span>have<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>six-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 yd ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">de<span class="_ _0"></span>gr<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>e-of-fr<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _8"></span>dom<span class="_ _7"> </span>worksp<span class="_ _8"></span>ac<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>sp<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>ci&#64257;c<span class="_ _3"> </span>char<span class="_ _0"></span>acteris-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 ye ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tics<span class="_ _4"> </span>such<span class="_ _7"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>shap<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>size.<span class="_ _9"> </span>This<span class="_ _4"> </span>p<span class="_ _8"></span>ap<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _4"> </span>describ<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 yf ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inventor&#8217;s<span class="_ _3"> </span>envir<span class="_ _0"></span>onment<span class="_ _3"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;t<span class="_ _7"> </span>these<span class="_ _3"> </span>worksp<span class="_ _0"></span>ac<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y10 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">designers<span class="_ _3"> </span>sp<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>ci&#64257;c<span class="_ _0"></span>ation.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Curr<span class="_ _0"></span>ent<span class="_ _3"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>esults<span class="_ _3"> </span>yield<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;ve-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y11 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">de<span class="_ _8"></span>gr<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>e-of-fr<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _8"></span>dom<span class="_ _a"> </span>TS<span class="_ _a"> </span>r<span class="_ _8"></span>ob<span class="_ _8"></span>ot<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>four-de<span class="_ _8"></span>gr<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>e-of-fr<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>dom</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y12 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">CC<span class="_ _a"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ob<span class="_ _0"></span>ot<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;t<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>desir<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _3"> </span>c<span class="_ _8"></span>ontinuous<span class="_ _a"> </span>task.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _b"> </span>In<span class="_ _0"></span>tro<span class="_ _2"></span>duction</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y14 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _a"> </span>goal<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _c"> </span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>entor<span class="_ _c"> </span>is,<span class="_ _a"> </span>generally<span class="_ _8"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>sp<span class="_ _2"></span>eci&#64257;cation</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y15 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>new<span class="_ _d"> </span>pro<span class="_ _2"></span>cess<span class="_ _d"> </span>or<span class="_ _d"> </span>device<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>satis&#64257;es<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>need.<span class="_ _3"> </span>F<span class="_ _8"></span>or<span class="_ _d"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y16 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8220;mec<span class="_ _0"></span>hanical&#8221;<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _0"></span>tor<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>goal<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>mac<span class="_ _8"></span>hine<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>coor-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y17 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dinates<span class="_ _a"> </span>mov<span class="_ _0"></span>ement<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>applies<span class="_ _a"> </span>forces<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>accomplish<span class="_ _a"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y18 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">task.<span class="_ _7"> </span>While<span class="_ _c"> </span>computer-aided<span class="_ _c"> </span>design<span class="_ _a"> </span>tools<span class="_ _c"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ailable</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y19 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _d"> </span>generate,<span class="_"> </span>analyzed<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>ev<span class="_ _0"></span>en<span class="_"> </span>man<span class="_ _0"></span>ufacture<span class="_ _d"> </span>new<span class="_"> </span>parts</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _3"> </span>existing<span class="_ _a"> </span>machines,<span class="_ _3"> </span>soft<span class="_ _0"></span>ware<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"></span>ols<span class="_ _3"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>attempt<span class="_ _3"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1b ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">iden<span class="_ _0"></span>tify<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>new<span class="_"> </span>devices<span class="_ _d"> </span>matched<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>user-speci&#64257;ed<span class="_"> </span>task</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1c ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _a"> </span>limited<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>very<span class="_ _c"> </span>sp<span class="_ _2"></span>eci&#64257;c<span class="_ _a"> </span>examples.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1d ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _a"> </span>pap<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _3"> </span>describes<span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>integrated<span class="_ _a"> </span>theory<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1e ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">puter<span class="_ _5"> </span>aided<span class="_ _1"> </span>design<span class="_ _1"> </span>environmen<span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>supp<span class="_ _2"></span>ort<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>in-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y1f ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">v<span class="_ _0"></span>ention<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>articulated<span class="_ _3"> </span>mac<span class="_ _0"></span>hines<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>con<span class="_ _0"></span>trolled<span class="_ _3"> </span>spatial</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y20 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mo<span class="_ _0"></span>vemen<span class="_ _0"></span>t.<span class="_ _e"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>fo<span class="_ _2"></span>cus<span class="_ _1"> </span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _1"> </span>link<span class="_ _0"></span>ages<span class="_ _5"> </span>seeks<span class="_ _1"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y21 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bring<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>broad<span class="_"> </span>base<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>knowledge<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>analysis<span class="_"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y22 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">syn<span class="_ _0"></span>thesis<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>geometric<span class="_ _f"> </span>constraints<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>kinematic<span class="_ _f"> </span>synthe-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y23 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sis<span class="_ _c"> </span>together<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>mo<span class="_ _2"></span>dern<span class="_ _c"> </span>insights<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>capabilities</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y24 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _7"> </span>rob<span class="_ _2"></span>otics.<span class="_ _9"> </span>While<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>one-degree-of-freedom<span class="_ _7"> </span>planar</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y25 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">devices<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>six-degree-of-freedom<span class="_"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _c"> </span>devices<span class="_"> </span>hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y26 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">b<span class="_ _2"></span>een<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>focus<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>research<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>past<span class="_ _4"> </span>decades<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y27 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">broad<span class="_ _7"> </span>range<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>devices<span class="_ _7"> </span>b<span class="_ _2"></span>et<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>een<span class="_ _7"> </span>these<span class="_ _7"> </span>extremes<span class="_ _7"> </span>hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y28 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _3"> </span>little<span class="_ _3"> </span>atten<span class="_ _0"></span>tion.