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analysis of PEM fuel cell detail model
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622baf1015da9b288b809818/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622baf1015da9b288b809818/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Modeling,<span class="_ _0"> </span>control<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>simulation<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"> </span>PV/FC/UC<span class="_ _0"> </span>based<span class="_ _0"> </span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>ybrid</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _0"> </span>generation<span class="_ _1"> </span>system<span class="_ _1"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>stand-alone<span class="_ _0"> </span>applications</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">M.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Uzunoglu</div><div class="t m1 x2 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div><div class="t m2 x3 h5 y4 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,</div><div class="t m1 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">b</div><div class="t m2 x5 h5 y4 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,</div><div class="t m1 x6 h6 y5 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">*</div><div class="t m3 x7 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>O.C.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Onar</div><div class="t m1 x8 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div><div class="t m2 x9 h5 y4 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,</div><div class="t m1 xa h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">b</div><div class="t m3 xb h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>M.S.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Alam</div><div class="t m1 xc h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div><div class="t m4 x1 h7 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div><div class="t m5 xd h8 y7 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>University<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>South<span class="_ _4"> </span>Alabama,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Mobile,<span class="_ _4"> </span>AL<span class="_ _4"> </span>36688,<span class="_ _4"> </span>USA</div><div class="t m4 x1 h7 y8 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">b</div><div class="t m5 xd h8 y9 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Yildiz<span class="_ _4"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>echnical<span class="_ _4"> </span>University<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Istanbul<span class="_ _4"> </span>34349,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Turkey</div><div class="t m6 x1 h9 ya ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">article<span class="_ _5"> </span>info</div><div class="t m5 x1 h8 yb ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Article<span class="_ _4"> </span>history:</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha yc ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received<span class="_ _4"> </span>3<span class="_ _2"></span>1<span class="_ _4"> </span>January<span class="_ _4"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha yd ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Accepted<span class="_ _4"> </span>5<span class="_ _4"> </span>June<span class="_ _4"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha ye ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _2"></span>vailable<span class="_ _4"> </span>online<span class="_ _4"> </span>25<span class="_ _4"> </span>July<span class="_ _4"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m5 x1 h8 yf ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords:</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y10 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Modeling</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y11 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PV<span class="_ _4"> </span>system</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y12 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fuel<span class="_ _4"> </span>cell</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y13 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hybrid<span class="_ _4"> </span>power<span class="_ _4"> </span>generation</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y14 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ultra-capacitor<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>rene<span class="_ _2"></span>wable<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy</div><div class="t m6 xe h9 ya ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">abstract</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y15 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Different<span class="_ _6"> </span>energy<span class="_ _6"> </span>sources<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>converters<span class="_ _6"> </span>need<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>be<span class="_ _6"> </span>integrated<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>meet<span class="_ _6"> </span>susta<span class="_ _7"></span>ined<span class="_ _6"> </span>load<span class="_ _6"> </span>deman<span class="_ _7"></span>ds<span class="_ _6"> </span>while</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y16 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">accommodating<span class="_ _6"> </span>various<span class="_ _6"> </span>natural<span class="_ _6"> </span>conditions.<span class="_ _6"> </span>This<span class="_ _6"> </span>pape<span class="_ _7"></span>r<span class="_ _6"> </span>focuses<span class="_ _6"> </span>on<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>integration<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>photovoltaic<span class="_ _6"> </span>(PV),</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y17 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fuel<span class="_ _6"> </span>cell<span class="_ _4"> </span>(FC)<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>ultra-capacitor<span class="_ _6"> </span>(UC)<span class="_ _4"> </span>systems<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _6"> </span>sustained<span class="_ _6"> </span>pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _6"> </span>generation.