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  • 2013-11-16 18:01
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A large problem with navigation systems that use GPS is that, due to the possibility of satellite out ages, there are many occasions when the GPS re ceiver fails to deliver enough information to support an error free navigation. In this paper, techniques will be presented to increase position accuracy and navigation robustness in an urban environment by means of collaborative navigation.
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625b1a8abe9ad24cfafdda5d/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625b1a8abe9ad24cfafdda5d/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Colla<span class="ls1">b</span>orati<span class="ls2">v<span class="ls3">e</span></span>GPS/IN<span class="ls4">S</span>N<span class="ls2">a</span>vigatio<span class="ls4">n</span>i<span class="ls4">n</span>Urban</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E<span class="ls5">n</span>vironme<span class="ls6">n</span>t</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">F<span class="ls7">.</span>Berefel<span class="ls8">t</span>B<span class="ls9">.</span>Bo<span class="lsa">b</span>er<span class="lsb">g</span>J<span class="lsc">.</span>Nyg&#229;rd<span class="ls8">s<span class="lsd">P<span class="lse">.</span></span></span>Str&#246;<span class="lsf">m</span>b&#228;<span class="lsf">c</span>k</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.-L.<span class="_"> </span>Wirk<span class="_ _0"></span>ander</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sw<span class="ls10">e</span>dis<span class="ls11">h</span>Defen<span class="ls10">c<span class="lse">e<span class="ls12">R</span></span></span>es<span class="ls10">e</span>a<span class="ls10">r</span>c<span class="ls11">h<span class="ls12">A</span></span>genc<span class="ls13">y</span>(<span class="ls14">F</span>OI)</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Biograph<span class="_ _0"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y7 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">F<span class="ls15">.</span>Be<span class="ls16">r</span>efel<span class="ls17">t</span><span class="ff6">i<span class="ls18">s<span class="ls19">a</span></span>resear<span class="ls1a">c</span>he<span class="ls1b">r</span>wit<span class="ls19">h</span>th<span class="ls18">e</span>divisio<span class="ls19">n</span>of</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y8 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Defenc<span class="ls1c">e</span>Analysi<span class="ls1d">s</span>a<span class="ls1d">t<span class="ls1e">F</span></span>OI<span class="ls1d">.</span>Hi<span class="ls1c">s</span>resear<span class="ls1a">c<span class="ls1f">h</span></span>i<span class="ls1e">n</span>terests</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y9 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">includ<span class="ls1f">e</span>mathematica<span class="ls1f">l</span>analysi<span class="ls1f">s</span>a<span class="ls20">n</span>m<span class="ls21">o</span>deling<span class="ls15">.</span>He</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 ya ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hold<span class="ls22">s<span class="ls23">a</span></span>B.A<span class="ls22">.</span>fro<span class="ls22">m</span>th<span class="ls23">e</span>Uni<span class="ls1e">v</span>ersi<span class="ls1a">t<span class="ls23">y</span></span>o<span class="ls22">f</span>St<span class="ls21">o<span class="ls1e">c</span></span>kholm</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yb ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">an<span class="ls24">da</span>M.Sc<span class="ls25">.</span>i<span class="ls23">n</span>mathematica<span class="ls1c">l</span>p<span class="ls1a">h</span>ysic<span class="ls26">s</span>fro<span class="ls27">m</span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yc ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="ls1e">oy</span>a<span class="ls28">l</span>Institut<span class="ls29">e</span>o<span class="ls20">f<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls2b">y</span>i<span class="ls2c">n</span>St<span class="ls21">o<span class="ls1e">c</span></span>kholm.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 yd ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">B<span class="ls2d">.</span>Bo<span class="ls16">b</span>e<span class="ls16">r<span class="ls2e">g</span></span><span class="ff6">i<span class="ls2f">sa</span>Resear<span class="ls1e">c<span class="ls30">h</span></span>O&#64259;ce<span class="ls30">r</span>wit<span class="ls2f">h</span>th<span class="ls2f">e</span>di&#59007;</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 ye ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">visio<span class="ls31">n</span>o<span class="ls32">f</span>System<span class="ls33">s<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls34">y</span>a<span class="ls31">t<span class="ls1e">F</span></span>OI<span class="ls35">.</span>Hi<span class="ls33">s</span>re&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 yf ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sear<span class="ls1a">c<span class="ls36">h</span></span>i<span class="ls1e">n</span>terest<span class="ls37">s</span>consis<span class="ls38">t</span>i<span class="ls39">n</span>n<span class="ls1e">a</span>vigation<span class="ls2f">,</span>estima&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y10 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion<span class="ls24">,</span>an<span class="ls24">d</span>ro<span class="ls21">b</span>otics<span class="ls2f">.