distributed-cyclic.zip

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制式识别方面一篇很好的文章,采用了分布式融合的算法。
distributed-cyclic.zip
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b774d3d2fbb00071e2a31/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b774d3d2fbb00071e2a31/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Distrib<span class="_ _0"></span>uted<span class="_ _1"> </span>Cyclic<span class="_ _1"> </span>Spectrum<span class="_ _1"> </span>Feature-Based</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Modulation<span class="_ _1"> </span>Classi&#64257;cation</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">W<span class="_ _0"></span>illiam<span class="_ _2"> </span>C.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Headley<span class="_ _3"></span>,<span class="_ _2"> </span>Jesse<span class="_ _2"> </span>D.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Reed,<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Claudio<span class="_ _4"> </span>R.C.M.<span class="_ _2"> </span>da<span class="_ _2"> </span>Silva</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">W<span class="_ _0"></span>ireless<span class="_ _4"> </span>@<span class="_ _4"> </span>V<span class="_ _3"></span>irginia<span class="_ _4"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>ech</div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Bradley<span class="_ _5"> </span>Department<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">V<span class="_ _0"></span>ir<span class="_ _0"></span>ginia<span class="_ _4"> </span>Polytechnic<span class="_ _5"> </span>Institute<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>State<span class="_ _5"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _0"></span>ersity</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y7 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">E-mail:<span class="_ _5"> </span>cheadley@vt.edu,<span class="_ _5"> </span>jesser@vt.edu,<span class="_ _4"> </span>cdasilva@vt.edu</div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 y8 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff3 ls2">&#8212;A<span class="_ _0"></span>utomatic<span class="_ _6"> </span>Modulation<span class="_ _6"> </span>Classi&#64257;cation<span class="_ _6"> </span>(AMC)<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>a</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y9 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">very<span class="_ _5"> </span>important<span class="_ _5"> </span>process<span class="_ _5"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="_ _5"> </span>any<span class="_ _5"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _5"> </span>that<span class="_ _5"> </span>has<span class="_ _5"> </span>no,<span class="_ _5"> </span>or<span class="_ _5"> </span>limited,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">knowledge<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _7"> </span>scheme<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _6"> </span>signal.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 yb ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">In<span class="_ _8"> </span>addition<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>military<span class="_ _8"> </span>systems,<span class="_ _8"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _8"> </span>has<span class="_ _8"> </span>been<span class="_ _8"> </span>receiving<span class="_ _8"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 yc ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">increasing<span class="_ _9"> </span>amount<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>inter<span class="_ _0"></span>est<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>context<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>spectrum<span class="_ _a"> </span>sharing</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 yd ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">cognitive<span class="_ _7"> </span>radio<span class="_ _6"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _7"> </span>In<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>paper<span class="_ _3"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>we<span class="_ _6"> </span>present<span class="_ _7"> </span>an<span class="_ _6"> </span>AMC</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 ye ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">system<span class="_"> </span>based<span class="_"> </span>upon<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff2">distributed<span class="_ _b"> </span></span><span class="ls2">processing<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>local<span class="_"> </span>classi&#64257;cation</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 yf ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">decisions<span class="_ _4"> </span>made<span class="_ _2"> </span>by<span class="_ _2"> </span>multiple<span class="_ _2"> </span>radios.<span class="_ _2"> </span>These<span class="_ _2"> </span>radios<span class="_ _2"> </span>consist<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>two</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y10 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">stages:<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>cyclic<span class="_ _c"> </span>spectrum<span class="_"> </span>featur<span class="_ _0"></span>e-based<span class="_"> </span>AMC<span class="_"> </span>stage<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>Decision</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y11 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Making<span class="_ _2"> </span>(DM)<span class="_ _2"> </span>stage<span class="_ _2"> </span>that<span class="_ _2"> </span>makes<span class="_ _2"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>local<span class="_ _2"> </span>decision<span class="_ _2"> </span>that<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>sent<span class="_ _2"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y12 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">a<span class="_ _5"> </span>fusion<span class="_ _5"> </span>center<span class="_ _3"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>This<span class="_ _5"> </span>fusion<span class="_ _5"> </span>center<span class="_ _5"> </span>then<span class="_ _5"> </span>makes<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>global<span class="_ _5"> </span>decision</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y13 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">based<span class="_ _2"> </span>on<span class="_ _d"> </span>its<span class="_ _d"> </span>own<span class="_ _2"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _d"> </span>stage<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>on<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>local<span class="_ _2"> </span>decisions<span class="_ _d"> </span>made</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y14 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">by<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>radios.