CpuMemory.zip

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A good paper regarding cpu memory for both Engineers and college students.
CpuMemory.zip
  • CpuMemory
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625dc165d9b6ce52bd2e8d0c/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625dc165d9b6ce52bd2e8d0c/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">What<span class="_"> </span>Ev<span class="_ _0"></span>ery<span class="_"> </span>Programmer<span class="_"> </span>Should<span class="_"> </span>Kno<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_"> </span>About<span class="_"> </span>Memory</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ulrich<span class="_"> </span>Drepper</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Red<span class="_"> </span>Hat,<span class="_"> </span>Inc.</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">drepper@redhat.com</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Nov<span class="_ _0"></span>ember<span class="_"> </span>21,<span class="_"> </span>2007</div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y7 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">As<span class="_"> </span>CPU<span class="_ _1"> </span>cores<span class="_"> </span>become<span class="_"> </span>both<span class="_ _1"> </span>faster<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>more<span class="_ _1"> </span>numerous,<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>limiting<span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>actor<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_ _1"> </span>most<span class="_"> </span>programs<span class="_ _1"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y8 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">now<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>will<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>some<span class="_ _3"> </span>time,<span class="_ _3"> </span>memory<span class="_ _3"> </span>access.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Hardware<span class="_"> </span>designers<span class="_ _3"> </span>have<span class="_"> </span>come<span class="_ _3"> </span>up<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>ever</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y9 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">more<span class="_ _4"> </span>sophisticated<span class="_ _4"> </span>memory<span class="_ _4"> </span>handling<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>acceleration<span class="_ _4"> </span>techniques&#8211;such<span class="_ _4"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>CPU<span class="_ _4"> </span>caches&#8211;but</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 ya ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">these<span class="_ _3"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _3"> </span>work<span class="_ _3"> </span>optimally<span class="_ _6"> </span>without<span class="_ _3"> </span>some<span class="_ _3"> </span>help<span class="_ _6"> </span>from<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>programmer<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Unfortunately<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>neither</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 yb ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_"> </span>structure<span class="_"> </span>nor<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>cost<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>using<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>memory<span class="_"> </span>subsystem<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>computer<span class="_ _1"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>caches<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>CPUs</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 yc ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_"> </span>well<span class="_"> </span>understood<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_ _1"> </span>most<span class="_"> </span>programmers.<span class="_ _3"> </span>This<span class="_"> </span>paper<span class="_"> </span>explains<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>structure<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_ _1"> </span>subsys-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 yd ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tems<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>modern<span class="_ _7"> </span>commodity<span class="_ _7"> </span>hardware,<span class="_ _7"> </span>illustrating<span class="_ _7"> </span>why<span class="_ _7"> </span>CPU<span class="_ _7"> </span>caches<span class="_ _7"> </span>were<span class="_ _7"> </span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>veloped,<span class="_ _7"> </span>ho<span class="_ _0"></span>w</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 ye ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">they<span class="_"> </span>work,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>what<span class="_"> </span>programs<span class="_"> </span>should<span class="_"> </span>do<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>achie<span class="_ _0"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>optimal<span class="_"> </span>performance<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>utilizing<span class="_"> </span>them.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 yf ff3 fs1 fc2 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _8"> </span>Introduction</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y10 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>early<span class="_ _7"> </span>days<span class="_"> </span>computers<span class="_ _7"> </span>were<span class="_"> </span>much<span class="_ _7"> </span>simpler<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _3"> </span>The<span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y11 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ious<span class="_"> </span>components<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>system,<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_ _1"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>CPU,<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_ _2"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y12 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">mass<span class="_ _7"> </span>storage,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>network<span class="_ _7"> </span>interfaces,<span class="_ _7"> </span>were<span class="_"> </span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>veloped<span class="_ _7"> </span>to-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y13 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">gether<span class="_ _3"> </span>and,<span class="_ _6"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>result,<span class="_ _6"> </span>were<span class="_ _3"> </span>quite<span class="_ _6"> </span>balanced<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>their<span class="_ _6"> </span>per-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y14 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">formance.<span class="_ _5"> </span>For<span class="_ _3"> </span>example,<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>memory<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>network<span class="_ _3"> </span>inter-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y15 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">faces<span class="_ _3"> </span>were<span class="_ _6"> </span>not<span class="_ _3"> </span>(much)<span class="_ _6"> </span>faster<span class="_ _6"> </span>than<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>CPU<span class="_ _6"> </span>at<span class="_ _6"> </span>providing</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y16 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">data.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y17 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _6"> </span>situation<span class="_ _6"> </span>changed<span class="_ _6"> </span>once<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>basic<span class="_ _6"> </span>structure<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y18 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">puters<span class="_ _9"> </span>stabilized<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>hardware<span class="_ _9"> </span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>velopers<span class="_ _6"> </span>concentrated</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y19 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_ _3"> </span>optimizing<span class="_ _3"> </span>individual<span class="_"> </span>subsystems.