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This is the pdf paper white fly detection for agriculture deportment.
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6250fbdc6caf59619232b5de/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6250fbdc6caf59619232b5de/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 <span class="ff2">&#8211;</span> 8887) </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Volume 44<span class="ff2">&#8211;</span> No13, April 2012 </div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">10<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span> No<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>el <span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _0"></span>pproach for Plant Leaf Image Segmentation </div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">using Fuzzy Clustering<span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">N.V<span class="_ _0"></span>al<span class="_ _0"></span>li<span class="_ _0"></span>ammal<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y7 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ass<span class="_ _0"></span>ista<span class="_ _0"></span>nt<span class="_ _0"></span> Pro<span class="_ _0"></span>fe<span class="_ _0"></span>sso<span class="_ _0"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y8 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> Dep<span class="_ _0"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>rtme<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _0"></span>of <span class="_ _0"></span>Compu<span class="_ _0"></span>te<span class="_ _0"></span>r Sci<span class="_ _0"></span>en<span class="_ _0"></span>ce </div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y9 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Avi<span class="_ _0"></span>na<span class="_ _0"></span>shili<span class="_ _0"></span>ng<span class="_ _0"></span>am I<span class="_ _0"></span>nsti<span class="_ _0"></span>tu<span class="_ _0"></span>te <span class="_ _0"></span>for<span class="_ _0"></span> Home<span class="_ _0"></span> S<span class="_ _0"></span>cien<span class="_ _0"></span>ce a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa h6 ya ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hig<span class="_ _0"></span>her<span class="_ _0"></span> Edu<span class="_ _0"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _0"></span> fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r <span class="_ _0"></span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>men<span class="_ _0"></span>, C<span class="_ _0"></span>oi<span class="_ _0"></span>mbat<span class="_ _0"></span>ore<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y6 ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.N<span class="_ _0"></span>.Ge<span class="_ _0"></span>eth<span class="_ _0"></span>ala<span class="_ _0"></span>ks<span class="_ _0"></span>hmi<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y7 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ass<span class="_ _0"></span>oci<span class="_ _0"></span>ate<span class="_ _0"></span> Pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ofe<span class="_ _0"></span>sso<span class="_ _0"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y8 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Depa<span class="_ _0"></span>rt<span class="_ _0"></span>men<span class="_ _0"></span>t o<span class="_ _0"></span>f C<span class="_ _0"></span>ompu<span class="_ _0"></span>ter<span class="_ _0"></span> Sci<span class="_ _0"></span>ence<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y9 ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Avi<span class="_ _0"></span>na<span class="_ _0"></span>shili<span class="_ _0"></span>ng<span class="_ _0"></span>am I<span class="_ _0"></span>nsti<span class="_ _0"></span>tu<span class="_ _0"></span>te <span class="_ _0"></span>for<span class="_ _0"></span> Home<span class="_ _0"></span> S<span class="_ _0"></span>cien<span class="_ _0"></span>ce a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 ya ff5 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hig<span class="_ _0"></span>her<span class="_ _0"></span> Edu<span class="_ _0"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>tion<span class="_ _0"></span> fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r <span class="_ _0"></span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>men<span class="_ _0"></span>, C<span class="_ _0"></span>oi<span class="_ _0"></span>mbat<span class="_ _0"></span>ore<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 yb ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 yc ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h7 yd ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ABSTRACT<span class="ff3 fs0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 ye ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In <span class="_ _2"> </span>this <span class="_ _2"> </span>paper <span class="_ _2"> </span>we <span class="_ _2"> </span>propose <span class="_ _2"> </span>an <span class="_ _3"> </span>algorithm <span class="_ _3"> </span>based <span class="_ _2"> </span>on <span class="_ _2"> </span>fu<span class="_ _1"></span>zzy </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 yf ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">threshold <span class="_ _2"> </span>and <span class="_ _4"> </span>clustering <span class="_ _3"> </span>segmentatio<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _2"> </span>for <span class="_ _2"> </span>different <span class="_ _2"> </span>plant </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y10 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">analysis. <span class="_ _5"></span>Segmentation <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>plan<span class="_ _1"></span>t <span class="_ _5"></span>from <span class="_ _5"></span>background <span class="_ _5"></span>objects </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y11 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is <span class="_ _6"></span>a <span class="_ _6"></span>challenging <span class="_ _6"></span>task <span class="_ _5"></span>for <span class="_ _6"> </span>differe<span class="_ _1"></span>nt <span class="_ _6"></span>plant <span class="_ _6"></span>leaf <span class="_ _5"></span>recognition<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y12 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">classification.