<span class="_ _4"> </span>In<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _6"> </span>syst<span class="_ _2"></span>em,</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y18 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">during<span class="_ _4"> </span>adequate<span class="_ _8"> </span>insolation,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>PV<span class="_ _4"> </span>system<span class="_ _4"> </span>feeds<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>electrolyzer<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>produce<span class="_ _4"> </span>hydrog<span class="_ _2"></span>en<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>future<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _4"> </span>and</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y19 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transfers<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>load<span class="_ _9"> </span>side<span class="_ _9"> </span>if<span class="_ _9"> </span>possible.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Whenever<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>PV<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _5"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _9"> </span>completely<span class="_ _9"> </span>meet<span class="_ _9"> </span>load</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1a ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">demands,<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>FC<span class="_ _8"> </span>system<span class="_ _8"> </span>provides<span class="_ _8"> </span>power<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>meet<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>remaining<span class="_ _8"> </span>load.<span class="_ _8"> </span>If<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>rate<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>load<span class="_ _8"> </span>dema<span class="_ _7"></span>nd<span class="_ _8"> </span>increases</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1b ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _4"> </span>outside<span class="_ _4"> </span>limits<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>FC<span class="_ _4"> </span>cap<span class="_ _7"></span>ability<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>UC<span class="_ _4"> </span>bank<span class="_ _4"> </span>meets<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>load<span class="_ _4"> </span>dema<span class="_ _7"></span>nd<span class="_ _4"> </span>above<span class="_ _8"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>provided<span class="_ _4"> </span>by</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1c ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PV<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>FC<span class="_ _a"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _4"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>main<span class="_ _a"> </span>contribution<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>work<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>hybridization<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>alternate<span class="_ _a"> </span>energy<span class="_ _a"> </span>sources</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1d ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _6"> </span>FC<span class="_ _5"> </span>systems<span class="_ _a"> </span>using<span class="_ _5"> </span>long<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>short-term<span class="_ _6"> </span>storage<span class="_ _6"> </span>strategies<span class="_ _6"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"> </span>appropriate<span class="_ _6"> </span>power<span class="_ _6"> </span>controllers<span class="_ _6"> </span>and</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1e ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">control<span class="_ _8"> </span>strategies<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>build<span class="_ _8"> </span>an<span class="_ _8"> </span>autonomous<span class="_ _8"> </span>system,<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>pragmatic<span class="_ _8"> </span>design<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _8"> </span>model<span class="_ _8"> </span>proposed</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y1f ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>PV/FC/UC<span class="_ _a"> </span>hybrid<span class="_ _a"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>generation<span class="_ _a"> </span>system.<span class="_ _a"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>model<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>developed<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>applied<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>MATLAB</div><div class="t m7 xf hc y20 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#210;</div><div class="t m6 x10 hb y21 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y22 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Simulink</div><div class="t m7 x11 hc y23 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#210;</div><div class="t m6 x12 hb y24 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _b"> </span>SimPowerSystems</div><div class="t m7 x13 hc y23 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#210;</div><div class="t m6 x14 hb y24 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">environment,<span class="_ _b"> </span>based<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>mathematical<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>electri<span class="_ _7"></span>cal<span class="_ _b"> </span>models</div><div class="t m6 xe hb y25 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">developed<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _6"> </span>system.</div><div class="t m6 x15 hb y26 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#211;<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff1">20<span class="_ _7"></span>08<span class="_ _a"> </span>Elsevier<span class="_ _a"> </span>Ltd.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Al<span class="_ _7"></span>l<span class="_ _4"> </span>rights<span class="_ _6"> </span>reserved.