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较好的数字预失真资料,anding zhu 的DPD文章
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624fc51774bc5c0105531052/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624fc51774bc5c0105531052/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IEEE<span class="_"> </span>TRANSA<span class="_ _0"></span>CTIONS<span class="_"> </span>ON<span class="_"> </span>MICR<span class="_ _0"></span>OW<span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _1"></span>VE<span class="_"> </span>THEOR<span class="_ _0"></span>Y<span class="_"> </span>AND<span class="_"> </span>TECHNIQUES,<span class="_"> </span>V<span class="_ _0"></span>OL.<span class="_"> </span>56,<span class="_"> </span>NO.<span class="_"> </span>10,<span class="_"> </span>OCT<span class="_ _0"></span>OBER<span class="_"> </span>2008<span class="_ _2"> </span>2237</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Digital<span class="_ _3"> </span>Predistortion<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>En<span class="_ _1"></span>velope-T<span class="_ _1"></span>racking</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Po<span class="_ _4"></span>wer<span class="_ _5"> </span>Ampli&#64257;ers<span class="_ _5"> </span>Using<span class="_ _5"> </span>Decomposed</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Piece<span class="_ _4"></span>wise<span class="_ _6"> </span>V<span class="_ _7"></span>olterra<span class="_ _6"> </span>Series</div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Anding<span class="_"> </span>Zhu<span class="ff2">,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Member<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Paul<span class="_"> </span>J.<span class="_ _8"> </span>Draxler</span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Member<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Chin<span class="_"> </span>Hsia,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Thomas<span class="_ _a"> </span>J.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Brazil</span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>F<span class="_ _1"></span>ellow<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1">,</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Donald<span class="_"> </span>F<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>Kimball<span class="ff2">,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Member<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1">,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>Peter<span class="_"> </span>M.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Asbeck</span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>F<span class="_ _1"></span>ellow<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>IEEE</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Abstract&#8212;<span class="ff4">Due<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _b"> </span>changes<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>supply<span class="_ _b"> </span>voltage,<span class="_ _b"> </span>en<span class="_ _0"></span>velope-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">tracking<span class="_"> </span>(ET)<span class="_"> </span>power<span class="_ _c"> </span>ampli&#64257;ers<span class="_"> </span>(P<span class="_ _4"></span>As)<span class="_"> </span>exhibit<span class="_ _c"> </span>very<span class="_"> </span>distinct<span class="_ _c"> </span>charac-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y9 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">teristics<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>differ<span class="_ _0"></span>ent<span class="_ _b"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>r<span class="_ _4"></span>egions.<span class="_ _a"> </span>It<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>very<span class="_ _b"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>compen-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ya ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">sate<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>distortion<span class="_ _b"> </span>induced<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>these<span class="_"> </span>ampli&#64257;ers<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>employing<span class="_ _b"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yb ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ventional<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_ _a"> </span>pr<span class="_ _0"></span>edistortion<span class="_ _b"> </span>techniques.<span class="_ _b"> </span>In<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>intr<span class="_ _4"></span>o-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yc ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ducing<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>new<span class="_ _d"> </span>piecewise<span class="_ _c"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>olterra<span class="_ _c"> </span>model<span class="_ _d"> </span>based<span class="_ _c"> </span>on<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>vector<span class="_ _d"> </span>threshold</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yd ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">decomposition<span class="_ _d"> </span>technique,<span class="_ _e"> </span>we<span class="_ _e"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _d"> </span>set<span class="_ _e"> </span>several<span class="_ _e"> </span>thresholds<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>input</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ye ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">power<span class="_ _8"> </span>level<span class="_ _a"> </span>according<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>P<span class="_ _4"></span>A<span class="_ _8"> </span>characteristics,<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>decompose</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yf ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">the<span class="_ _c"> </span>input<span class="_ _c"> </span>complex<span class="_"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_ _d"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>into<span class="_ _d"> </span>several<span class="_ _d"> </span>sub-signals<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_ _d"> </span>using</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y10 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">these<span class="_ _8"> </span>thresholds.<span class="_ _8"> </span>W<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>then<span class="_ _f"> </span>process<span class="_ _a"> </span>each<span class="_ _8"> </span>sub-signal<span class="_ _8"> </span>separately<span class="_ _8"> </span>by</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y11 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">employing<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff3">dynamic<span class="_ _a"> </span>deviation<span class="_ _a"> </span>reduction</span>-based<span class="_ _a"> </span>V<span class="_ _4"></span>olterra<span class="_ _a"> </span>series,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y12 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">and<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64257;nally<span class="_ _a"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ecombine<span class="_ _a"> </span>them<span class="_ _a"> </span>together<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>produce<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>pr<span class="_ _0"></span>edistorted</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y13 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">output.