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Suddenly<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>per-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1a ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">formance<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>some<span class="_ _6"> </span>components<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>computer<span class="_ _6"> </span>fell<span class="_ _3"> </span>sig-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1b ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ni&#64257;cantly<span class="_ _9"> </span>behind<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>bottlenecks<span class="_ _4"> </span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>veloped.<span class="_ _a"> </span>This<span class="_ _9"> </span>was</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1c ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">especially<span class="_"> </span>true<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>mass<span class="_"> </span>storage<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_"> </span>subsystems</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1d ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">which,<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>cost<span class="_ _6"> </span>reasons,<span class="_ _4"> </span>improv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _6"> </span>more<span class="_ _9"> </span>slowly<span class="_ _6"> </span>relativ<span class="_ _0"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1e ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_"> </span>other<span class="_"> </span>components.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y1f ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_"> </span>slo<span class="_ _0"></span>wness<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>mass<span class="_"> </span>storage<span class="_ _7"> </span>has<span class="_"> </span>mostly<span class="_"> </span>been<span class="_ _7"> </span>dealt<span class="_"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y20 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">using<span class="_"> </span>software<span class="_ _3"> </span>techniques:<span class="_ _9"> </span>operating<span class="_"> </span>systems<span class="_"> </span>keep<span class="_ _3"> </span>most</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y21 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">often<span class="_ _7"> </span>used<span class="_ _7"> </span>(and<span class="_ _7"> </span>most<span class="_ _b"> </span>likely<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>be<span class="_ _7"> </span>used)<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>main<span class="_ _7"> </span>mem-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y22 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ory<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>which<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>accessed<span class="_"> </span>at<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>rate<span class="_ _3"> </span>orders<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>magnitude</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y23 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">faster<span class="_"> </span>than<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>hard<span class="_"> </span>disk.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Cache<span class="_"> </span>storage<span class="_"> </span>was<span class="_ _7"> </span>added<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y24 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">storage<span class="_ _7"> </span>devices<span class="_ _b"> </span>themselves,<span class="_ _7"> </span>which<span class="_ _7"> </span>requires<span class="_ _7"> </span>no<span class="_ _7"> </span>changes<span class="_ _7"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y25 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _6"> </span>operating<span class="_ _6"> </span>system<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>increase<span class="_ _6"> </span>performance.</div><div class="t m0 x4 h7 y26 ff1 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y25 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">For<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y27 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">purposes<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>paper,<span class="_ _3"> </span>we<span class="_ _6"> </span>will<span class="_ _6"> </span>not<span class="_ _6"> </span>go<span class="_ _6"> </span>into<span class="_ _6"> </span>more<span class="_ _6"> </span>details</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y28 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_"> </span>software<span class="_"> </span>optimizations<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>mass<span class="_"> </span>storage<span class="_"> </span>access.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y29 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Unlike<span class="_ _3"> </span>storage<span class="_ _3"> </span>subsystems,<span class="_ _9"> </span>remo<span class="_ _0"></span>ving<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>main<span class="_ _3"> </span>memory</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2a ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>bottleneck<span class="_ _9"> </span>has<span class="_ _9"> </span>pro<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _6"> </span>much<span class="_ _9"> </span>more<span class="_ _9"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>al-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y2b ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">most<span class="_ _3"> </span>all<span class="_ _6"> </span>solutions<span class="_ _6"> </span>require<span class="_ _6"> </span>changes<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>hardware.<span class="_ _c"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>o-</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y2c ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y2d ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Changes<span class="_ _6"> </span>are<span class="_ _6"> </span>needed,<span class="_ _9"> </span>howe<span class="_ _0"></span>ver<span class="_ _d"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>guarantee<span class="_ _9"> </span>data<span class="_ _3"> </span>integrity<span class="_ _6"> </span>when</div><div class="t m0 x8 h9 y2e ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">using<span class="_"> </span>storage<span class="_"> </span>device<span class="_"> </span>caches.</div><div class="t m0 xc h9 y2f ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Copyright<span class="_"> </span>&#169;<span class="_"> </span>2007<span class="_"> </span>Ulrich<span class="_"> </span>Drepper</div><div class="t m0 xc h9 y30 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">All<span class="_"> </span>rights<span class="_"> </span>reserved.<span class="_ _1"> </span>No<span class="_"> </span>redistribution<span class="_"> </span>allowed.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y31 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">day<span class="_"> </span>these<span class="_"> </span>changes<span class="_"> </span>mainly<span class="_"> </span>come<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>following<span class="_"> </span>forms:</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y32 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _c"> </span>RAM<span class="_"> </span>hardware<span class="_"> </span>design<span class="_"> </span>(speed<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>parallelism).</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y33 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _c"> </span>Memory<span class="_"> </span>controller<span class="_"> </span>designs.</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y34 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _c"> </span>CPU<span class="_"> </span>caches.</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y35 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _c"> </span>Direct<span class="_"> </span>memory<span class="_"> </span>access<span class="_"> </span>(DMA)<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>de<span class="_ _d"></span>vices.