<span class="_ _e"> </span>A<span class="_ _d"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_ _e"> </span>Gauss-Seidel<span class="_ _d"> </span>iterative<span class="_ _d"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _e"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y15 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">used<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#64257;nd<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>person-by-person<span class="_ _9"> </span>optimum<span class="_ _b"> </span>decision<span class="_ _9"> </span>rules<span class="_ _9"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y16 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">fusion<span class="_ _9"> </span>center<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>DMs.<span class="_ _9"> </span>It<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>shown<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff2">distributed</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y17 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">approach<span class="_ _2"> </span>results<span class="_ _2"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _d"> </span>increase<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>probability<span class="_ _2"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y18 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">signal<span class="_ _6"> </span>detection<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>correct<span class="_ _7"> </span>classi&#64257;cation,<span class="_ _f"> </span>at<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>expense<span class="_ _6"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y19 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">requiring<span class="_ _2"> </span>messages<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>transmitted<span class="_ _e"> </span>among<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>fusion<span class="_ _d"> </span>center</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y1a ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">and<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>radios<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>system.</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y1b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">I.<span class="_ _8"> </span>I<span class="fs4 ls8">NTR<span class="_ _0"></span>ODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">A<span class="_ _4"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"> </span>that<span class="_ _2"> </span>has<span class="_ _4"> </span>no,<span class="_ _2"> </span>or<span class="_ _4"> </span>limited,<span class="_ _2"> </span>knowledge<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>mod-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y1d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">ulation<span class="_ _7"> </span>scheme<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _6"> </span>signal<span class="_ _7"> </span>must<span class="_ _7"> </span>rely<span class="_ _6"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>Auto-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y1e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">matic<span class="_ _e"> </span>Modulation<span class="_ _e"> </span>Classi&#64257;cation<span class="_ _e"> </span>(AMC),<span class="_ _8"> </span>considered<span class="_ _e"> </span>here<span class="_ _e"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y1f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">perform<span class="_ _e"> </span>both<span class="_ _d"> </span>signal<span class="_ _e"> </span>detection<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _e"> </span>classi&#64257;cation,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y20 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">for<span class="_ _5"> </span>correct<span class="_ _4"> </span>demodulation<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>signal.<span class="_ _5"> </span>In<span class="_ _4"> </span>recent<span class="_ _5"> </span>years,<span class="_ _4"> </span>AMC</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y21 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">research<span class="_ _5"> </span>has<span class="_ _4"> </span>been<span class="_ _4"> </span>steadily<span class="_ _4"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _5"> </span>due<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>its<span class="_ _4"> </span>many<span class="_ _5"> </span>uses<span class="_ _4"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y22 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">military<span class="_ _4"> </span>and,<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>a<span class="_ _2"> </span>lesser<span class="_ _2"> </span>extent,<span class="_ _2"> </span>civilian<span class="_ _4"> </span>applications.<span class="_ _2"> </span>From<span class="_ _2"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y23 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">military<span class="_ _9"> </span>application<span class="_ _9"> </span>standpoint,<span class="_ _a"> </span>successful<span class="_ _9"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _9"> </span>can<span class="_ _a"> </span>allo<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _a"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y24 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">more<span class="_ _d"> </span>ef&#64257;cient<span class="_ _d"> </span>jamming/anti-jamming<span class="_ _e"> </span>procedures,<span class="_ _d"> </span>as<span class="_ _e"> </span>well<span class="_ _d"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y25 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">facilitating<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>interception<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>enemy<span class="_ _4"> </span>communications<span class="_ _4"> </span>[1].<span class="_ _4"> </span>In</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y26 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">civilian<span class="_ _b"> </span>applications,<span class="_"> </span>AMC<span class="_"> </span>systems<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>critical<span class="_"> </span>component<span class="_"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y27 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">ne<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _d"> </span>cognitiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>radio<span class="_ _2"> </span>systems<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>improv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>spectral<span class="_ _2"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y28 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">by<span class="_ _e"> </span>adapting<span class="_ _8"> </span>their<span class="_ _e"> </span>transmissions<span class="_ _8"> </span>according<span class="_ _e"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>their<span class="_ _8"> </span>&#8220;spectral</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y29 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">en<span class="_ _0"></span>vironment&#8221;<span class="_ _5"> </span>[2].