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Experimental<span class="_ _b"> </span>results<span class="_ _b"> </span>show<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _b"> </span>using<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>new<span class="_ _a"> </span>decom-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y14 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">posed<span class="_ _b"> </span>piecewise<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_ _b"> </span>predistorter<span class="_"> </span>model,<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>distinct<span class="_ _b"> </span>character-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y15 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">istics<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>ET<span class="_ _c"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>at<span class="_ _d"> </span>different<span class="_"> </span>signal<span class="_ _d"> </span>power<span class="_"> </span>le<span class="_ _0"></span>vels<span class="_ _c"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>accu-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y16 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">rately<span class="_"> </span>modeled,<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>thus,<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>distortion,<span class="_"> </span>including<span class="_ _d"> </span>both<span class="_"> </span>static<span class="_ _c"> </span>non-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y17 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">linearities<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>memory<span class="_ _a"> </span>effects,<span class="_ _b"> </span>caused<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_"> </span>nonlinear</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y18 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">behavior<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _b"> </span>effectively<span class="_"> </span>compensated.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y19 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Index<span class="_ _d"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>erms&#8212;<span class="ff4">Beha<span class="_ _0"></span>vioral<span class="_ _c"> </span>modeling,<span class="_ _c"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _d"> </span>(ET),<span class="_ _c"> </span>lin-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1a ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">earization,<span class="_"> </span>power<span class="_"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_"> </span>(P<span class="_ _4"></span>A),<span class="_"> </span>predistorter<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>olterra<span class="_ _b"> </span>series.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y1b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">I.<span class="_ _10"> </span>I<span class="fs5">NTR<span class="_ _0"></span>ODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y1c ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">I</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y1d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">N<span class="_ _11"> </span>MODERN<span class="_ _11"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _11"> </span>communication<span class="_ _11"> </span>systems,<span class="_ _11"> </span>non-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y1e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">constant<span class="_ _10"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_ _10"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _10"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _10"> </span>are<span class="_ _10"> </span>normally</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">employed.<span class="_ _10"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span>traditional<span class="_ _10"> </span>approach<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _10"> </span>linearly<span class="_ _9"> </span>amplifying</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y20 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">these<span class="_ _8"> </span>nonconstant<span class="_ _f"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_ _f"> </span>signals<span class="_ _8"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>&#8220;backof<span class="_ _4"></span>f&#8221;<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>output</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y21 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">power<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>RF<span class="_ _8"> </span>power<span class="_ _8"> </span>ampli&#64257;ers<span class="_ _8"> </span>(P<span class="_ _4"></span>As)<span class="_ _8"> </span>until<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>distortion<span class="_ _f"> </span>lev<span class="_ _0"></span>el</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y22 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">is<span class="_ _12"> </span>within<span class="_ _f"> </span>acceptable<span class="_ _12"> </span>limits.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Unfortunately<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _12"> </span>this<span class="_ _12"> </span>results<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>low</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y23 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">power<span class="_ _12"> </span>ef&#64257;cienc<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _12"> </span>since<span class="_ _13"> </span>these<span class="_ _13"> </span>modulated<span class="_ _12"> </span>signals<span class="_ _13"> </span>often<span class="_ _12"> </span>hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _13"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y24 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">high<span class="_"> </span>peak-to-average<span class="_"> </span>power<span class="_"> </span>ratio<span class="_"> </span>(P<span class="_ _1"></span>APR)<span class="_ _a"> </span>[1].</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y25 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">En<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_ _8"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _f"> </span>(ET)<span class="_ _8"> </span>is<span class="_ _8"> </span>one<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>most<span class="_ _f"> </span>promising<span class="_ _8"> </span>tech-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y26 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">niques<span class="_ _8"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>high<span class="_ _8"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _a"> </span>operation<span class="_ _8"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>nonconstant<span class="_ _8"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y27 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Manuscript<span class="_"> </span>recei<span class="_ _4"></span>ved<span class="_"> </span>February<span class="_ _e"> </span>1,<span class="_"> </span>2008;<span class="_"> </span>re<span class="_ _4"></span>vised<span class="_"> </span>July<span class="_ _d"> </span>24,<span class="_"> </span>2008.<span class="_ _e"> </span>First<span class="_"> </span>published</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y28 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">September<span class="_"> </span>23,<span class="_ _d"> </span>2008;<span class="_ _d"> </span>current<span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ersion<span class="_"> </span>published<span class="_ _e"> </span>October<span class="_"> </span>8,<span class="_"> </span>2008.