</span></div><div class="t m8 x1 hd y27 ff6 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Introduction</div><div class="t m8 x16 he y28 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _9"> </span>ever<span class="_ _3"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _3"> </span>demand<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>energy<span class="_ _3"> </span>brought<span class="_ _9"> </span>renewed<span class="_ _9"> </span>in-</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y29 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">terest<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>renewable<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>sustainable<span class="_ _5"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>generation<span class="_ _6"> </span>techniques</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2a ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such<span class="_ _5"> </span>as<span class="_ _5"> </span>photovoltaic,<span class="_ _6"> </span>wind<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _5"> </span>cell<span class="_ _5"> </span>powered<span class="_ _5"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _6"> </span>While</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2b ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _4"> </span>demand<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _4"> </span>due<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>technological</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2c ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">developments<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>increases<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>population,<span class="_ _4"> </span>conventional<span class="_ _8"> </span>fossil-fuel</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2d ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">energy<span class="_ _a"> </span>sources<span class="_ _6"> </span>continue<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>diminish<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>environmental<span class="_ _a"> </span>concerns</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2e ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>urban<span class="_ _b"> </span>air<span class="_ _3"> </span>pollution,<span class="_ _3"> </span>global<span class="_ _b"> </span>climate<span class="_ _9"> </span>change<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>acid<span class="_ _3"> </span>de-</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y2f ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">position<span class="_ _a"> </span>continue<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>increase<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="fc1">[1<span class="_ _2"></span>,2]<span class="fc0">.</span></span></div><div class="t m8 x16 he y30 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Recent<span class="_ _a"> </span>advancements<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>hydrogen<span class="_ _4"> </span>powered<span class="_ _a"> </span>applications<span class="_ _6"> </span>make</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y31 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hydr<span class="_ _2"></span>ogen<span class="_ _1"> </span>as<span class="_ _1"> </span>an<span class="_ _0"> </span>indispensable<span class="_ _1"> </span>energy<span class="_ _1"> </span>carrier<span class="_ _1"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>hydr<span class="_ _2"></span>ogen</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y32 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">econom<span class="_ _2"></span>y.<span class="_ _8"> </span>In<span class="_ _a"> </span>future<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy<span class="_ _a"> </span>systems,<span class="_ _4"> </span>renew<span class="_ _2"></span>able<span class="_ _a"> </span>energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>sources<span class="_ _4"> </span>will</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y33 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">be<span class="_ _a"> </span>used<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>generate<span class="_ _4"> </span>hydrog<span class="_ _2"></span>en,<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>demand<span class="_ _a"> </span>might<span class="_ _a"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>satis-</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y34 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#64257;ed<span class="_ _3"> </span>using<span class="_ _9"> </span>renewable<span class="_ _9"> </span>sources<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _3"> </span>cells<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>hybrid<span class="_ _9"> </span>topologies</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y35 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">since<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>hydrog<span class="_ _2"></span>en<span class="_ _4"> </span>economy<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>one<span class="_ _a"> </span>vision<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>future.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Therefore,</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y36 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">alternate<span class="_ _3"> </span>energy<span class="_ _3"> </span>conversion<span class="_ _3"> </span>systems<span class="_ _3"> </span>such<span class="_ _b"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>PV<span class="_ _b"> </span>cells<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>wind</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y37 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">turbines<span class="_ _9"> </span>can<span class="_ _3"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>co-operated<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _3"> </span>cells<span class="_ _3"> </span>various<span class="_ _9"> </span>autonomous</div><div class="t m8 x1 he y38 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _4"> </span>grid-connected<span class="_ _4"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _8"> </span>The<span class="_ _a"> </span>use<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>PV<span class="_ _a"> </span>systems<span class="_ _8"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>small-scale</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y39 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applications,<span class="_ _4"> </span>such<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>water<span class="_ _4"> </span>pumping<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>irrigation<span class="_ _a"> </span>applications<span class="_ _a"> </span>in</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y3a ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">non-interconnecte<span class="_ _2"></span>d<span class="_ _3"> </span>remote<span class="_ _3"> </span>areas<span class="_ _3"> </span>has<span class="_ _3"> </span>also<span class="_ _3"> </span>received<span class="_ _3"> </span>considerable</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y3b ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">attention<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="fc1">[3,4]</span>.