PAPR_OFDM_PONS.rar

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这是一篇关于OFDMA-PONS方面的论文,讨论了PAPR和OBI方面。
PAPR_OFDM_PONS.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b538015da9b288b97c3fb/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b538015da9b288b97c3fb/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ICTON 2011 <span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>Tu.C6.3</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2">978-1-4577-0<span class="_ _2"></span>882-4/11/$26.00 &#169;201<span class="_ _2"></span>1 IEEE <span class="_ _3"> </span>1 </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">Mitigation Techniques for Pe<span class="ls4 ws4">ak-to-<span class="_ _4"></span>Average Power Ratio </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws5">and Optical Beat Interference in OFDMA-PONs </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws6">E. Giacoumidi<span class="_ _4"></span>s</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">1</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws7">, A. Kavatzikidis</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">1</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws6">, I. Cano</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">2</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws8">, M. C. Santos</div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">2</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws9">, J. M. Tang</div><div class="t m0 xd h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">3</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws9">, J. Prat</div><div class="t m0 xf h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">2</div><div class="t m0 x10 h4 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsa wsa"> and I. Tomko<span class="_ _2"></span>s</div><div class="t m0 x11 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">1 </div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">1</div><div class="t m0 x13 h7 y9 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb wsb"> Athens Information Technolog<span class="_ _2"></span>y Center, </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 ya ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc wsc">19.5km Markopoulo Ave., Peani<span class="_ _4"></span>a, 19002<span class="wsd">, Athens, Greece, Email: igia@ait.gr </span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h6 yb ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">2</div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 yc ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">Universitat Poli<span class="_ _4"></span>t&#233;cnica de C<span class="_ _4"></span>atalunya, J<span class="_ _4"></span>ordi Giro<span class="_ _4"></span>na 1-3,E-<span class="_ _4"></span>08034 Barcelo<span class="_ _4"></span>na, Spain </div><div class="t m0 x17 h6 yd ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">3</div><div class="t m0 x18 h7 ye ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd wse"> Bangor Univ<span class="_ _4"></span>ersity, De<span class="_ _4"></span>an Str., LL5<span class="_ _4"></span>7 1UT, Bang<span class="_ _4"></span>or, Gwyn<span class="_ _4"></span>edd, Wales, U<span class="_ _4"></span>K </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yf ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws1">ABSTRACT </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y10 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsf wsf">The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAP<span class="ls10 ws10">R) and Optical Beat Interference (O<span class="ls11 ws11">BI) is exam<span class="_ _4"></span>ined thoroughly in </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y11 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws12">Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex<span class="_ _2"></span>ing Access (O<span class="ls13 ws13">FDMA)-Passive Optical Ne<span class="lsb ws14">tworks (PONs). Four </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y12 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws15">techniques for <span class="_ _4"></span>mitigating t<span class="_ _4"></span>he PAPR/OB<span class="_ _4"></span>I problem<span class="_ _4"></span> are evaluated, nam<span class="_ _4"></span>ely the bit-l<span class="_ _4"></span>oading algo<span class="_ _4"></span>rithm and cl<span class="_ _4"></span>ipping </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws16">for the PAPR, and the power-loading and<span class="_ _2"></span> thermal detuning for the OBI. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y14 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws1">Keywords<span class="ff1 ls11 ws17">: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, <span class="ls16 ws18">OFDM, Passive Optical Ne<span class="ls17 ws19">twork, PON, direct-</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">detection. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y16 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1">1.