<span class="_ _e"> </span>This<span class="_"> </span>work<span class="_ _d"> </span>was</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y29 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">supported<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>Science<span class="_ _b"> </span>Foundation<span class="_ _b"> </span>Ireland<span class="_ _a"> </span>under<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>Principal<span class="_ _b"> </span>Investig<span class="_ _0"></span>ator</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2a ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">A<span class="_ _4"></span>ward,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _4"></span>versity<span class="_ _b"> </span>College<span class="_ _b"> </span>Dublin,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Dublin,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Ireland,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>part<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>Center</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2b ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">for<span class="_"> </span>Wireless<span class="_"> </span>Communications,<span class="_"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _0"></span>versity<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>California<span class="_"> </span>at<span class="_"> </span>San<span class="_"> </span>Diego.</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y2c ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">A.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Zhu<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>T.<span class="_ _a"> </span>J.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Brazil<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>School<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>Electrical,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Electronic<span class="_ _a"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Mechanical<span class="_"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _d"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _0"></span>ersity<span class="_"> </span>College<span class="_ _d"> </span>Dublin,<span class="_"> </span>Dublin<span class="_ _d"> </span>4,<span class="_"> </span>Ireland<span class="_ _d"> </span>(e-mail:</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2e ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">anding.zhu@ucd.ie;<span class="_"> </span>tom.brazil@ucd.ie).</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y2f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">P.<span class="_ _d"> </span>J.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Draxler<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>Department<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>Computer<span class="_"> </span>Engineering,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y30 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Univ<span class="_ _0"></span>ersity<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>California<span class="_ _8"> </span>at<span class="_ _8"> </span>San<span class="_ _8"> </span>Diego,<span class="_ _8"> </span>La<span class="_ _8"> </span>Jolla,<span class="_ _8"> </span>CA<span class="_ _8"> </span>92093<span class="_ _8"> </span>USA,<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>also</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y31 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">with<span class="_ _8"> </span>Qualcomm<span class="_ _f"> </span>Inc.,<span class="_ _8"> </span>San<span class="_ _8"> </span>Diego,<span class="_ _8"> </span>CA<span class="_ _f"> </span>92121<span class="_ _8"> </span>USA<span class="_ _f"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _8"> </span>pdraxler@qual-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y32 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">comm.com).</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y33 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">C.<span class="_"> </span>Hsia,<span class="_ _b"> </span>D.<span class="_"> </span>F.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Kimball,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>P.<span class="_"> </span>M.<span class="_"> </span>Asbeck<span class="_ _b"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>Department<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>Elec-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">trical<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _a"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _0"></span>versity<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>California<span class="_ _a"> </span>at<span class="_ _a"> </span>San<span class="_ _a"> </span>Diego,<span class="_ _a"> </span>La</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y35 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Jolla,<span class="_"> </span>CA<span class="_"> </span>92093<span class="_ _d"> </span>USA<span class="_"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_"> </span>chhsia@ucsd.edu;<span class="_ _d"> </span>dfkimball@soe.ucsd.edu;<span class="_"> </span>as-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y36 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">beck@ece.ucsd.edu).</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y37 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Color<span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ersions<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>one<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_ _d"> </span>more<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>&#64257;gures<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_ _d"> </span>paper<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_ _d"> </span>av<span class="_ _0"></span>ailable<span class="_"> </span>online</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y38 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">at<span class="_ _b"> </span>http://ieee<span class="_ _0"></span>xplore.ieee.org.</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y39 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Digital<span class="_"> </span>Object<span class="_ _14"> </span>Identi&#64257;er<span class="_"> </span>10.1109/TMTT.2008.2003529</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">signals<span class="_ _a"> </span>[2].<span class="_ _a"> </span>By<span class="_ _a"> </span>superimposing<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>en<span class="_ _4"></span>velope<span class="_ _a"> </span>signal<span class="_ _a"> </span>at<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>drain</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">voltage,<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>RF<span class="_ _f"> </span>transistor<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _f"> </span>can<span class="_ _8"> </span>be<span class="_ _f"> </span>operated<span class="_ _f"> </span>continu-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ously<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>compression<span class="_ _f"> </span>regime<span class="_ _8"> </span>over<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>wide<span class="_ _8"> </span>range<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>power</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">lev<span class="_ _4"></span>els,<span class="_"> </span>which<span class="_ _c"> </span>signi&#64257;cantly<span class="_ _14"> </span>increases<span class="_ _c"> </span>power<span class="_ _c"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>P<span class="_ _4"></span>A.