</div><div class="t m8 x18 he y3c ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _9"> </span>power<span class="_ _5"> </span>generated<span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>PV<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>highly<span class="_ _9"> </span>dependent<span class="_ _9"> </span>on</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y3d ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">weather<span class="_ _3"> </span>conditions.<span class="_ _b"> </span>For<span class="_ _b"> </span>example,<span class="_ _b"> </span>during<span class="_ _b"> </span>cloudy<span class="_ _b"> </span>periods<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>at</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y3e ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">night,<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>PV<span class="_ _a"> </span>system<span class="_ _8"> </span>would<span class="_ _4"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>generate<span class="_ _8"> </span>any<span class="_ _4"> </span>power<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _4"> </span>In<span class="_ _4"> </span>addition,<span class="_ _4"> </span>it<span class="_ _a"> </span>is</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y3f ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>store<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _8"> </span>generated<span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>PV<span class="_ _8"> </span>system<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>future<span class="_ _c"> </span>use.</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y40 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _3"> </span>overcome<span class="_ _3"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>problem,<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>PV<span class="_ _3"> </span>system<span class="_ _3"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>integrated<span class="_ _3"> </span>with</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y41 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">other<span class="_ _b"> </span>alternate<span class="_ _1"> </span>powe<span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _1"> </span>sources<span class="_ _b"> </span>and/or<span class="_ _1"> </span>storage<span class="_ _b"> </span>systems,<span class="_ _1"> </span>such<span class="_ _1"> </span>as</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y42 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">electrolyzer<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>ydrogen<span class="_ _c"> </span>storage<span class="_ _c"> </span>tank,<span class="_ _c"> </span>FC<span class="_ _8"> </span>systems<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>UC<span class="_ _8"> </span>bank<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="fc1">[1<span class="_ _2"></span>,5,6]<span class="fc0">.</span></span></div><div class="t m8 x17 he y43 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _a"> </span>combination<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>FC<span class="_ _a"> </span>system<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>UC<span class="_ _a"> </span>bank<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>attractive<span class="_ _a"> </span>choice</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y44 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">due<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>their<span class="_ _6"> </span>high<span class="_ _5"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>fast<span class="_ _5"> </span>load-response,<span class="_ _6"> </span>&#64258;exible<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>mod-</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y45 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ular<span class="_ _3"> </span>structure<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>use<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>other<span class="_ _3"> </span>alternativ<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>sources<span class="_ _3"> </span>such<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>PV</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y46 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _4"> </span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>wind<span class="_ _a"> </span>turbines.</div><div class="t m8 x18 he y47 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">An<span class="_ _d"> </span>FC<span class="_ _d"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>plant<span class="_ _e"> </span>uses<span class="_ _d"> </span>oxy<span class="_ _2"></span>gen<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>hydrogen<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>convert</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y48 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">chemical<span class="_ _3"> </span>energy<span class="_ _b"> </span>into<span class="_ _3"> </span>electrical<span class="_ _3"> </span>energy.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Due<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>low<span class="_ _3"> </span>working</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y49 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">temperature<span class="_ _f"> </span>(80&#8211;1<span class="_ _2"></span>00</div><div class="t m9 x19 hf y4a ff7 fsa fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#58882;</div><div class="t m8 x1a he y4b ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">C)<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>fast<span class="_ _10"> </span>start<span class="_ _f"> </span>up,<span class="_ _10"> </span>pr<span class="_ _2"></span>oton<span class="_ _f"> </span>exchange</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y4c ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">membrane<span class="_ _3"> </span>(PEM)<span class="_ _b"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _3"> </span>cell<span class="_ _b"> </span>power<span class="_ _3"> </span>plants<span class="_ _b"> </span>(FCPPs)<span class="_ _3"> </span>are<span class="_ _b"> </span>one<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y4d ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">promising<span class="_ _6"> </span>candidates<span class="_ _6"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>residential<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>commercial<span class="_ _6"> </span>applications</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y4e ff1 fs9 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">[7]<span class="fc0">.