<span class="fc1"> <span class="_ _3"> </span></span>Before <span class="_ _3"> </span>applying <span class="_ _2"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>roposed <span class="_ _3"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>ethod <span class="_ _3"> </span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>re-</div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y13 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">processing <span class="_ _6"> </span>technique <span class="_ _6"> </span>like <span class="_ _7"> </span>image <span class="_ _6"></span>conversion, <span class="_ _6"></span>noise <span class="_ _6"> </span>reduction </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y14 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">by <span class="_ _1"></span>median <span class="_ _8"></span>filter, <span class="_ _1"></span>morpholo<span class="_ _1"></span>gical o<span class="_ _1"></span>peration <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>finally <span class="_ _1"></span>wavelet </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y15 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transformation <span class="_ _9"> </span>has <span class="_ _9"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>be <span class="_ _9"> </span>processed. <span class="_ _9"> </span>The <span class="_"> </span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>roposed <span class="_"> </span>method </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y16 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">provides <span class="_ _1"></span>good <span class="_ _8"></span>results <span class="_ _1"></span>based <span class="_ _1"></span>on <span class="_ _1"></span>fuzzy <span class="_ _1"></span>threshold <span class="_ _8"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>clustering </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y17 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">techniques <span class="_ _8"></span>for <span class="_ _8"></span>detection <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>most <span class="_ _5"></span>homogeneity <span class="_ _1"></span>region<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>in <span class="_ _8"></span>plant </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y18 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">leaf images. <span class="_ _1"></span>The relativ<span class="_ _1"></span>e performance <span class="_ _1"></span>of the <span class="_ _1"></span>conventional <span class="_ _1"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y19 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">proposed <span class="_ _a"> </span>methods <span class="_ _a"> </span>is <span class="_ _b"> </span>evaluated <span class="_ _b"> </span>using <span class="_ _a"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>ariation <span class="_ _b"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y1a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Information, <span class="_ _8"></span>Energy, <span class="_ _1"></span>En<span class="_ _1"></span>tropy <span class="_ _1"></span>and<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>Evaluation<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>Time. <span class="_ _1"></span>It <span class="_ _8"></span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>roves </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y1b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that <span class="_ _6"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>proposed <span class="_ _7"> </span>method <span class="_ _6"> </span>gives <span class="_ _7"> </span>suitable <span class="_ _6"> </span>result<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _6"></span>for <span class="_ _6"></span>eff<span class="_ _1"></span>icient </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y1c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">classification and recognition. </div><div class="t m0 x11 h7 y1d ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords<span class="ff3 fs0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y1e ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Segmentation, <span class="_ _8"></span>Fuzzy <span class="_ _8"></span>Thresholding, <span class="_ _8"></span>Mo<span class="_ _1"></span>rphological <span class="_ _1"></span>operation, </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y1f ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Wavelet <span class="_ _3"> </span>Transformation, <span class="_ _3"> </span>Fuzzy <span class="_ _3"> </span>Clustering <span class="_ _3"> </span>and <span class="_ _3"> </span>Hausdorff </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y20 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distance method. </div><div class="t m0 x11 h8 y21 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1.