</span>H<span class="ls1c">e</span>hold<span class="ls24">s<span class="ls1c">a</span></span>M.Sc<span class="ls3a">.</span>degre<span class="ls3b">e</span>in</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y11 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Applie<span class="ls1c">d</span>P<span class="ls1a">h</span>ysic<span class="ls3b">s</span>an<span class="ls29">d</span>E.E<span class="ls1d">.</span>an<span class="ls29">d<span class="ls1d">a</span></span>D.Eng<span class="ls31">.</span>degree</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y12 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">i<span class="ls1d">n</span>ro<span class="ls21">b</span>otic<span class="ls29">s</span>fro<span class="ls1d">m</span>Lin<span class="ls1e">k</span>&#246;pin<span class="ls29">g</span>Institut<span class="ls1d">e</span>o<span class="ls1d">f<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnol&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y13 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">og<span class="ls2a">y</span>.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y14 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">J<span class="ls3c">.</span>Nyg&#229;<span class="ls16">r</span>d<span class="ls3d">s</span><span class="ff6">i<span class="ls3e">sa</span>Resear<span class="ls1e">c<span class="ls3f">h</span></span>O&#64259;ce<span class="ls3f">r</span>wit<span class="ls3e">h</span>th<span class="ls3e">e</span>division</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y15 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">o<span class="ls3e">f</span>Guidanc<span class="ls3e">e</span>System<span class="ls3e">s</span>a<span class="ls3e">t<span class="ls1e">F</span></span>OI<span class="ls40">.</span>H<span class="ls41">e</span>i<span class="ls3e">s</span>als<span class="ls3f">o</span>Assista<span class="ls1e">n</span>t</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y16 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Professo<span class="ls3d">r</span>a<span class="ls42">t</span>th<span class="ls43">e</span>Ro<span class="ls44">b</span>otics/Autonomou<span class="ls43">s</span>Me<span class="ls1e">c</span>han&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y17 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ica<span class="ls42">l</span>System<span class="ls20">s</span>grou<span class="ls42">p</span>a<span class="ls42">t</span>Lin<span class="ls1e">k</span>&#246;pin<span class="ls45">g</span>Uni<span class="ls1e">v</span>ersi<span class="ls1a">t<span class="ls46">y<span class="ls47">.</span></span></span>His</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y18 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resar<span class="ls1e">c<span class="ls3f">h</span></span>i<span class="ls1e">n</span>terst<span class="ls41">s</span>includ<span class="ls41">e</span>ro<span class="ls21">b</span>otics<span class="ls48">,</span>estimation<span class="ls3c">,</span>and</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y19 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tra<span class="ls1e">c</span>king<span class="ls49">.</span>H<span class="ls1d">e</span>hold<span class="ls1d">s<span class="ls29">a</span></span>M.Sc<span class="ls31">.</span>degre<span class="ls4a">e</span>i<span class="ls1d">n</span>M.E<span class="ls1d">.</span>and</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y1a ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">a<span class="ls0">Ph.D<span class="ls47">.</span>i<span class="ls18">n</span>autonomou</span>s<span class="ls0">ro<span class="ls21">b</span>ot<span class="ls4b">s</span>fro</span>m<span class="ls0">Lin<span class="ls1e">k</span>&#246;ping</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y1b ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Institut<span class="ls2c">e</span>o<span class="ls2c">f<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls2a">y</span>.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y1c ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P<span class="ls4c">.</span>St<span class="ls4d">r</span>&#246;m<span class="ls16">b</span>&#228;c<span class="ls42">k</span><span class="ff6">recei<span class="ls1e">v</span>e<span class="ls3e">d</span>hi<span class="ls4e">s</span>M.Sc<span class="ls22">.</span>i<span class="ls4e">n</span>E.E<span class="ls3f">.</span>fro<span class="ls3e">m</span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y1d ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="ls1e">oy</span>a<span class="ls28">l</span>Institut<span class="ls29">e</span>o<span class="ls20">f<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls2b">y</span>i<span class="ls2c">n</span>St<span class="ls21">o<span class="ls1e">c</span></span>kholm<span class="ls47">.</span>He</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y1e ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">i<span class="ls4f">s</span>curre<span class="ls1e">n</span>tl<span class="ls22">y</span>conductin<span class="ls47">g</span>resear<span class="ls1a">c<span class="ls22">h</span></span>i<span class="ls4f">n</span>robus<span class="ls19">t</span>n<span class="ls1e">a</span>v&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y1f ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">igatio<span class="ls15">n</span>a<span class="ls15">t</span>th<span class="ls50">e</span>divisio<span class="ls50">n</span>o<span class="ls15">f</span>System<span class="ls51">s<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls2a">y</span>,</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y20 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">F<span class="ls0">OI.