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TCP/IP in wireless network
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b588915da9b288bceff20/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b588915da9b288bceff20/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Making<span class="_ _0"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _0"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>iable<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless<span class="_ _0"> </span>Sensor</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Networks</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Adam<span class="_ _3"> </span>Dunkels,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Juan<span class="_ _4"> </span>Alonso,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Thiemo<span class="_ _4"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>oigt</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Swedish<span class="_ _4"> </span>Institute<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _5"> </span>Science</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">{<span class="ff5">adam,alonso,thiemo</span>}<span class="ff5">@sics.se</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y6 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff7">&#8212;<span class="_ _6"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _5"> </span>protocol<span class="_ _5"> </span>suite,<span class="_ _5"> </span>which<span class="_ _5"> </span>has<span class="_ _5"> </span>proven<span class="_ _5"> </span>itself</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y7 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">highly<span class="_ _7"> </span>successful<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>wired<span class="_ _8"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _8"> </span>is<span class="_ _7"> </span>often<span class="_ _7"> </span>claimed<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>be</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y8 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unsuited<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _9"> </span>micr<span class="_ _a"></span>o-sensor<span class="_ _9"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _3"> </span>In<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _9"> </span>work,<span class="_ _3"> </span>we</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y9 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">question<span class="_ _8"> </span>this<span class="_ _8"> </span>con<span class="_ _2"></span>ventional<span class="_ _8"> </span>wisdom<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>present<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>number<span class="_ _b"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 ya ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mechanisms<span class="_ _8"> </span>that<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>intended<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>enable<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>TCP/IP</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yb ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _8"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _8"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _7"> </span>networks:<span class="_ _8"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _8"> </span>IP<span class="_ _7"> </span>address<span class="_ _8"> </span>assignment,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yc ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">shared<span class="_ _5"> </span>context<span class="_ _5"> </span>header<span class="_ _4"> </span>compression,<span class="_ _5"> </span>application<span class="_ _5"> </span>overlay<span class="_ _5"> </span>routing,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yd ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _5"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP<span class="_ _4"> </span>caching<span class="_ _4"> </span>(DTC).<span class="_ _5"> </span>Sensor<span class="_ _4"> </span>networks<span class="_ _5"> </span>based<span class="_ _4"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 ye ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TCP/IP<span class="_"> </span>ha<span class="_ _a"></span>ve<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>advantage<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>being<span class="_"> </span>able<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>directly<span class="_"> </span>communicate</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yf ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _3"> </span>infrastructure<span class="_ _3"> </span>consisting<span class="_ _3"> </span>either<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>wired<span class="_ _3"> </span>IP<span class="_ _3"> </span>network</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y10 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">or<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>IP-based<span class="_ _8"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _8"> </span>technology<span class="_ _7"> </span>such<span class="_ _b"> </span>as<span class="_ _7"> </span>GPRS.<span class="_ _8"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>hav<span class="_ _a"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y11 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">implemented<span class="_ _7"> </span>parts<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>our<span class="_ _c"> </span>mechanisms<span class="_ _c"> </span>both<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>simulator</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y12 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">en<span class="_ _a"></span>vironment<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>on<span class="_ _d"> </span>actual<span class="_"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _d"> </span>nodes.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Our<span class="_ _d"> </span>preliminary<span class="_"> </span>results</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y13 ff7 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _5"> </span>promising.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y14 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I<span class="_ _e"></span>.<span class="_ _8"> </span>I<span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ff8 fs4">N<span class="_ _e"></span>T<span class="_ _e"></span>R<span class="_ _e"></span>O<span class="_ _e"></span>D<span class="_ _e"></span>U<span class="_ _e"></span>C<span class="_ _e"></span>T<span class="_ _e"></span>I<span class="_ _e"></span>O<span class="_ _e"></span>N</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y15 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Many<span class="_ _4"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _3"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _4"> </span>networks<span class="_ _3"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _4"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>operated<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>iso-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y16 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lation;<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _3"> </span>network<span class="_ _3"> </span>must<span class="_ _3"> </span>be<span class="_ _9"> </span>connected<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>an<span class="_ _3"> </span>external</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y17 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">network<span class="_"> </span>through<span class="_ _f"> </span>which<span class="_"> </span>monitoring<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>controlling<span class="_"> </span>entities<span class="_"> </span>can</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y18 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reach<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _3"> </span>network.