<span class="_ _6"> </span>The<span class="_ _10"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>hallenge<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>visualizing</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y29 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _d"> </span>analyzing<span class="_ _f"> </span>spatial<span class="_"> </span>link<span class="_ _8"></span>ages<span class="_ _d"> </span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>oses<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>fundamental<span class="_ _f"> </span>ob-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">stacle<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>entiv<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>use<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>these<span class="_ _a"> </span>devices.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2b ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Figure<span class="_ _4"> </span>1:<span class="_ _11"> </span>Deplo<span class="_ _0"></span>yed<span class="_ _4"> </span>swing-a<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>ay<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>communication</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2c ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">b<span class="_ _2"></span>oard<span class="_ _c"> </span>mounts.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2<span class="_ _b"> </span>Design<span class="_ _1"> </span>Theory</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y14 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_"> </span>contrast<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>many<span class="_"> </span>engineering<span class="_"> </span>design<span class="_ _c"> </span>situations,<span class="_ _c"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y15 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _0"></span>tor<span class="_ _4"> </span>do<span class="_ _2"></span>es<span class="_ _4"> </span>not<span class="_ _4"> </span>hav<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#8220;industrial<span class="_ _4"> </span>design<span class="_ _4"> </span>concepts&#8221;</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y16 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">or<span class="_"> </span>&#8220;pro<span class="_ _2"></span>duct<span class="_"> </span>mark<span class="_ _0"></span>eting<span class="_"> </span>sp<span class="_ _2"></span>eci&#64257;cations&#8221;<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>guide<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>de-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y17 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sign<span class="_ _d"> </span>e&#64256;ort.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Instead<span class="_"> </span>customer<span class="_ _f"> </span>surveys<span class="_ _f"> </span>iden<span class="_ _0"></span>tify<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>generic</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y18 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">need<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>oten<span class="_ _0"></span>tial<span class="_ _7"> </span>mark<span class="_ _0"></span>et<span class="_ _7"> </span>niche<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>here-to-fore</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y19 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unrealized<span class="_ _7"> </span>device,<span class="_ _7"> </span>such<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>wheelchair<span class="_ _3"> </span>accessories</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sho<span class="_ _0"></span>wn<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>Figures<span class="_ _d"> </span>1<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>2,<span class="_ _f"> </span>see<span class="_"> </span>Ruth<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>McCarthy<span class="_ _f"> </span>[27].</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1b ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Once<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>technical<span class="_ _a"> </span>capabilit<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>established<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>form</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1c ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _c"> </span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>ention,<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>commercialization<span class="_ _c"> </span>tak<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _c"> </span>place<span class="_ _a"> </span>via</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2e ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">industrial<span class="_ _a"> </span>design<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>pro<span class="_ _2"></span>duct<span class="_ _a"> </span>realization<span class="_ _10"> </span>studies,<span class="_ _10"> </span>fol-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2f ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lo<span class="_ _0"></span>wed<span class="_ _c"> </span>by<span class="_ _c"> </span>design<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>manufacturing.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1f ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">F<span class="_ _8"></span>undamen<span class="_ _0"></span>tal<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _0"></span>tiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"></span>ol<span class="_ _10"> </span>is<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>functional<span class="_ _7"> </span>de-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y20 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">comp<span class="_ _2"></span>osition<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>need<span class="_ _5"> </span>expressed<span class="_ _4"> </span>by<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>&#8220;v<span class="_ _0"></span>oice<span class="_ _5"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y21 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _10"> </span>customer,&#8221;<span class="_ _3"> </span>(Ullman<span class="_ _3"> </span>[32]).<span class="_ _6"> </span>While<span class="_ _3"> </span>there<span class="_ _10"> </span>are<span class="_ _3"> </span>many</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y22 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">decomp<span class="_ _2"></span>osition<span class="_ _5"> </span>strategies,<span class="_ _1"> </span>Krishman<span class="_ _1"> </span>et<span class="_ _5"> </span>al.<span class="_ _12"> </span>[13]<span class="_ _5"> </span>iden-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y23 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tify<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>functions<span class="_ _7"> </span>of:<span class="_ _6"> </span>motion,<span class="_ _4"> </span>pow<span class="_ _0"></span>er/matter,<span class="_ _7"> </span>control</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y24 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _4"> </span>enclosure.<span class="_ _13"> </span>F<span class="_ _8"></span>or<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>purposes<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>articulated<span class="_ _4"> </span>sys-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y25 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tems,<span class="_ _3"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>terminology<span class="_ _3"> </span>can<span class="_ _3"> </span>b<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>fo<span class="_ _2"></span>cussed<span class="_ _10"> </span>by<span class="_ _10"> </span>relab<span class="_ _2"></span>eling</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y26 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">these<span class="_ _1"> </span>functions<span class="_ _1"> </span>as:<span class="_ _14"> </span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>osition/orien<span class="_ _0"></span>tation<span class="_ _1"> </span>workspace,</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y27 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">force<span class="_"> </span>transmission,<span class="_"> </span>coordinated<span class="_"> </span>mov<span class="_ _8"></span>ement/forces,<span class="_"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y28 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">structural<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>tegrit<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _8"></span>.<span class="_ _15"> </span>With<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _16"> </span>in<span class="_ _16"> </span>mind,<span class="_ _17"> </span>the<span class="_ _16"> </span>task</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y29 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _17"> </span>the<span class="_ _18"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _18"> </span>is<span class="_ _17"> </span>de&#64257;ned<span class="_ _18"> </span>in<span class="_ _17"> </span>terms<span class="_ _17"> </span>of<span class="_ _18"> </span>the<span class="_ _17"> </span>posi-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion/orien<span class="_ _0"></span>tation<span class="_ _1"> </span>workspace<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>end-e&#64256;ector,<span class="_ _6"> </span>and</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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