</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y2a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">There<span class="_ _d"> </span>exists<span class="_ _2"> </span>two<span class="_ _2"> </span>main<span class="_ _d"> </span>types<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>AMC,<span class="_ _d"> </span>namely<span class="_ _d"> </span>likelihood-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y2b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">based<span class="_ _10"> </span>methods<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>feature-based<span class="_ _10"> </span>methods.<span class="_ _10"> </span>In<span class="_ _10"> </span>traditional</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y2c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">likelihood-based<span class="_ _4"> </span>methods,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>fundamental<span class="_ _2"> </span>assumption<span class="_ _2"> </span>made</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y2d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">is<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>conditional<span class="_"> </span>probability<span class="_ _9"> </span>density<span class="_"> </span>functions<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y2e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">signal<span class="_ _9"> </span>are<span class="_ _9"> </span>av<span class="_ _0"></span>ailable.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _9"> </span>feature-based<span class="_ _9"> </span>methods,<span class="_ _a"> </span>certain<span class="_ _9"> </span>features</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y2f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>received<span class="_ _4"> </span>signal<span class="_ _d"> </span>are<span class="_ _2"> </span>extracted<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _2"> </span>then<span class="_ _2"> </span>processed<span class="_ _d"> </span>by<span class="_ _2"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y30 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">decision<span class="_ _9"> </span>making<span class="_ _9"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _9"> </span>(usually<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>type<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>pattern<span class="_ _9"> </span>matching</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y31 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">algorithm).<span class="_"> </span>For<span class="_"> </span>instance,<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>[3],<span class="_ _9"> </span>features<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>wa<span class="_ _0"></span>velet<span class="_"> </span>decom-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y32 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">position<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _5"> </span>extracted<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>used<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>classi&#64257;cation,<span class="_ _4"> </span>while<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>[4]</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y33 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">and<span class="_ _e"> </span>[5],<span class="_ _e"> </span>features<span class="_ _e"> </span>extracted<span class="_ _e"> </span>from<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>cyclic<span class="_ _e"> </span>spectrum<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y34 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">receiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ed<span class="_ _4"> </span>signal<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>used.<span class="_ _5"> </span>A<span class="_ _4"> </span>general<span class="_ _4"> </span>discussion<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>these<span class="_ _4"> </span>AMC</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y35 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">AMC</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y36 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">AMC<span class="_ _11"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _12"> </span>AMC</div><div class="t m0 xd h8 y37 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 xe h8 y38 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 xf h8 y39 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y3a ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3b ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">DM</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y3c ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">DM</div><div class="t m0 x11 h7 y3d ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">DM</div><div class="t m0 x12 h7 y3e ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">DM</div><div class="t m0 x13 h9 y3f ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x14 h9 y40 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x15 h9 y41 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">N-1</div><div class="t m0 x16 h9 y42 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">N</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y43 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 lsb ws0">AMC</div><div class="t m0 x18 h8 y44 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 x19 ha y45 ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x1a hb y46 ff1 fs9 fc1 sc0 lsc ws1">Fusion Center</div><div class="t m0 x1b h8 y47 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">u</div><div class="t m0 x1c h8 y48 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">u</div><div class="t m0 x1d h8 y49 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">u</div><div class="t m0 x1e h8 y4a ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">u</div><div class="t m0 x1f ha y4b ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x20 ha y4c ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x21 ha y4d ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4e ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x22 ha y4f ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">N-1</div><div class="t m0 x23 ha y50 ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">N</div><div class="t m0 x24 ha y51 ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">N-1</div><div class="t m0 x25 ha y52 ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">N</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y53 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">u</div><div class="t m0 x26 ha y54 ff1 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x27 hb y55 ff1 fs9 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">Transmitted Signal {H , H , ..., H }</div><div class="t m0 x28 h9 y56 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x29 h9 y57 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x23 h9 y58 ff1 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">M</div><div class="t m0 x2a h8 y59 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">. . .