<span class="ff7"> <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>INTRODUCTION </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y22 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">One <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>upcom<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _c"> </span>research <span class="_ _c"> </span>areas <span class="_ _c"> </span>is <span class="_ _9"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _9"> </span>need <span class="_ _c"> </span>for <span class="_ _c"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y23 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">development <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _d"> </span>automatic <span class="_ _7"> </span>plant <span class="_ _d"> </span>recognition <span class="_ _7"> </span>system <span class="_ _7"> </span>such <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y24 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">CAP-LR <span class="_ _b"> </span>(Co<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>puter <span class="_ _a"> </span>Aided <span class="_ _b"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>lant <span class="_ _b"> </span>Leaf <span class="_ _b"> </span>Recognitio<span class="_ _1"></span>n)<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y25 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">.Botanists <span class="_ _e"> </span>need <span class="_ _e"> </span>a <span class="_ _e"> </span>computer-aided <span class="_ _e"> </span>tool <span class="_ _e"> </span>without <span class="_ _e"> </span>human<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y26 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">interaction <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _6"></span>study <span class="_ _6"></span>and <span class="_ _6"></span>identify <span class="_ _6"></span>leaves <span class="_ _6"></span>instead <span class="_ _6"></span>of <span class="_ _6"></span>holding <span class="_ _6"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y27 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">plant <span class="_ _5"></span>encyclopedia. <span class="_ _6"></span>Huge<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>Vo<span class="_ _1"></span>lum<span class="_ _0"></span>es <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>biolo<span class="_ _1"></span>gical <span class="_ _5"></span>information </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y28 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are <span class="_ _5"></span>now <span class="_ _5"></span>pro<span class="_ _1"></span>viding <span class="_ _5"></span>on-line <span class="_ _5"></span>access <span class="_ _5"></span>to <span class="_ _6"></span>hundreds <span class="_ _5"></span>and <span class="_ _5"></span>thousands </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y29 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _9"> </span>images <span class="_ _9"> </span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f <span class="_ _9"> </span>specimens, <span class="_ _9"> </span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>elping <span class="_ _9"> </span>to <span class="_ _9"> </span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>igitize <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span>complete </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Specimen <span class="_ _6"></span>Collection <span class="_ _6"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _5"></span>leaf <span class="_ _6"></span>images. <span class="_ _6"></span>Such <span class="_ _6"> </span>a <span class="_ _6"> </span>system <span class="_ _6"></span>will </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">return <span class="_ _d"> </span>within <span class="_ _7"> </span>seconds <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>top <span class="_ _d"> </span>matching <span class="_ _7"> </span>species, <span class="_ _d"> </span>along <span class="_ _7"> </span>with </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">supporting <span class="_ _6"></span>data <span class="_ _5"></span>that <span class="_ _6"></span>describes <span class="_ _5"></span>about <span class="_ _6"> </span>textual <span class="_ _5"></span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>escriptions <span class="_ _5"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2d ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">high <span class="_ _1"></span>resolution <span class="_ _8"></span>type <span class="_ _1"></span>specimen <span class="_ _1"></span>images <span class="_ _1"></span>just <span class="_ _1"></span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>feedin<span class="_ _1"></span>g <span class="_ _1"></span>into <span class="_ _1"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2e ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">computer <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>hotograph <span class="_ _8"></span>of <span class="_ _8"></span>a <span class="_ _5"></span>leaf <span class="_ _8"></span>specimen<span class="_ _1"></span>.Plants <span class="_ _8"></span>are <span class="_ _5"></span>living </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y2f ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">organisms <span class="_ _5"></span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>elonging <span class="_ _6"></span>to <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span>vegetable <span class="_ _5"></span>kingdo<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span>that <span class="_ _6"></span>can <span class="_ _6"></span>live </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y30 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on <span class="_ _d"> </span>land <span class="_ _d"> </span>or <span class="_ _7"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>wa<span class="_ _0"></span>ter <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff8">Image<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>segmentation <span class="_ _7"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>process <span class="_ _7"> </span>of </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h9 y31 ff8 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">assigning <span class="_ _5"></span>a <span class="_ _5"> </span>label <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>every <span class="_ _5"> </span>pixel <span class="_ _5"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _5"></span>an <span class="_ _5"> </span>image <span class="_ _5"> </span>such <span class="_ _5"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>hat <span class="_ _5"></span>pixels </div><div class="t m0 x11 h9 y32 ff8 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>same <span class="_ _3"> </span>label <span class="_ _3"> </span>share <span class="_ _3"> </span>ce<span class="_ _1"></span>rtain <span class="_ _c"> </span>vis<span class="_ _1"></span>ual <span class="_ _3"> </span>characteristics. </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y33 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Segmentation <span class="_ _7"> </span>is <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>basic <span class="_ _7"> </span>pre<span class="_ _1"></span>-processing <span class="_ _6"> </span>task <span class="_ _7"> </span>in <span class="_ _d"> </span>many <span class="_ _6"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>mage </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y34 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">processing <span class="_ _7"> </span>app<span class="_ _1"></span>lications <span class="_ _6"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>essential <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_ _d"> </span>separate <span class="_ _7"> </span>plant <span class="_ _d"> </span>leafs </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y35 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">from <span class="_ _6"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>backgroun<span class="_ _1"></span>d. <span class="_ _6"> </span>Locating <span class="_ _7"> </span>and <span class="_ _7"> </span>segmenting <span class="_ _7"> </span>plants <span class="_ _7"> </span>from </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y36 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _5"></span>background <span class="_ _8"></span>in <span class="_ _5"></span>an <span class="_ _5"></span>automated <span class="_ _8"></span>way <span class="_ _5"></span>is <span class="_ _5"></span>a <span class="_ _8"></span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>mm<span class="_ _0"></span>on <span class="_ _5"></span>challenge </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y37 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in <span class="_ _2"> </span>the <span class="_ _2"> </span>analysis <span class="_ _3"> </span>of <span class="_ _2"> </span>plant <span class="_ _2"> </span>images. <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ff8">Image <span class="_ _2"> </span>segmentation <span class="_ _2"> </span>is </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h9 y38 ff8 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">typically <span class="_ _1"></span>used to <span class="_ _1"></span>locate obj<span class="_ _1"></span>ects and <span class="_ _1"></span>boundaries <span class="_ _1"></span>(lines, curves, </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y39 ff8 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">etc.) in images<span class="ls2">[4].</span><span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y3a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _7"> </span>result <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>mage <span class="_ _6"> </span>segmentatio<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _7"> </span>is <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>set <span class="_ _d"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>segments <span class="_ _7"> </span>that </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y3b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">collectively <span class="_ _c"> </span>cover <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>entire <span class="_ _c"> </span>image, <span class="_ _c"> </span>or <span class="_ _c"> </span>a <span class="_ _c"> </span>set <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _3"> </span>contours </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">extracted <span class="_ _6"> </span>from <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>image. <span class="_ _6"> </span>Each <span class="_ _7"> </span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>pixels <span class="_ _7"> </span>in <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>region <span class="_ _6"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3d ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">similar <span class="_ _2"> </span>with <span class="_ _2"> </span>respect <span class="_ _2"> </span>to <span class="_ _4"> </span>some <span class="_ _2"> </span>characteristic <span class="_ _2"> </span>or <span class="_ _2"> </span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>mputed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3e ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">property, <span class="_ _1"></span>such <span class="_ _1"></span>as <span class="_ _1"></span>color, <span class="_ _1"></span>intensity, <span class="_ _1"></span>or <span class="_ _1"></span>texture<span class="ls3">. <span class="_ _1"></span></span>Adjacent <span class="_ _1"></span>regions </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3f ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are <span class="_ _f"> </span>significantly <span class="_ _f"> </span>different <span class="_ _10"> </span>with <span class="_ _f"> </span>respect <span class="_ _f"> </span>to <span class="_ _10"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>same </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y40 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">characteristic(s) [6][7].</div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y41 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y42 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Present <span class="_ _5"></span>work <span class="_ _5"></span>is <span class="_ _5"></span>involved <span class="_ _5"></span>with <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>segmentation <span class="_ _5"></span>of <span class="_ _5"></span>plant <span class="_ _5"></span>leaf </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y43 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">using <span class="_"> </span>fuzzy <span class="_"> </span>thresho<span class="_ _1"></span>lding <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _9"> </span>clustering <span class="_"> </span>technique. <span class="_ _9"> </span>First, <span class="_"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y44 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">preliminary <span class="_ _1"></span>segmentation <span class="_ _1"></span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>ased<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>on <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>gray<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>color <span class="_ _8"></span>conversion, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y45 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">noise <span class="_ _5"></span>reduction <span class="_ _5"></span>u<span class="_ _1"></span>sing <span class="_ _8"></span>median <span class="_ _5"></span>filter <span class="_ _5"></span>is <span class="_ _5"></span>applied. <span class="_ _5"></span>At <span class="_ _5"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>secon<span class="_ _1"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y46 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">level <span class="_ _c"> </span>op<span class="_ _1"></span>ening <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_ _3"> </span>closing <span class="_ _c"> </span>by <span class="_ _3"> </span>morphological <span class="_ _3"> </span>operation <span class="_ _3"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y47 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applied. Wavelet transformation is <span class="_ _1"></span>performe<span class="_ _0"></span>d at the third<span class="_ _1"></span> level </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y48 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_"> </span>finally<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>ine <span class="_"> </span>segm<span class="_ _0"></span>entation <span class="_"> </span>using <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>uzzy <span class="_"> </span>thresholdi<span class="_ _1"></span>ng<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y49 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with clustering based method is processed. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _7"> </span>paper <span class="_ _7"> </span>is <span class="_ _d"> </span>organized <span class="_ _7"> </span>as <span class="_ _7"> </span>follows: <span class="_ _7"> </span>Section<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>II <span class="_ _7"> </span>discusses <span class="_ _7"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">need <span class="_ _6"></span>for <span class="_ _5"></span>image <span class="_ _5"></span>segmentatio<span class="_ _1"></span>n. <span class="_ _5"></span>Section <span class="_ _6"></span>III <span class="_ _5"></span>presents <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _5"></span>image </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">segmentation <span class="_ _c"> </span>algorithm <span class="_ _c"> </span>for <span class="_ _3"> </span>leaf <span class="_ _c"> </span>image <span class="_ _c"> </span>seg<span class="_ _1"></span>mentation. <span class="_ _c"> </span>The </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4d ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">simulation <span class="_ _c"> </span>results <span class="_ _3"> </span>with <span class="_ _c"> </span>different <span class="_ _c"> </span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>arameter <span class="_ _c"> </span>evaluation <span class="_ _c"> </span>are </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4e ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">presented <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>section <span class="_"> </span>IV. <span class="_"> </span>Finally, <span class="_"> </span>conclusion <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls4">is</span> <span class="_"> </span>included <span class="_ _9"> </span>in </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4f ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">section V. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y50 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2.<span class="ff7"> <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>NEED FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y51 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Image <span class="_ _3"> </span>segmentation <span class="_ _3"> </span>is <span class="_ _3"> </span>a <span class="_ _3"> </span>fundamental <span class="_ _c"> </span>tas<span class="_ _1"></span>k <span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>agriculture </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y52 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">computer <span class="_ _11"> </span>graphics <span class="_ _11"> </span>vision. <span class="_ _11"> </span>Although <span class="_ _11"> </span>many <span class="_ _11"> </span>methods <span class="_ _11"> </span>are </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y53 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">proposed, <span class="_ _1"></span>it <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>still d<span class="_ _1"></span>iff<span class="_ _0"></span>icult <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>accurately <span class="_ _1"></span>segment <span class="_ _1"></span>an <span class="_ _1"></span>arbitrary </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y54 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">image <span class="_ _6"> </span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>y <span class="_ _6"> </span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>ne <span class="_ _7"> </span>particular <span class="_ _d"> </span>me<span class="_ _0"></span>thod. <span class="_ _d"> </span>In <span class="_ _7"> </span>recent <span class="_ _7"> </span>years, <span class="_ _d"> </span>more <span class="_ _6"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y55 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">more <span class="_ _4"> </span>attention<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>has <span class="_ _12"> </span>been <span class="_ _4"> </span>paid <span class="_ _12"> </span>to <span class="_ _12"> </span>com<span class="_ _0"></span>bine <span class="_ _12"> </span>segmentation </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y56 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">algorithms <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _8"></span>information <span class="_ _8"></span>from <span class="_ _1"></span>multiple <span class="_ _1"></span>feature <span class="_ _8"></span>spac<span class="_ _1"></span>es <span class="_ _1"></span>(e.g. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y57 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">color, <span class="_ _5"></span>texture, <span class="_ _5"></span>and <span class="_ _5"></span>pattern) <span class="_ _5"></span>in <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>rder <span class="_ _8"></span>to <span class="_ _6"></span>im<span class="_ _0"></span>prove <span class="_ _5"></span>segmentation </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y58 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">results [5]. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y59 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">According <span class="_ _c"> </span>to <span class="_ _c"> </span>literature <span class="_ _c"> </span>survey<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _c"> </span>Segmentation <span class="_ _c"> </span>algorithm <span class="_ _9"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y5a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">divided <span class="_ _e"> </span>into <span class="_ _13"> </span>categories <span class="_ _13"> </span>using <span class="_ _13"> </span>two <span class="_ _13"> </span>properties <span class="_ _13"> </span>such <span class="_ _e"> </span>as, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y5b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">discontinuity <span class="_ _12"> </span>and <span class="_ _12"> </span>sim<span class="_ _0"></span>ilarity <span class="_ _12"> </span>[9][10]. <span class="_ _12"> </span>For <span class="_ _12"> </span>this <span class="_ _4"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>lant <span class="_ _4"> </span>leaf </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y5c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">re<span class="ls0">cognition, <span class="_ _1"></span>basic <span class="_ _8"></span>standard <span class="_ _1"></span>segmentation <span class="_ _1"></span>algorith<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>are <span class="_ _1"></span>taken </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y5d ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for analysis.<span class="ff8"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y5e ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3.<span class="ff7"> <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>PROPOSED FRAME WORK FOR </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y5f ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">THE PLANT LEAF SEGM<span class="_ _0"></span>ENTATION </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y60 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">SYSTEM </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y61 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _d"> </span>propo<span class="_ _1"></span>sed <span class="_ _d"> </span>fram<span class="_ _0"></span>ework <span class="_"> </span>combines <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>ex<span class="_ _0"></span>isting <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _d"> </span>recent </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y62 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">techniques of image processing for recognizing plant <span class="_ _1"></span>leaf<span class="_ _0"></span>. The </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y63 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">output <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _c"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _c"> </span>system <span class="_ _c"> </span>delivers <span class="_ _c"> </span>a <span class="_ _c"> </span>Matlab<span class="_ _1"></span>-based <span class="_ _c"> </span>application </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y64 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">development platform <span class="_ _1"></span>intended <span class="_ _1"></span>for detection <span class="_ _1"></span>system<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _1"></span>It allows </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y65 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _7"> </span>user <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>vestig<span class="_ _0"></span>ate, <span class="_ _7"> </span>design, <span class="_ _7"> </span>and <span class="_ _d"> </span>evaluate <span class="_ _6"> </span>algorithms <span class="_ _7"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y66 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applications <span class="_"> </span>using <span class="_"> </span>plant <span class="_"> </span>leaf <span class="_"> </span>images. <span class="_ _9"> </span>This <span class="_"> </span>standard <span class="_"> </span>system </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y67 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">do<span class="ls6">es<span class="ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span>not <span class="_ _7"> </span>require <span class="_ _6"></span>detailed <span class="_ _6"> </span>knowledge <span class="_ _6"></span>of <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>target <span class="_ _6"> </span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>ardware<span class="_ _0"></span>. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y68 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The proposed algorithm <span class="ls4">is</span> described in figure 1 </div><div class="t m0 x11 hb y69 ff8 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611792,0.000000,0.000000,1.611792,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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