<span class="_ _5"> </span>In<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _5"> </span>study,<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>Proton<span class="_ _5"> </span>Exchang<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _9"> </span>Membrane<span class="_ _5"> </span>(PEM)<span class="_ _5"> </span>FC<span class="_ _9"> </span>power</span></div><div class="t m8 x17 he y4f ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">plant<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>preferred<span class="_ _4"> </span>because,<span class="_ _4"> </span>among<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>various<span class="_ _4"> </span>types<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>FC<span class="_ _a"> </span>systems,</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y50 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PEMFC<span class="_ _a"> </span>power<span class="_ _4"> </span>plants<span class="_ _6"> </span>have<span class="_ _4"> </span>been<span class="_ _6"> </span>found<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>especially<span class="_ _a"> </span>suitable<span class="_ _a"> </span>for</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y51 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">h<span class="_ _2"></span>ybrid<span class="_ _5"> </span>energy<span class="_ _5"> </span>systems<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="fc1">[8]</span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>However<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>assisting<span class="_ _9"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>FC<span class="_ _5"> </span>power<span class="_ _5"> </span>plant</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y52 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>parallel<span class="_ _8"> </span>UC<span class="_ _4"> </span>bank<span class="_ _8"> </span>makes<span class="_ _4"> </span>economic<span class="_ _8"> </span>sense<span class="_ _4"> </span>when<span class="_ _8"> </span>satisfying<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m8 x17 he y53 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">peak<span class="_ _a"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>demands<span class="_ _6"> </span>or<span class="_ _6"> </span>transient<span class="_ _6"> </span>conditions.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Ultra-capacitors<span class="_ _6"> </span>are</div><div class="t m5 x1b h10 y54 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">*</div><div class="t m5 x16 ha y55 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Corresponding<span class="_ _a"> </span>author.<span class="_ _a"> </span>University<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>South<span class="_ _6"> </span>Alabama,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Department<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>Electrical</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y56 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _6"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _5"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _5"> </span>307<span class="_ _6"> </span>North<span class="_ _5"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity<span class="_ _5"> </span>Boulevard,<span class="_ _6"> </span>EEB<span class="_ _5"> </span>78,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Mobile,<span class="_ _5"> </span>AL</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y57 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">36688,<span class="_ _4"> </span>United<span class="_ _4"> </span>States.<span class="_ _8"> </span>Tel.:<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff7">&#254;</span>90<span class="_ _4"> </span>21<span class="_ _2"></span>2<span class="_ _4"> </span>383<span class="_ _4"> </span>2441;<span class="_ _8"> </span>fax:<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff7">&#254;</span>90<span class="_ _4"> </span>21<span class="_ _2"></span>2<span class="_ _4"> </span>259<span class="_ _4"> </span>4869.</div><div class="t m5 x16 ha y58 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E-mail<span class="_ _11"> </span>addresses:<span class="_ _11"> </span><span class="ff1 fc1">mehmet_uzunoglu@yahoo.com<span class="fc0">,<span class="_ _11"> </span></span>uzunoglu@yildiz.edu.tr</span></div><div class="t m5 x1c ha y59 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(M.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Uzunoglu),<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="fc1">conar@yildiz.edu.tr<span class="_ _8"> </span></span>(O.C.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Onar),<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="fc1">malam@usouthal.edu<span class="_ _4"> </span></span>(M.S.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Alam).</div><div class="t m8 x1d h11 y5a ff8 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Contents<span class="_ _4"> </span>lists<span class="_ _a"> </span>available<span class="_ _6"> </span>at<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="fc1">ScienceDirect</span></div><div class="t ma x1e h12 y5b ff1 fsb fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _2"></span>enew<span class="_ _2"></span>able<span class="_ _0"> </span>Energy</div><div class="t m8 x1f h11 y5c ff8 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">journal<span class="_ _6"> </span>homepage:<span class="_ _6"> </span>www.else<span class="ls4">vier.com/locate/renene</span></div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y5d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">0960-1<span class="_ _2"></span>481/$<span class="_ _4"> </span>&#8211;<span class="_ _4"> </span>see<span class="_ _4"> </span>front<span class="_ _4"> </span>matter<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff5">&#211;<span class="_ _4"> </span></span>20<span class="_ _7"></span>08<span class="_ _8"> </span>Elsevier<span class="_ _a"> </span>Ltd.<span class="_ _4"> </span>All<span class="_ _4"> </span>rights<span class="_ _4"> </span>reserved.</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y5e ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">doi:1<span class="_ _2"></span>0.<span class="_ _2"></span>1<span class="_ _2"></span>0<span class="_ _2"></span>1<span class="_ _2"></span>6/j.renene.20<span class="_ _7"></span>08.06.009</div><div class="t mb x12 ha y5f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Renew<span class="_ _2"></span>able<span class="_ _4"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>34<span class="_ _4"> </span>(20<span class="_ _7"></span>09)<span class="_ _4"> </span>509&#8211;520</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d mc"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d mc"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d mc"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d mc"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d mc"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div 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