<span class="ff4 ls1"> </span><span class="ls19">INTRODUCTION </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y17 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws1a">The Orthogonal Frequency Divisio<span class="_ _2"></span>n Multiplexing (OFDM) is used widely in wireless and<span class="_ _2"></span> wired </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y18 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws1b">communications since it prov<span class="_ _2"></span>ides immunity to interference caused by a dispersive ch<span class="_ _2"></span>annel [1]. Despite this, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y19 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc ws1c">widespread use of OFDM technology <span class="ls1c ws1d">has only recently been a<span class="_ _4"></span>pplied to opti<span class="ls1d ws1e">cal comm<span class="_ _4"></span>unications. This is mainly </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsf ws1f">because new developments in digital si<span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ws20">gnal processing technology (DSP) m<span class="_ _4"></span>ake<span class="ws1f"> processing at optical <span class="_ _4"></span>data rates </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws21">feasible [1]-[3]. With resilience in<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="ls13 ws22">dispersion and its spectral efficien<span class="_ _2"></span>cy feature, Optical OFDM (OOFDM) has </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws23">emerged as t<span class="_ _4"></span>he dominant<span class="_ _4"></span> candidate fo<span class="_ _4"></span>r the future o<span class="_ _4"></span>ptical transm<span class="_ _4"></span>ission system<span class="_ _4"></span>s [2, 3]. I<span class="_ _4"></span>n recent years, Passi<span class="_ _4"></span>ve </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws24">Optical Networks (<span class="_ _4"></span>PONs) based in OF<span class="_ _4"></span>DM techniques<span class="_ _4"></span> (OFDMA) have gai<span class="_ _4"></span>ned overwhelm<span class="_ _4"></span>ing research and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws25">development<span class="_ _4"></span> interests of OF<span class="_ _4"></span>DM in Access (OF<span class="_ _4"></span>DMA) [4].<span class="_ _4"></span> Generally spe<span class="_ _4"></span>aking, the u<span class="_ _4"></span>pstream m<span class="_ _4"></span>ultipoint-to<span class="_ _4"></span>-point </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws26">architecture of PONs is more challe<span class="ls13 ws27">nging than the downstream. This is <span class="ls22">particularly true for OFDMA-PONs </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y20 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws28">where the subcarriers must be kept orthogonal to reco<span class="_ _2"></span>ver the data properly. Unfortunately, some challenges still </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y21 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc ws29">remain in the application of OFDM t<span class="_ _4"></span>o access networks, <span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ls21 ws2a">with the high Peak-t<span class="_ _4"></span>o-Average Power Ratio (PAPR<span class="_ _4"></span>) and </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y22 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws2b">the Optical Beat Interferen<span class="ls14 ws2c">ce (OBI<span class="_ _4"></span>) to be the t<span class="_ _4"></span>wo most signi<span class="_ _4"></span>ficant probl<span class="_ _4"></span>ems. </span></div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y23 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws2d">The high PAPR causes distortions coming<span class="_ _2"></span> from transmitter nonlinearities and results in two majo<span class="_ _2"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y24 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws2e">impairme<span class="_ _4"></span>nts: out-of-<span class="_ _4"></span>band powe<span class="_ _4"></span>r and in<span class="_ _4"></span>-band distort<span class="_ _4"></span>ion deteri<span class="_ _4"></span>orating<span class="_ _4"></span> the nonlinea<span class="_ _4"></span>r impai<span class="_ _4"></span>rments in o<span class="_ _4"></span>ptical </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y25 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws2f">fibres <span class="_ _4"></span>[1]. The <span class="_ _4"></span>OBI problem arises fr<span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ls25 ws30">om the fact that an OF<span class="ls26 ws31">DMA-PON sy<span class="_ _4"></span>stem presents multiple optical sources </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y26 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws32">in the upstream<span class="_ _4"></span> direction,<span class="_ _4"></span> and, when <span class="_ _4"></span>two or m<span class="_ _4"></span>o<span class="ls28 ws33">re Optical Network Units (ONUs) are transmitting </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y27 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws8">simultaneousl<span class="_ _4"></span>y on the sam<span class="_ _4"></span>e channel a<span class="_ _4"></span>nd their lasers a<span class="_ _4"></span>re ve<span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ls2a ws34">ry close t<span class="_ _4"></span>o each othe<span class="_ _4"></span>r in wavele<span class="_ _4"></span>ngth, the m<span class="_ _4"></span>ixing of t<span class="_ _4"></span>he </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y28 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws35">optical fields m<span class="_ _4"></span>ust be considered be<span class="_ _4"></span>cause at the photo<span class="_ _4"></span>-detection process t<span class="_ _4"></span>he square law nature <span class="_ _4"></span>generates beat<span class="_ _4"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y29 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws36">signals in the<span class="_ _4"></span> photocurre<span class="_ _4"></span>nt (cross-m<span class="_ _4"></span>ixing term<span class="_ _4"></span>s at the differe<span class="_ _4"></span>nce freque<span class="_ _4"></span>ncies correspondi<span class="_ _4"></span>ng to each <span class="_ _4"></span>pair of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws37">optical fields) at the Optical Line