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CL-mac is a cross layer mac protocol
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625c405f92dc900e6238aabe/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625c405f92dc900e6238aabe/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Energy Efficient Cross-Layer MAC Protocol for </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">Wireless Sensor Networks </div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2">Bouabdellah K<span class="_ _0"></span>ECHAR</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">,</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws4">Ahmed LOUAZANI</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x9 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, Larbi SEKHRI</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 xb h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">, Mohamed Faycal KHELFI</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">3</div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws7">Department of Computer Scie<span class="ls4 ws5">nce, Faculty of Science, </span></div><div class="t m0 xe h3 y6 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">University of Oran Es-Senia, BP. 1524 Oran, Algeria </div><div class="t m0 xf h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 x10 h6 y8 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws3">{Kechar.bouabdellah, <span class="ls8">Larb<span class="_ _0"></span>i.sekhri}@univ-oran.d<span class="_ _0"></span>z<span class="ls9">, </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y8 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws3">choudangm@gmail.c<span class="_ _0"></span>om<span class="ls9">, </span></div><div class="t m0 x13 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">3</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y8 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws3">mf_khelfi@yahoo.fr </div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y9 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsa ws3">Abstract </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 ya ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsb ws8">Technological A<span class="_ _1"></span>dvances in microe<span class="_ _1"></span>lectronic and telecommunication fie<span class="_ _1"></span>lds enable the ex<span class="_ _1"></span>istence of tiny </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 yb ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws9">computing units, very<span class="_ _1"></span> small and mo<span class="lsc wsa">re efficient. In the context of<span class="lsd wsb"> these new technologies, Wireless </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 yc ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lse wsc">Sensor Networks (WSN) h<span class="_ _0"></span>ave emerged. The main resea<span class="_ _0"></span>rch objective in WSN domain<span class="_ _0"></span> is the development </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 yd ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">of algorithms and protocol<span class="_ _0"></span>s ensuring minimal energ<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="lse wse"> consumption. Most propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed solutions are based<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 ye ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls5 wsf">on one-layer stack model approach<span class="_ _0"></span>. Recently, other works tend to exploit to<span class="_ _0"></span>gether many layers in order </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 yf ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws10">to optimize energy<span class="_ _1"></span> consumption. In this pa<span class="_ _1"></span>per, <span class="ls11 ws11">we propose a Cro<span class="_ _0"></span>ss-Layer Medi<span class="_ _0"></span>um Access Con<span class="_ _0"></span>trol (CL-</span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y10 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws12">MAC) protocol using two adjacent layer<span class="_ _0"></span>s (MAC and <span class="lsa ws13">Netw<span class="_ _0"></span>ork) to economize energ<span class="_ _0"></span>y for WSN. The basic<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y11 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws14">idea behind our protocol is to w<span class="ls13 ws15">ake-up only nodes belonging to a rout<span class="ls14 ws16">ing path from the source to the<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y12 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsc ws17">base station (Sink) by exploiting routing informatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n while other nodes leave maintained as lon<span class="_ _0"></span>g time as </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y13 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws18">possible in a <span class="_ _1"></span>sleep mode. The protoc<span class="_ _1"></span>ol is modeled usi<span class="_ _1"></span>ng a time Petri net a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd validated by TiNA<span class="_ _1"></span> tool. The </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y14 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 lse ws19">simulation results demonstrate the effecti<span class="_ _0"></span>veness of our proposal in<span class="_ _0"></span> terms of energy consumption<span class="_ _0"></span> and </div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y15 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws1a">latency. </div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y16 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3"> <span class="ff5 fs1 ls16">Keywords:<span class="ff2 ls6 ws7"> Wireless Sensor Networks, Cross-la<span class="ls17 ws1b">yer optimization, MAC Protocol, Energy <span class="_ _0"></span>consumption, Time Petri net.</span></span></span><span class="fs1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 h9 y17 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1c">1. INTRODUCTION </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y18 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws1d">Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are comp<span class="_ _1"></span>osed by tiny<span class="ls1a ws1e"> sensors called sensor nodes. A sen<span class="_ _1"></span>sor node ensures </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y19 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws1f">main functions like acquisi<span class="_ _1"></span>tion of environmental physical <span class="ls0 ws20">measures, local processing of collected d<span class="_ _1"></span>ata and their </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws21">transmission to the Sink. These functions are performed by an electronicall<span class="_ _1"></span>y modules composing the node&#8217;s </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws22">hardware architecture. Other componen<span class="_ _1"></span>ts can be added to <span class="ls1b ws23">ensure mobility function and energy self-recharging. A<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws24">node is alimented by a limited