<span class="_ _4"> </span>The<span class="_ _3"> </span>ubiquity<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _3"> </span>has<span class="_ _3"> </span>made</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y19 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">it<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>de-facto<span class="_ _4"> </span>standard<span class="_ _9"> </span>protocol<span class="_ _4"> </span>suite<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>wired<span class="_ _9"> </span>netw<span class="_ _a"></span>orking.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">By<span class="_ _b"> </span>running<span class="_ _9"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _9"> </span>network<span class="_ _9"> </span>it<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>possible<span class="_ _b"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">directly<span class="_ _b"> </span>connect<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _8"> </span>network<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>wired<span class="_ _b"> </span>network</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">infrastructure,<span class="_ _5"> </span>without<span class="_ _d"> </span>proxies<span class="_ _5"> </span>or<span class="_ _5"> </span>middle-boxes<span class="_"> </span>[5].<span class="_ _5"> </span>It<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>often</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">argued<span class="_ _4"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>protocol<span class="_ _3"> </span>stack<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>unsuited<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>sensor</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks<span class="_"> </span>because<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_"> </span>requirements<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>extreme</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">communication<span class="_ _9"> </span>conditions<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _9"> </span>networks<span class="_ _9"> </span>e<span class="_ _a"></span>xhibit.<span class="_ _9"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y20 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">believ<span class="_ _a"></span>e,<span class="_ _8"> </span>howe<span class="_ _a"></span>ver<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _8"> </span>using<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>number<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>optimization</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y21 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mechanisms,<span class="_ _8"> </span>it<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _8"> </span>possible<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>achieve<span class="_ _b"> </span>similar<span class="_ _7"> </span>performance</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y22 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _8"> </span>terms<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>energy<span class="_ _b"> </span>consumption<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _8"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _b"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y23 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TCP/IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>that<span class="_ _4"> </span>obtained<span class="_ _4"> </span>by<span class="_ _3"> </span>using<span class="_ _4"> </span>specialized<span class="_ _4"> </span>communication</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y24 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">protocols,<span class="_ _5"> </span>while<span class="_ _4"> </span>at<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>same<span class="_ _4"> </span>time<span class="_ _4"> </span>bene&#64257;ting<span class="_ _5"> </span>from<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>ease<span class="_ _4"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y25 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">interoperability<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>generality<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y26 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>en<span class="_ _a"></span>vision<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _b"> </span>transport<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ff9">TCP/IP<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _b"> </span>net-</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y27 ff9 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">work<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff3">is<span class="_ _9"> </span>done<span class="_ _9"> </span>using<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>two<span class="_ _9"> </span>main<span class="_ _9"> </span>transport<span class="_ _3"> </span>protocols<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y28 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TCP/IP<span class="_ _c"> </span>stack:<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>best-ef<span class="_ _a"></span>fort<span class="_ _7"> </span>UDP<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>reliable<span class="_ _7"> </span>byte-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y29 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">stream<span class="_ _9"> </span>TCP<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Sensor<span class="_ _9"> </span>data<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>other<span class="_ _9"> </span>information<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>do<span class="_ _9"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">require<span class="_ _5"> </span>reliable<span class="_ _5"> </span>transmission<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>sent<span class="_ _5"> </span>using<span class="_ _5"> </span>UDP<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _5"> </span>whereas<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_ _8"> </span>used<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>administrativ<span class="_ _a"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>tasks<span class="_ _8"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>require<span class="_ _b"> </span>reliability<span class="_ _8"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">compatibility<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _10"> </span>existing<span class="_ _10"> </span>application<span class="_"> </span>protocols.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Examples<span class="_ _10"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such<span class="_ _5"> </span>administrative<span class="_ _10"> </span>tasks<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>con&#64257;guration<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>monitoring<span class="_ _10"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">individual<span class="_"> </span>sensor<span class="_"> </span>nodes,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>downloads<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>binary<span class="_"> </span>code<span class="_ _10"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>data</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">aggregation<span class="_ _10"> </span>descriptions<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y30 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _4"> </span>contribution<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>our<span class="_ _3"> </span>innov<span class="_ _a"></span>ativ<span class="_ _a"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>solutions</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y31 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>following<span class="_ _5"> </span>problems<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _4"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _4"> </span>networks:</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y32 ffa fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IP<span class="_ _b"> </span>addressing<span class="_ _b"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _a"></span>e.