Term<span class="_ _4"></span>inal (OLT) <span class="ls12 ws38">[5, <span class="_ _5"></span>6]. These interference te<span class="ls2c ws39">rms can overlap an active </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws3a">subcarrier channel giving rise to additional no<span class="_ _2"></span>ise. </div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws3b">In this paper, we examine two PAPR reduction sc<span class="ls7 ws3c">hemes and we compare them with a conventional<span class="_ _4"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws3d">technique: a) the bit-load<span class="_ _2"></span>ing algorithm using OFDM or simply the Adap<span class="_ _2"></span>tively Modulated OOFDM </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd ws3e">(AMOOFDM<span class="_ _4"></span>), where in<span class="_ _4"></span>dividual subca<span class="_ _4"></span>rriers wi<span class="_ _4"></span>thin sym<span class="_ _4"></span>bol are mani<span class="_ _4"></span>pulated in t<span class="_ _4"></span>he frequency <span class="_ _4"></span>domain by<span class="_ _4"></span> using </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3f">different modulation form<span class="_ _4"></span>ats according to the frequency <span class="ls24 ws40">response <span class="_ _4"></span>of the given tran<span class="ls2e ws41">smission link [7, 8] and <span class="_ _6"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd ws42">b) a nonlinear <span class="_ _4"></span>distortion t<span class="_ _4"></span>echnique, <span class="_ _4"></span>where an optim<span class="_ _4"></span>um clippi<span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ls2f ws43">ng ratio (defined in [8]) is applied on the amplitud<span class="_ _2"></span>e </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws44">distribution <span class="_ _4"></span>of an oversam<span class="_ _4"></span>pled adaptation <span class="_ _4"></span>of the digit<span class="_ _4"></span>al signa<span class="ls12 ws45">l [1], [7, 8]. It should be noted that the results for </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws46">the PAPR are limited for a point-to-point OFDM system. <span class="ls9 ws47">Nevertheless, the result<span class="_ _4"></span>s are used as baseline for any </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y33 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws48">OFDMA-PON system. Furthermore, tw<span class="ls1e ws49">o techniques mitigating<span class="_ _2"></span> the critical impairment of OBI in th<span class="_ _2"></span>e OFDM-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y34 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc ws4a">PON upstream are included, the powe<span class="_ _4"></span>r-l<span class="ls25 ws30">oading algorithm<span class="_ _4"></span>, where the power of<span class="lsc ws4b"> each subcarrier is manipulated in<span class="_ _4"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y35 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws2c">the frequency <span class="_ _4"></span>domain [10]<span class="_ _4"></span>, and the t<span class="_ _4"></span>hermal detu<span class="_ _4"></span>ning of the<span class="_ _4"></span> lasers. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y36 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1">2.<span class="ff4 ls1"> </span><span class="ls30 ws4c">SIMULATION MODEL </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y37 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws4d">An Intensit<span class="_ _4"></span>y-Modulati<span class="_ _4"></span>on with Direct<span class="_ _4"></span>-Detection (IM/<span class="_ _4"></span>DD) model<span class="_ _4"></span> for OFDM trans<span class="_ _4"></span>missions is devel<span class="_ _4"></span>oped in </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y38 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws4e">a <span class="_ _7"></span>Matlab/VPI<span class="_ _4"></span>-transmissi<span class="_ _4"></span>on-Maker envi<span class="_ _4"></span>ronment. F<span class="_ _4"></span>or the sim<span class="_ _4"></span>ulations, an i<span class="_ _4"></span>deal ampl<span class="_ _4"></span>itude modulat<span class="_ _4"></span>or is em<span class="_ _4"></span>ployed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y39 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws4f">for the PAPR investigations and Dist<span class="lsf ws50">ributed Fe<span class="_ _4"></span>ed-Back (DFB)-lasers are em<span class="ls31 ws51">pl<span class="_ _4"></span>oyed for the<span class="_ _4"></span> OBI i<span class="_ _4"></span>nvestigations.<span class="_ _4"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws52">The investigated O<span class="_ _4"></span>OFDM transm<span class="_ _4"></span>ission link is based <span class="_ _4"></span>on the work rep<span class="_ _4"></span>orted in [7]-[1<span class="_ _4"></span>0]. The gener<span class="_ _4"></span>ation and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws53">detection of the electrical OFDM sign<span class="ls1f ws54">als are de<span class="_ _4"></span>veloped in M<span class="_ _4"></span>atlab platf<span class="_ _4"></span>orm, while t<span class="_ _4"></span>he standard <span class="_ _4"></span>VPI-transm<span class="_ _4"></span>ission-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws15">Maker module<span class="_ _4"></span>s are used for <span class="_ _4"></span>the optical com<span class="_ _4"></span>ponents and <span class="_ _4"></span>the single-m<span class="_ _4"></span>ode fibre (SMF<span class="_ _4"></span>) of the tra<span class="_ _4"></span>nsmission lin<span class="_ _4"></span>k. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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