</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y21 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.-L<span class="ls22">.</span>Wirkande<span class="ls52">r</span><span class="ff6">i<span class="ls24">sa</span>Resear<span class="ls1e">c<span class="ls3b">h</span></span>O&#64259;ce<span class="ls1c">r</span>wit<span class="ls24">h</span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y22 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">divisio<span class="ls19">n</span>o<span class="ls22">f</span>System<span class="ls19">s<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls26">y</span>a<span class="ls22">t<span class="ls1e">F</span></span>OI<span class="ls23">.</span>Hi<span class="ls19">s</span>re&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y23 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sar<span class="ls1e">c<span class="ls26">h</span></span>i<span class="ls1e">n</span>terest<span class="ls23">s</span>includ<span class="ls53">e</span>co<span class="ls1e">n</span>tro<span class="ls1c">l</span>theor<span class="ls26">y</span>an<span class="ls23">d</span>n<span class="ls1e">a</span>vi&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y24 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gation<span class="ls47">.</span>H<span class="ls28">e</span>hold<span class="ls20">s<span class="ls28">a</span></span>M.Sc<span class="ls54">.</span>degre<span class="ls45">e</span>fro<span class="ls28">m</span>Chalmers</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y25 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Uni<span class="ls1e">v</span>ersi<span class="ls1a">t<span class="ls15">y</span></span>o<span class="ls4f">f<span class="ls2a">T</span></span>e<span class="ls1e">c</span>hnolog<span class="ls2a">y<span class="ls50">,</span></span>Gothe<span class="ls1e">n</span>burg<span class="ls50">,<span class="ls4f">a</span></span>M.A.</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y26 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fro<span class="ls18">m</span>th<span class="ls4f">e</span>Uni<span class="ls1e">v</span>ersi<span class="ls1a">t<span class="ls47">y</span></span>o<span class="ls18">f</span>St<span class="ls21">o<span class="ls1e">c</span></span>kholm<span class="ls15">,</span>an<span class="ls18">d<span class="ls47">a</span></span>M.E.</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y27 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fro<span class="ls2c">m</span>Colu<span class="ls1a">m</span>bi<span class="ls55">a</span>Uni<span class="ls1e">v</span>ersi<span class="ls1a">t<span class="ls46">y<span class="ls56">,</span></span></span>Ne<span class="ls2c">w<span class="ls2a">Y</span></span>ork.</div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y28 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y29 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _1"> </span>Swedish<span class="_ _2"> </span>Defence<span class="_ _1"> </span>Research<span class="_ _2"> </span>Agency<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>currently</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y2a ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conductin<span class="ls29">g</span>resear<span class="ls1a">c<span class="ls55">h</span></span>aimin<span class="ls1f">g</span>a<span class="ls29">t</span>th<span class="ls29">e</span>creatio<span class="ls20">n</span>o<span class="ls29">fa</span>Net&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y2b ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">work<span class="_ _2"> </span>Based<span class="_ _2"> </span>Defence<span class="_ _2"> </span>(NBD).<span class="_ _2"> </span>This<span class="_ _2"> </span>research<span class="_ _2"> </span>includes</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y2c ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">areas<span class="_ _3"> </span>such<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>GPS/INS<span class="_ _3"> </span>na<span class="_ _4"></span>vigation<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>collaboration</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y2d ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_"> </span>Unmanned<span class="_"> </span>Ground<span class="_"> </span>V<span class="_ _0"></span>ehicles<span class="_"> </span>(UGV:s).</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y2e ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_"> </span>large<span class="_"> </span>problem<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>na<span class="_ _0"></span>vigation<span class="_"> </span>systems<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>use</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y2f ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">GPS<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>that,<span class="_ _5"> </span>due<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>p<span class="_ _6"></span>ossibility<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>satellite<span class="_ _1"> </span>out&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y30 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ages,<span class="_ _7"> </span>there<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>many<span class="_ _5"> </span>occasions<span class="_ _8"> </span>when<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>GPS<span class="_ _8"> </span>re&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y31 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ceiver<span class="_"> </span>fails<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>deliver<span class="_"> </span>enough<span class="_"> </span>information<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>supp<span class="_ _6"></span>ort</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y32 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">an<span class="_ _1"> </span>error<span class="_ _2"> </span>free<span class="_ _1"> </span>navigation.