<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff3">In<span class="_ _9"> </span>ordinary<span class="_ _3"> </span>IP<span class="_ _9"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _9"> </span>IP</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y33 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">addresses<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _3"> </span>assigned<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>each<span class="_ _4"> </span>network<span class="_ _4"> </span>interface<span class="_ _4"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y34 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nected<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>network.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Address<span class="_"> </span>assignment<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>done<span class="_"> </span>either<span class="_ _f"> </span>using</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y35 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">manual<span class="_"> </span>con&#64257;guration<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>dynamic<span class="_"> </span>mechanism<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_ _10"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>DHCP<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y36 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>large<span class="_ _3"> </span>scale<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _4"> </span>network,<span class="_ _3"> </span>manual<span class="_ _3"> </span>con&#64257;guration<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y37 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">feasible<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _5"> </span>methods<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>usually<span class="_ _5"> </span>expensive<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>terms</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y38 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _3"> </span>communication.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Instead,<span class="_ _3"> </span>we<span class="_ _9"> </span>propose<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ff9">spatial<span class="_ _9"> </span>IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>address</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y39 ff9 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">assignment<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">scheme<span class="_ _5"> </span>that<span class="_ _4"> </span>provides<span class="_ _10"> </span>semi-unique<span class="_ _10"> </span>IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>addresses<span class="_ _5"> </span>to</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y3a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sensor<span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y3b ffa fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Header<span class="_ _4"> </span>overhead.<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">The<span class="_ _4"> </span>protocols<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>suite<span class="_ _4"> </span>have</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y3c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _9"> </span>very<span class="_ _3"> </span>large<span class="_ _3"> </span>header<span class="_ _9"> </span>ov<span class="_ _a"></span>erhead,<span class="_ _3"> </span>particularly<span class="_ _3"> </span>compared<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>spe-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y3d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cialized<span class="_ _5"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _10"> </span>network<span class="_ _10"> </span>communication<span class="_ _10"> </span>protocols.<span class="_ _10"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>believ<span class="_ _a"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y3e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>shared<span class="_ _f"> </span>context<span class="_ _f"> </span>nature<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>sensor<span class="_"> </span>netw<span class="_ _a"></span>orks<span class="_ _f"> </span>makes<span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="ff9">header</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y3f ff9 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">compr<span class="_ _a"></span>ession<span class="_ _10"> </span><span class="ff3">work<span class="_ _10"> </span>well<span class="_ _5"> </span>as<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>way<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>reduce<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _5"> </span>header</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y40 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">overhead.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y41 ffa fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Address<span class="_ _4"> </span>centric<span class="_ _3"> </span>routing.<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">Routing<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>networks<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>based</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y42 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>addresses<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>hosts<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _4"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span>application</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y43 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _b"> </span>nature<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _b"> </span>networks<span class="_ _b"> </span>makes<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>use<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>data-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y44 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">centric<span class="_"> </span>routing<span class="_"> </span>mechanisms<span class="_"> </span>[6]<span class="_"> </span>preferable<span class="_"> </span>over<span class="_"> </span>address-centric</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y45 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mechanisms,<span class="_ _7"> </span>howe<span class="_ _a"></span>ver<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _c"> </span>propose<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _7"> </span>form<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y46 ff9 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">application<span class="_"> </span>overlay<span class="_ _d"> </span>network<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">to<span class="_ _10"> </span>implement<span class="_ _d"> </span>data-centric<span class="_ _10"> </span>routing</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y47 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _5"> </span>data<span class="_ _4"> </span>aggregation<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _4"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _4"> </span>networks.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y48 ffa fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Limited<span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes.<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">Sensor<span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _10"> </span>are<span class="_ _5"> </span>typically<span class="_ _10"> </span>limited<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>terms</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y49 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _10"> </span>memory<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>processing<span class="_ _10"> </span>power<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _10"> </span>It<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>often<span class="_ _5"> </span>assumed<span class="_ _5"> </span>that<span class="_ _5"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y4a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TCP/IP<span class="_ _d"> </span>stack<span class="_ _10"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>too<span class="_ _d"> </span>heavy-weight<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>feasible<span class="_ _10"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_ _10"> </span>small</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y4b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems.<span class="_ _5"> </span>In<span class="_ _5"> </span>previous<span class="_ _10"> </span>work<span class="_ _10"> </span>[4],<span class="_ _5"> </span>we<span class="_ _5"> </span>have<span class="_ _10"> </span>shown<span class="_ _10"> </span>that<span class="_ _5"> </span>this<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y4c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_"> </span>case<span class="_"> </span>but<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_"> </span>implementation<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _d"> </span>stack<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _10"> </span>fact</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y4d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">can<span class="_ _10"> </span>be<span class="_ _10"> </span>run<span class="_ _10"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>8-bit<span class="_ _5"> </span>micro-controllers<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _10"> </span>only<span class="_ _10"> </span>a<span class="_ _10"> </span>few<span class="_"> </span>hundred</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y4e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bytes<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>RAM.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y4f ffa fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TCP<span class="_ _9"> </span>performance<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>inef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ff3">The<span class="_ _9"> </span>reliable</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y50 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">byte-stream<span class="_ _b"> </span>protocol<span class="_ _9"> </span>TCP<span class="_ _8"> </span>has<span class="_ _b"> </span>been<span class="_ _b"> </span>shown<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>have<span class="_ _b"> </span>serious</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y51 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">performance<span class="_ _b"> </span>problems<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _8"> </span>networks<span class="_ _b"> </span>[2].<span class="_ _b"> </span>Moreover<span class="_ _a"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y52 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>end-to-end<span class="_ _b"> </span>ackno<span class="_ _a"></span>wledgment<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>retransmission<span class="_ _b"> </span>scheme</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y53 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">employed<span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _7"> </span>TCP<span class="_ _7"> </span>causes<span class="_ _7"> </span>expensiv<span class="_ _a"></span>e<span class="_ _8"> </span>retransmissions<span class="_ _7"> </span>along</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y54 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ev<span class="_ _a"></span>ery<span class="_"> </span>hop<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>path<span class="_ _10"> </span>between<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>sender<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _a"></span>er<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>if<span class="_ _10"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y55 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">packet<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>dropped.<span class="_ _f"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>ha<span class="_ _a"></span>ve<span class="_ _f"> </span>dev<span class="_ _a"></span>eloped<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>distrib<span class="_ _a"></span>uted<span class="_"> </span>mechanism</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y56 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">similar<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>TCP<span class="_ _8"> </span>snoop<span class="_ _8"> </span>[2]<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _8"> </span>we<span class="_ _8"> </span>believ<span class="_ _a"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>can<span class="_ _8"> </span>be<span class="_ _8"> </span>used<span class="_ _b"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y57 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">overcome<span class="_ _10"> </span>both<span class="_ _4"> </span>problems.</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y58 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">While<span class="_ _b"> </span>we<span class="_ _b"> </span>are<span class="_ _b"> </span>not<span class="_ _b"> </span>aw<span class="_ _a"></span>are<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>any<span class="_ _9"> </span>research<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _b"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y59 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">wireless<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _9"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _3"> </span>there<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>plethora<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>work<span class="_ _9"> </span>being</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">done<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _7"> </span>ad-hoc<span class="_ _7"> </span>networks<span class="_ _7"> </span>(MANETs).</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">There<span class="_ _3"> </span>are,<span class="_ _3"> </span>howe<span class="_ _a"></span>ver<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>number<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>differences<span class="_ _4"> </span>between<span class="_ _4"> </span>sensor</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>MANETs<span class="_ _10"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>affect<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>applicability<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>TCP/IP<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MANET<span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>operated<span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _4"> </span>human<span class="_ _5"> </span>users,<span class="_ _4"> </span>whereas<span class="_ _5"> </span>sensor</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks<span class="_ _f"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>intended<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>autonomous.<span class="_ _6"> </span>The<span class="_"> </span>user<span class="_ _a"></span>-centricity<span class="_ _f"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y32 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MANETs<span class="_ _5"> </span>makes<span class="_ _4"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>primary<span class="_ _5"> </span>performance<span class="_ _5"> </span>metric,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y33 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">while<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>per-node<span class="_ _f"> </span>throughput<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>sensor<span class="_"> </span>networks<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>inherently</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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