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Howe<span class="_ _4"></span>ver<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>ET<span class="_"> </span>system<span class="_ _a"> </span>has<span class="_ _a"> </span>inherent<span class="_ _b"> </span>nonlinearities<span class="_ _a"> </span>associated</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>gain<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>phase<span class="_ _c"> </span>variations<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>drain<span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>oltage<span class="_"> </span>changes.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y40 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">As<span class="_ _a"> </span>standard<span class="_ _8"> </span>RF<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _4"></span>As,<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>wideband<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>high-power<span class="_ _a"> </span>operation,</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y41 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">memory<span class="_"> </span>ef<span class="_ _0"></span>fects<span class="_"> </span>will<span class="_"> </span>also<span class="_ _14"> </span>become<span class="_"> </span>apparent<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>ET<span class="_"> </span>system.<span class="_"> </span>In</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y42 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">order<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>improve<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>system<span class="_ _c"> </span>performance,<span class="_"> </span>it<span class="_ _c"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>necessary<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>em-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y43 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ploy<span class="_ _d"> </span>digital<span class="_ _c"> </span>predistortion<span class="_ _c"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>remove<span class="_ _d"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_ _c"> </span>distor-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y44 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">tion<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_ _a"> </span>effects<span class="_"> </span>[3].</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y45 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Previously<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _15"> </span>we<span class="_ _13"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _15"> </span>an<span class="_ _15"> </span>open-loop<span class="_ _13"> </span>digital<span class="_ _15"> </span>predistorter</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y46 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">(DPD)<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _13"> </span>RF<span class="_ _13"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>As<span class="_ _13"> </span>with<span class="_ _13"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>&#64257;xed<span class="_ _13"> </span>supply<span class="_ _13"> </span>voltage<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _13"> </span>[4].<span class="_ _13"> </span>This</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y47 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">DPD<span class="_ _16"> </span>approach<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>deriv<span class="_ _4"></span>ed<span class="_ _16"> </span>from<span class="_ _16"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y48 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">dynamic<span class="_ _9"> </span>deviation<span class="_ _16"> </span>re-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y49 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">duction<span class="ff1">-based<span class="_ _10"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>olterra<span class="_ _16"> </span>series<span class="_ _10"> </span>[5]<span class="_ _10"> </span>that<span class="_ _17"> </span>allows<span class="_ _16"> </span>simultaneous</span></div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">compensation<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_ _c"> </span>distortion<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_"> </span>ef<span class="_ _4"></span>fects<span class="_"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">a<span class="_ _a"> </span>small<span class="_"> </span>number<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>parameters.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Based<span class="_ _a"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y4c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">th-order<span class="_ _a"> </span>post-in-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">verse<span class="_ _f"> </span>theory<span class="_ _f"> </span>[6],<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>parameters<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>this<span class="_ _12"> </span>DPD<span class="_ _12"> </span>can<span class="_ _12"> </span>be<span class="_ _12"> </span>directly</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">estimated<span class="_ _8"> </span>from<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>measured<span class="_ _8"> </span>input<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>output<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _4"></span>A<span class="_ _a"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">a<span class="_ _12"> </span>simple<span class="_ _12"> </span>of&#64258;ine<span class="_ _f"> </span>characterization<span class="_ _12"> </span>process.<span class="_ _12"> </span>This<span class="_ _12"> </span>eliminates<span class="_ _12"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y50 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">real-time<span class="_"> </span>closed-loop<span class="_ _a"> </span>adaptation<span class="_"> </span>requirement,<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>removes<span class="_"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y51 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">necessity<span class="_ _15"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>implement<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>parameter-estimation<span class="_ _9"> </span>algorithms</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y52 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">in<span class="_ _16"> </span>real<span class="_ _9"> </span>digital<span class="_ _10"> </span>circuits,<span class="_ _9"> </span>which<span class="_ _16"> </span>signi&#64257;cantly<span class="_ _16"> </span>reduces<span class="_ _16"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y53 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _13"> </span>and<span class="_ _15"> </span>implementation<span class="_ _15"> </span>cost.<span class="_ _15"> </span>Howe<span class="_ _0"></span>ver<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _15"> </span>this<span class="_ _15"> </span>type<span class="_ _15"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y54 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">model<span class="_ _8"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _8"> </span>be<span class="_ _8"> </span>applied<span class="_ _8"> </span>directly<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>ET<span class="_ _8"> </span>system.