<span class="_ _9"> </span>In<span class="_ _1"> </span>this<span class="_ _1"> </span>pap<span class="_ _6"></span>er,<span class="_ _1"> </span>techniques</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y33 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">will<span class="_ _2"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _2"> </span>presented<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>increase<span class="_ _2"> </span>po<span class="_ _6"></span>sition<span class="_ _2"> </span>accuracy<span class="_ _2"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y34 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">navigation<span class="_ _2"> </span>robustness<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>urban<span class="_ _5"> </span>environmen<span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _5"> </span>b<span class="_ _4"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y35 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">means<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>collab<span class="_ _6"></span>orativ<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>navigation.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y36 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">When<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>vehicle<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>navigating<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_"> </span>urban<span class="_"> </span>environ&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y37 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ment,<span class="_ _2"> </span>lines<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>sight<span class="_ _b"> </span>(LOS)<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>satellites<span class="_ _b"> </span>will<span class="_ _2"> </span>often<span class="_ _b"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y38 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">blocked.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Howev<span class="_ _0"></span>er,<span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _4"></span>wo<span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ehicles<span class="_"> </span>at<span class="_"> </span>di&#64256;erent<span class="_"> </span>locations</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y39 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">can<span class="_ _5"> </span>hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>di&#64256;erent<span class="_ _1"> </span>sets<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>visible<span class="_ _5"> </span>satellites,<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>by</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3a ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">collaboration<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>satellite<span class="_"> </span>information<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>shared</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3b ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">between<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>vehicles,<span class="_ _8"> </span>which<span class="_ _5"> </span>results<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>etter<span class="_ _8"> </span>navi&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3c ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gational<span class="_ _b"> </span>p<span class="_ _6"></span>erformance.<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _2"> </span>three<span class="_ _b"> </span>collab<span class="_ _6"></span>orative<span class="_"> </span>tech&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3d ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">niques<span class="_ _2"> </span>inv<span class="_ _0"></span>estigated<span class="_ _2"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"> </span>this<span class="_ _2"> </span>pap<span class="_ _6"></span>er<span class="_ _b"> </span>are<span class="_ _2"> </span>based<span class="_ _2"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>com&#59007;</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3e ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">munication<span class="_ _3"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>et<span class="_ _4"></span>ween<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _4"></span>wo<span class="_ _3"> </span>vehicles,<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>ell<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>mea&#59007;</div><div class="c xd y3f w2 h8"><div class="t m0 xe h9 y40 ff7 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1114</div></div><div class="c xf y41 w3 ha"><div class="t m0 x10 h9 y42 ff8 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ION NTM 2004, 26-28 January 2004, San Diego, CA</div></div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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