quantity of energy (battery<span class="_ _1"></span>) <span class="ls1c ws25">and communicates wirelessly using a radi<span class="_ _1"></span>o signal. </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws26">Generally, communication betwe<span class="_ _1"></span>en nodes consumes more <span class="_ _1"></span>energy than local processing or <span class="_ _1"></span>collecting data </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws27">operation. The geographical nature of t<span class="ls1c ws28">he deployment space of nodes make<span class="_ _1"></span>s qua<span class="ls1d ws29">si impossible the replacement or </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y1f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws2a">the recharging operations of batteries. T<span class="_ _1"></span>he challenge is to eco<span class="_ _1"></span>nomize energy inside every node in order to maintai<span class="_ _1"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y20 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws2b">as long as possible the network functionality. Many resear<span class="_ _1"></span>ch works are developed for energy efficiency at each<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y21 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws2c">layer of protocol stack by propo<span class="_ _1"></span>sing new algorithms and protocols. In parti<span class="_ _1"></span>cular, MAC layer was of great int<span class="_ _1"></span>erest for </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y22 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws2d">many researchers because it is consi<span class="_ _1"></span>dered as an impor<span class="ls20 ws2e">tant source of energy wast<span class="ls1d ws2f">age that we summari<span class="_ _1"></span>ze as </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y23 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws30">follows [1, 2]: </div><div class="t m0 x18 ha y24 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">&#8226;<span class="ff1 ls1d ws31"> <span class="_ _2"> </span>Overhearing: a sensor nod<span class="_ _1"></span>e receives packets that are transmitted for other<span class="ls1f ws32"> nodes. This is due<span class="_ _1"></span> essentially </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y25 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws33">to the radio transmission nature (omni-directional<span class="ls1d ws34">) forci<span class="_ _1"></span>ng every node of the neighbou<span class="_ _1"></span>rhood to waste </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y26 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws35">energy when receiving this radio. </div><div class="t m0 x18 ha y27 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">&#8226;<span class="ff1 ls1a ws36"> <span class="_ _2"> </span>Collision: since radio channel is <span class="ls0 ws37">shared by many nodes, a collision take <span class="_ _1"></span>place every time when two nodes </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y28 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws38">try to send in the same time their packets. Collisions<span class="ls1d ws39"> increase energy co<span class="_ _1"></span>nsumption and latency in case of </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y29 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws3a">packets deliverance m<span class="_ _1"></span>echanism due to retransmissions. </div><div class="t m0 x18 hb y2a ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">&#8226;<span class="ff1 ls22 ws3b"> Control <span class="_ _3"></span>packets <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ff2 ls19 ws3">(overhead)<span class="ff1 ls1e ws3c">: packet hea<span class="_ _1"></span>ders and control packet<span class="_ _1"></span>s (<span class="ff2 ls23 ws3">RTS/CTS/ACK</span><span class="ls1a ws3d">) used by a MAC protocol<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 hb y2b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws3e">do not contain application data, thus they<span class="ls20 ws3f"> are con<span class="_ _1"></span>sidered as supplementary data (<span class="ff2 ls24 ws3">overhead</span><span class="ls1a ws40">). Control </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y2c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws41">packets can be of importance sin<span class="_ _1"></span>ce most applic<span class="ls1d ws42">ations use data packets with reduced size. </span></div><div class="t m0 x18 ha y2d ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">&#8226;<span class="ff1 ls20 ws43"> <span class="_ _4"> </span>Idle listening: when a node is not active, leaves listeni<span class="_ _1"></span>ng t<span class="ls19">he signal carrier to knowing if it is the receiver of </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y2e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws44">an eventually traffic. In this sit<span class="ls25 ws45">uation, the amount of ener<span class="ls1e ws46">gy waste is equal to t<span class="ls1a ws47">he energy dissipated by a </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y2f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws48">normal reception. </div><div class="t m0 x18 ha y30 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3">&#8226;<span class="ff1 ls1d ws49"> <span class="_ _5"> </span>Over emitting: This case arrive<span class="_ _1"></span>s when a sensor node re<span class="_ _1"></span>ceives a packet while is in a sle<span class="_ _1"></span>ep mode. This </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y31 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws4a">situation forces the sender to perform new ret<span class="_ _1"></span>ransmissions that are stron<span class="_ _1"></span>gly linked to non-synchronisation </div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y32 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws3a">problem and therefore con<span class="_ _1"></span>sume more energy. </div><div class="t m0 x1a hc y33 ff7 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x1b h9 y34 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y35 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws4b">In order to decrease</div><div class="t m0 x1c ha y34 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws4c">or if possible to eliminate these vario<span class="_ _1"></span>us sour<span class="ls25 ws4d">ces of energy wastage, several protocol<span class="_ _1"></span>s has </span></div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y36 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws41">been proposed these last years and <span class="_ _1"></span>which <span class="ls1b ws35">are divided into two main classes: </span></div><div class="t m0 x1d hd y37 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws4e">International Workshop on Verifi<span class="ls27 ws4f">cation and Evaluation of Computer and Co<span class="_ _0"></span>mmunication Systems </span></div><div class="t m0 x1e he y38 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws4e">VECoS 2008 </div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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