<span class="_ _8"> </span>Since<span class="_ _8"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y55 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ampli&#64257;er<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>ET<span class="_"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>exhibits<span class="_"> </span>very<span class="_"> </span>distinct<span class="_"> </span>characteristics</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y56 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">at<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>different<span class="_ _a"> </span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>wer<span class="_ _a"> </span>lev<span class="_ _0"></span>els,<span class="_ _a"> </span>it<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>very<span class="_ _a"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>characterize</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y57 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>behavior<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>ET<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _4"></span>A<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>using<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>single<span class="_ _a"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _8"> </span>V<span class="_ _18"></span>olterra</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y58 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">function<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>entire<span class="_ _b"> </span>range<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>input<span class="_"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>level.</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y59 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">In<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>we<span class="_ _a"> </span>propose<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_ _b"> </span>extension<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>V<span class="_ _18"></span>olterra<span class="_ _a"> </span>model</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">employed<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>[4]<span class="_"> </span>so<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>DPD<span class="_"> </span>approach<span class="_ _a"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>[4]<span class="_"> </span>can</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">be<span class="_ _a"> </span>used<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>linearize<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>ET<span class="_ _a"> </span>system.<span class="_ _8"> </span>This<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _8"> </span>achiev<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _8"> </span>intro-</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">ducing<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>new<span class="_ _a"> </span>decomposed<span class="_ _a"> </span>piecewise<span class="_ _a"> </span>V<span class="_ _18"></span>olterra<span class="_ _a"> </span>model<span class="_ _8"> </span>based<span class="_ _a"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">a<span class="_ _8"> </span>vector<span class="_ _a"> </span>threshold<span class="_ _8"> </span>decomposition<span class="_ _8"> </span>technique.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _8"> </span>this<span class="_ _8"> </span>approach,</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">we<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _14"> </span>set<span class="_ _c"> </span>sev<span class="_ _0"></span>eral<span class="_ _c"> </span>thresholds<span class="_ _14"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>input<span class="_"> </span>po<span class="_ _4"></span>wer<span class="_"> </span>le<span class="_ _4"></span>vel<span class="_ _c"> </span>according</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">to<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>characteristics<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>A.<span class="_ _8"> </span>W<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>then<span class="_ _a"> </span>decompose<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>input</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y60 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">complex<span class="_ _c"> </span>en<span class="_ _0"></span>velope<span class="_ _c"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>into<span class="_ _c"> </span>sev<span class="_ _4"></span>eral<span class="_"> </span>sub-signals<span class="_ _c"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>using<span class="_ _c"> </span>these</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y61 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">thresholds,<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>continue<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>process<span class="_ _a"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>sub-signal<span class="_ _8"> </span>separately</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y62 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">by<span class="_ _8"> </span>employing<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>low-order<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff2">dynamic<span class="_ _f"> </span>deviation<span class="_ _8"> </span>r<span class="_ _4"></span>eduction<span class="ff1">-based</span></span></div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y63 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">V<span class="_ _18"></span>olterra<span class="_"> </span>series,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>&#64257;nally<span class="_"> </span>recombine<span class="_"> </span>them<span class="_"> </span>together<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>produce</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y64 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>predistorted<span class="_ _a"> </span>output.<span class="_ _a"> </span>By<span class="_"> </span>employing<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>ne<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _a"> </span>piece<span class="_ _4"></span>wise<span class="_ _a"> </span>type</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y65 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">of<span class="_ _a"> </span>DPD<span class="_ _a"> </span>model,<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>distinct<span class="_ _a"> </span>characteristics<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>ET<span class="_ _a"> </span>system<span class="_ _a"> </span>at</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y66 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">different<span class="_ _8"> </span>signal<span class="_ _12"> </span>power<span class="_ _8"> </span>levels<span class="_ _8"> </span>can<span class="_ _12"> </span>be<span class="_ _f"> </span>accurately<span class="_ _12"> </span>modeled,<span class="_ _f"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y67 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">thus,<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>distortion<span class="_"> </span>caused<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_"> </span>behavior<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>ET</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y68 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">system<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>effecti<span class="_ _4"></span>vely<span class="_ _a"> </span>compensated.<span class="_"> </span>As<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>model<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>[4]</div><div class="t m0 x10 h9 y69 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">0018-9480/$25.00<span class="_ _14"> </span>&#169;<span class="_ _14"> </span>2008<span class="_ _b"> </span>IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x11 hb y6a ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: University College Dublin. Downloaded on October 8, 2008 at 08:06 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.616162,0.000000,0.000000,1.616162,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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