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  • 2011-01-20 04:46
Charging a lead acid battery using a microcontroller running fuzzy logic algorithm.
<html xmlns=""> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href=""> <link rel="stylesheet" href=""> <link rel="stylesheet" href=""> <script src=""></script> <script src=""></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src=""><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">INTELLIGENT FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR A LEAD ACID</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">BATTERY CHARGER</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2">G.E.M.D.C.Bandara*, Ratcho M. Ivanov and Stoyan Gishin</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">Department of Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Electronics</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws4">Sofia 1000, Bulgaria</div><div class="t m0 x6 h3 y6 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws5">Phone: +359-2636-2220, Fax: +359-2636-22220</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y7 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws6">Email*</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y8 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws7">ABSTRACT: During the last ten years, fuzzy Control has emerged as the most popular method in non-linear process</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y9 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws8">control, due to the simplicity of implementation, robustness and independence from mathematical presentation of the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 ya ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws9">control system. Fuzzy control can be applied to almost every control system, where mathematical model is not available</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsa">or difficult to derive from existing data of the system.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 yc ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 wsb">Fuzzy control of a Lead-Acid Battery Charger is being investigated in this paper. Effective control of the charging</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 yd ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsa wsc">process is complex due to the exponential relationship between the charging current and the charging time. Classical</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 ye ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">control algorithms such as PID, PI etc., are difficult to implement in this event, due to the unavailability of the value for</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 yf ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 wse">the coefficient of discharge in the exponential current-time relationship and switching over of the control inputs during</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y10 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc wsf">the two phases of the charging process.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y11 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws10">Initial peak charging current is reduced stepwise during the charging time and the quantity of the energy necessary for</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y12 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsa ws11">the charging process is effectively reduced. An intelligent Microcontroller based digital architecture is developed to</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y13 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsb ws12">sense the charging current and the present charge, after which fast fuzzy inference mechanism defines the next level of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y14 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsb ws13">the charging current. Delay time of the switching of the main supply is calculated after the fuzzy inference, and the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y15 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsa">power switch is switched accordingly.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y16 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc ws14">Experimental results and expert knowledge are used for tuning of the membership functions and the rule base of the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y17 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd ws15">fuzzy controller.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y18 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws16">Keywords: Fuzzy sets, fuzzy control, fuzzification, membership functions, regulator, fuzzy inference, defuzzification,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y19 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws17">centre of gravity, microcontroller</div><div class="t m0 x7 h3 y1a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 lse ws6">INTRODUCTION</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws18">Rechargeable batteries have wide variety of applications not only in the automobile industry but also in</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws19">telecommunications, energy industry, medicine, defence applications and almost every where in industrial applications,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd ws1a">where continuos operating power is required. Methods used for charging such batteries vary depending on their</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc ws1b">chemical composition, capacity, and methods of the construction and the type of the exploitation. Efficiency of the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y1f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc ws1c">charging algorithms are also depend on the amount of current used for the charging process, levels of the oscillations in</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y20 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws1d">the charging current, charging voltage levels, charging time and the fluctuations in the temperature during the charging</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y21 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsf ws6">process.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y22 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws17">In this paper design of an intelligent universal battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y23 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc ws1e">logic is discussed. The intelligent digital architecture is implemented with Motorola's latest 16bit microcontroller</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y24 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc ws1f">MC68HC812A4, which comes with a number of instructions specialised for fuzzy logic programming<span class="ls10 ws20"> <span class="ls11 ws21">(Bandara, 1997)<span class="ls12 ws6">.</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y25 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws22">Microcontroller's light integration module has almost all necessary peripherals to design this controller, but an external</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y26 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws23">analogue to digital converter is used for measuring the current and the voltage <span class="lsb ws24">to achieve high resolution.<span class="lsa ws25"> Implementing</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y27 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd ws26">one of the very effective and latest charging algorithms with fuzzy logic is discussed in detail. The fuzzy control</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y28 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd ws27">algorithm achieves the charging task in two phases. During the first phase the voltage is maintained below a maximum</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y29 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd ws28">level given by the operator during the initial setting up process which is done in dialogue mode and the current is</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws29">regulated to the set maximum level. Set point of the current is closely related with the capacity of the battery and this is</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y2b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws2a">taken in to mind when writing the program. The second phase starts when the battery voltage reaches a specific value</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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