</div><div class="t m0 x2b h8 y5a ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">. . .</div><div class="t m0 x2c h8 y5b ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">. . .<span class="_ _13"></span>. . .</div><div class="t m1 x2d hc y5c ff1 fsa fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">Radio</div><div class="t m0 x2e hd y5d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">Fig.<span class="_ _9"> </span>1.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _9"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _9"> </span>block<span class="_ _9"> </span>diagram.</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y5e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">methods,<span class="_"> </span>along<span class="_ _9"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>good<span class="_"> </span>listing<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>prior<span class="_ _9"> </span>work<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>both<span class="_"> </span>areas,</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y5f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">can<span class="_ _5"> </span>be<span class="_ _4"> </span>found<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>[6].</div><div class="t m0 x30 h4 y60 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">In<span class="_"> </span>order<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>take<span class="_"> </span>advantage<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>radio<span class="_"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>variability<span class="_ _3"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>it<span class="_"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y61 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">only<span class="_ _5"> </span>natural<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>perform<span class="_ _5"> </span>signal<span class="_ _5"> </span>detection<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _4"> </span>clas-</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y62 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">si&#64257;cation<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _5"> </span>manner<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>There<span class="_ _5"> </span>has<span class="_ _4"> </span>been<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>relativ<span class="_ _0"></span>ely</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y63 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">long<span class="_ _9"> </span>history<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>research<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>area<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>context<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>more</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y64 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">general<span class="_ _9"> </span>problem<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _9"> </span>detection<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>estimation<span class="_ _9"> </span>theory</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y65 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">[7],[8].<span class="_ _6"> </span>Recently<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>number<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>papers<span class="_ _f"> </span>hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>proposed,<span class="_ _f"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y66 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">partially<span class="_ _5"> </span>addressed,<span class="_ _4"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _a"> </span>signal<span class="_ _4"> </span>detection<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>context</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y67 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">of<span class="_ _2"> </span>cognitiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>radios.<span class="_ _2"> </span>See<span class="_ _d"> </span>[9]-[11],<span class="_ _2"> </span>among<span class="_ _2"> </span>others.<span class="_ _d"> </span>The<span class="_ _2"> </span>goal<span class="_ _d"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y68 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">this<span class="_ _a"> </span>paper<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>dev<span class="_ _0"></span>elop<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>nov<span class="_ _0"></span>el<span class="_ _5"> </span>approach<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>which<span class="_ _5"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y69 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">network<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>radios<span class="_ _9"> </span>collaboratively<span class="_ _9"> </span>detects<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>presence,<span class="_ _9"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>well</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y6a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">as<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _4"> </span>scheme,<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>signals<span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _4"> </span>using<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>combination</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y6b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">of<span class="_ _d"> </span>cyclic<span class="_ _2"> </span>spectrum<span class="_ _d"> </span>feature-based<span class="_ _d"> </span>signal<span class="_ _e"> </span>classi&#64257;cation<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y6c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">iterativ<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _5"> </span>data<span class="_ _4"> </span>fusion.