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y36 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">For<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>most<span class="_ _5"> </span>part,<span class="_ _c"> </span>this<span class="_ _4"> </span>document<span class="_ _e"> </span>will<span class="_ _5"> </span>deal<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _e"> </span>CPU</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y37 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">caches<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>some<span class="_ _4"> </span>effects<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>memory<span class="_ _4"> </span>controller<span class="_ _5"> </span>design.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y38 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>process<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>exploring<span class="_"> </span>these<span class="_ _3"> </span>topics,<span class="_ _3"> </span>we<span class="_ _3"> </span>will<span class="_"> </span>explore</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y39 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DMA<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>bring<span class="_ _6"> </span>it<span class="_ _6"> </span>into<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>larger<span class="_ _6"> </span>picture.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Howe<span class="_ _d"></span>ver<span class="_ _d"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>we</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">will<span class="_ _7"> </span>start<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _7"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"> </span>ov<span class="_ _d"></span>erview<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>design<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>today&#8217;<span class="_ _d"></span>s<span class="_ _7"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">modity<span class="_ _9"> </span>hardware.<span class="_ _f"> </span>This<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>prerequisite<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>understand-</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ing<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>problems<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>limitations<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>ef&#64257;ciently<span class="_ _4"> </span>us-</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ing<span class="_ _4"> </span>memory<span class="_ _4"> </span>subsystems.<span class="_ _10"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>will<span class="_ _4"> </span>also<span class="_ _4"> </span>learn<span class="_ _4"> </span>about,<span class="_ _4"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">some<span class="_ _4"> </span>detail,<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>different<span class="_ _4"> </span>types<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>RAM<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>illustrate</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y3f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">why<span class="_"> </span>these<span class="_"> </span>dif<span class="_ _d"></span>ferences<span class="_"> </span>still<span class="_"> </span>exist.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y40 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _3"> </span>document<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>no<span class="_ _3"> </span>way<span class="_ _3"> </span>all<span class="_ _6"> </span>inclusiv<span class="_ _d"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>&#64257;nal.<span class="_ _e"> </span>It<span class="_ _3"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y41 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">limited<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>commodity<span class="_ _6"> </span>hardware<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>further<span class="_ _9"> </span>limited<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y42 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">subset<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>that<span class="_ _6"> </span>hardware.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Also,<span class="_ _9"> </span>many<span class="_ _3"> </span>topics<span class="_ _6"> </span>will<span class="_ _9"> </span>be<span class="_ _3"> </span>dis-</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y43 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cussed<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>just<span class="_ _9"> </span>enough<span class="_ _6"> </span>detail<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>goals<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>paper<span class="_ _d"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y44 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">For<span class="_ _3"> </span>such<span class="_ _9"> </span>topics,<span class="_ _6"> </span>readers<span class="_ _9"> </span>are<span class="_ _3"> </span>recommended<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;nd<span class="_ _9"> </span>more</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y45 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">detailed<span class="_"> </span>documentation.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y46 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">When<span class="_ _6"> </span>it<span class="_ _9"> </span>comes<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>operating-system-speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _6"> </span>details<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y47 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">solutions,<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>text<span class="_ _4"> </span>exclusi<span class="_ _0"></span>vely<span class="_ _9"> </span>describes<span class="_ _5"> </span>Linux.<span class="_ _11"> </span>At<span class="_ _4"> </span>no</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y48 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">time<span class="_ _9"> </span>will<span class="_ _4"> </span>it<span class="_ _9"> </span>contain<span class="_ _4"> </span>any<span class="_ _9"> </span>information<span class="_ _9"> </span>about<span class="_ _4"> </span>other<span class="_ _9"> </span>OSes.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y49 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_"> </span>author<span class="_ _3"> </span>has<span class="_"> </span>no<span class="_"> </span>interest<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>discussing<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>implications</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _4"> </span>other<span class="_ _4"> </span>OSes.<span class="_ _11"> </span>If<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>reader<span class="_ _4"> </span>thinks<span class="_ _4"> </span>s/he<span class="_ _4"> </span>has<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _4"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">different<span class="_ _7"> </span>OS<span class="_ _7"> </span>they<span class="_"> </span>ha<span class="_ _d"></span>ve<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>go<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>their<span class="_ _7"> </span>vendors<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>demand</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">they<span class="_"> </span>write<span class="_"> </span>documents<span class="_"> </span>similar<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_"> </span>one.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">One<span class="_ _6"> </span>last<span class="_ _9"> </span>comment<span class="_ _9"> </span>before<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>start.<span class="_ _12"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>text<span class="_ _9"> </span>contains<span class="_ _6"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">number<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>occurrences<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>term<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#8220;usually&#8221;<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>other,</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y4f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">similar<span class="_ _3"> </span>quali&#64257;ers.<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>technology<span class="_ _6"> </span>discussed<span class="_ _6"> </span>here<span class="_ _6"> </span>exists</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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