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Introduction to Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI).
What-is-BCI.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b89d83d2fbb0007d9da81/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b89d83d2fbb0007d9da81/bg1.jpg"><div class="c x0 y1 w2 h2"><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">What is BCI?</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y3 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">A&#58882;<span class="ff3">brain&#8211;computer<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>interface</span>&#58882;(<span class="ff3">BCI</span>),<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>ofte<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>called<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>a&#58882;<span class="ff3">mind-machine<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>interface</span>&#58882;(<span class="ff3">MMI</span>),<span class="_ _0"> </span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>or</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y4 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">sometimes<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>called<span class="_ _3"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>a&#58882;<span class="ff3">direct<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>neural<span class="_ _3"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>interface</span>(<span class="ff3">DNI</span>),&#58882;<span class="ff3">synthetic<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>telepathy<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>interface</span>&#58882;(<span class="ff3">STI</span>)<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>or</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y5 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a&#58882;<span class="ff3">brain&#8211;machine<span class="_ _4"></span> interface<span class="_ _4"></span></span>&#58882;(<span class="ff3">BMI</span>), <span class="_ _4"></span>is<span class="_ _4"></span> a<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>direct<span class="_ _4"></span> communication<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>pathwa<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>between <span class="_ _4"></span>the<span class="_ _5"></span><span class="ff4 fs0 fc0"> <span class="_ _4"></span>brain</span>&#58882;and<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>an</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y6 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">external device.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y7 ff3 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">History</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y8 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>history<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>brain&#8211;computer<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>interfaces<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>(BCIs)<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>starts<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"></span>&#58882;<span class="ff5">Hans<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>Berger's<span class="_ _4"></span></span>&#58882;discovery<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y9 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">electrical <span class="_ _4"></span>activity<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>of<span class="_ _4"></span> the<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>human<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>brain <span class="_ _4"></span>and<span class="_ _4"></span> the<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>development <span class="_ _5"></span>of<span class="_ _5"></span>&#58882;electro<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>encephalo <span class="_ _4"></span>graphy(EEG).<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>In</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 ya ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">1924<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>Berger<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>was<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>the<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>first<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>to<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>record<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>human<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>brain<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>activity<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>by<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>means<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>of<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>EEG.<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>Berger<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>was<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>able<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>to</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yb ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">identify&#58882;oscillatory<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>activity&#58882;in<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>the<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>brai<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"></span>by<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>analyzing<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>EEG<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>traces.<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>One<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>wave<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>he<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>identified<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>was</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yc ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the&#58882;alpha wave&#58882;(8&#8211;13&#58882;Hz), also known as Berger's wave.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yd ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Berger's <span class="_ _4"></span>first <span class="_ _4"></span>recording device<span class="_ _4"></span> was<span class="_ _4"></span> very <span class="_ _4"></span>rudimentary. He<span class="_ _4"></span> inserted<span class="_ _5"></span>&#58882;s<span class="_ _4"></span>il<span class="_ _1"></span>ver&#58882;wires <span class="_ _4"></span>under <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>scalps of</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 ye ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">his<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>patients.<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>These<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>were<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>later<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>replaced<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>by<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>silver<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>foils<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>attached<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>to<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>the<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>patients'<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>head<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>by<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>rubber</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yf ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">bandages.<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>Berge<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>connected<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>these<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>sensors<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"></span>&#58882;Lippmann<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>capillary<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>electrometer,<span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y10 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">disappointing<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>results.<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>More<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>sophisticated<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>measuring<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>devices,<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>such<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>as<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>the<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>Siemens<span class="_ _4"></span>&#58882;double-<span class="_ _4"></span>coil</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y11 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">recording&#58882;galvanometer,<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>which<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>displayed<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>electric<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>voltages<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>as<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>s<span class="_ _4"></span>mall<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>as<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>one<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>ten<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>thousandth<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>of<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>a</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y12 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">volt, led to success.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y13 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Berger<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>analyzed<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>the<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>interrelation<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>of<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>alternations<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>in<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>his<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>EEG<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>wave<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>diagrams<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>with<span class="_ _5"></span>&#58882;brain<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>diseases.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y14 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">EEGs permitted completely new possibilities for the research of human brain activities.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y15 ff3 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The Electric Brain</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y16 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The reason a BCI <span class="_ _4"></span>works at all is because of the way our <span class="_ _4"></span>brains function. Our brains are filled w<span class="_ _4"></span>ith</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y17 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">neurons, <span class="_ _4"></span>individual&#58882;nerve<span class="_ _4"></span> cells<span class="_ _4"></span> connected<span class="_ _4"></span> to<span class="_ _4"></span> one<span class="_ _4"></span> another<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>by <span class="_ _4"></span>dendrites <span class="_ _4"></span>and <span class="_ _4"></span>axons. <span class="_ _4"></span>Every<span class="_ _4"></span> time<span class="_ _4"></span> we</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y18 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">think,<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>move,<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>feel<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>or<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>remember<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>something,<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>our<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>neurons<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>are<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>at<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>work.<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>That<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>work<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>is<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>carried<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>out<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>by</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y19 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">small<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>el<span class="_ _1"></span>ectric<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>sig<span class="_ _1"></span>nals<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>at<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>zip<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>from<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>neuron<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>neuron<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>fast<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>250<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>mph.<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>signals<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1a ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">generated by differences in electric potential carried by ions on the membrane of each neuron.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1b ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Although<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>paths<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"></span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>s<span class="_ _4"></span>igna<span class="_ _1"></span>ls<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>take<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>insulated<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>something<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>c<span class="_ _4"></span>alled<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>myelin,<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>some<span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1c ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">electric<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>signal<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>escapes.<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>Scientists<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>can<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>detect<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>those<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>signals,<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>interpret<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>what<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>they<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>mean<span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>and<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>use</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1d ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">them<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>direct<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>a<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>device<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>some<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>k<span class="_ _4"></span>ind.<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>It<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _8"></span>c<span class="_ _4"></span>an<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>also<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"></span>work<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>other<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _8"></span>way<span class="_ _7"> </span> <span class="_ _7"></span>around.<span class="_ _8"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>For<span class="_ _7"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>example,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1e ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">researchers <span class="_ _4"></span>could figure <span class="_ _4"></span>out what<span class="_ _4"></span> signals <span class="_ _4"></span>are s<span class="_ _4"></span>ent to <span class="_ _4"></span>the brain<span class="_ _4"></span> by <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>optic nerve <span class="_ _4"></span>when s<span class="_ _4"></span>omeo<span class="_ _1"></span>ne</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1f ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">sees<span class="_ _4"></span> the<span class="_ _4"></span> c<span class="_ _4"></span>olor <span class="_ _4"></span>red.<span class="_ _4"></span> They<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>could <span class="_ _4"></span>rig<span class="_ _4"></span> a<span class="_ _4"></span>&#58882;c<span class="_ _4"></span>amera&#58882;that <span class="_ _4"></span>would<span class="_ _4"></span> s<span class="_ _4"></span>end <span class="_ _4"></span>those <span class="_ _4"></span>exact<span class="_ _4"></span> s<span class="_ _4"></span>ignal<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>into <span class="_ _4"></span>someone's</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y20 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">brain whenever the camera saw red, allowing a blind person to "see" without eyes.</div></div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611850,0.000000,0.000000,1.611850,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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