</div><div class="t m0 x30 h4 y6d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">More<span class="_ _a"> </span>speci&#64257;cally<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>we<span class="_ _5"> </span>consider<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _a"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _a"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y6e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">sho<span class="_ _0"></span>wn<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>Fig.<span class="_ _e"> </span>1.<span class="_ _e"> </span>In<span class="_ _8"> </span>this<span class="_ _e"> </span>system,<span class="_ _e"> </span>we<span class="_ _e"> </span>assume<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>radios<span class="_ _e"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y6f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">comprised<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>two<span class="_ _f"> </span>stages:<span class="_ _f"> </span>an<span class="_ _14"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _f"> </span>stage<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _14"> </span>Decision</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y70 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">Making<span class="_ _d"> </span>(DM)<span class="_ _e"> </span>stage.<span class="_ _d"> </span>In<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _e"> </span>stage,<span class="_ _d"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>utilize<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>cyclic</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y71 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">spectrum<span class="_ _15"> </span>feature-based<span class="_ _15"> </span>method<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _15"> </span>a<span class="_ _15"> </span>feed-forward<span class="_ _14"> </span>back-</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y72 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">propagation<span class="_ _d"> </span>neural<span class="_ _d"> </span>network.<span class="_ _d"> </span>The<span class="_ _e"> </span>output<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>this<span class="_ _e"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _2"> </span>stage,</div><div class="t m0 x2f he y73 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">y</div><div class="t m0 x31 hf y74 ff5 fsb fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">n</div><div class="t m0 x32 he y75 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">(<span class="ff6">1<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff7">&#8804;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff4">n<span class="_ _d"> </span></span>&#8804;<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff4">N<span class="_ _16"></span></span></span></span><span class="ls4">),<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>then<span class="_ _d"> </span>used<span class="_ _d"> </span>by<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>radio&#8217;<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _d"> </span>DM<span class="_ _d"> </span>stage<span class="_ _e"> </span>to</span></div><div class="t m0 x2f he y76 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">make<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>local<span class="_ _a"> </span>decision<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff4 ls2">u</span></div><div class="t m0 x1c hf y77 ff5 fsb fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">n</div><div class="t m0 x33 he y78 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">(<span class="ff6">1<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff7">&#8804;<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff4">n<span class="_ _9"> </span></span>&#8804;<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff4">N<span class="_ _17"></span></span></span></span><span class="ls3">).<span class="_ _a"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>local<span class="_ _5"> </span>decisions</span></div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y79 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">from<span class="_ _a"> </span>all<span class="_ _a"> </span>radios<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>sent<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>fusion<span class="_ _a"> </span>center<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _5"> </span>makes<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>global</div><div class="t m0 x2f he y7a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">decision<span class="_ _d"> </span>based<span class="_ _e"> </span>on<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>output<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>its<span class="_ _d"> </span>own<span class="_ _d"> </span>AMC<span class="_ _d"> </span>stage,<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff4 ls2">y</span></div><div class="t m0 x34 hf y7b ff8 fsb fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x35 h4 y7c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsf ws0">,a<span class="_ _18"></span>s</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y7d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">well<span class="_ _5"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>radios&#8217;<span class="_ _4"> </span>decisions.<span class="_ _4"> </span>In<span class="_ _5"> </span>order<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>optimize<span class="_ _4"> </span>this<span class="_ _4"> </span>global</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y7e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">decision,<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_ _4"> </span>Gauss-Seidel<span class="_ _4"> </span>iterativ<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>used</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y7f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">to<span class="_ _4"> </span>develop<span class="_ _4"> </span>&#8220;person-by-person&#8221;<span class="_ _2"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _4"> </span>decision<span class="_ _2"> </span>rules<span class="_ _2"> </span>for<span class="_ _2"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x2f h4 y80 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">fusion<span class="_ _5"> </span>center<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>DM<span class="_ _4"> </span>stages<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>system<span class="_ _5"> </span>[12].</div><div class="t m0 x36 h10 y81 ff9 fsc fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">1525-3511/08/$25.00 &#169;2008 IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x37 h11 y82 ffa fsd fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the WCNC 2008 proceedings.</div><div class="t m0 x38 h10 y83 ffb fsc fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">1200</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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