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Planned Scheduling for Economic Power Sharing in a CHP-Based Micro-Grid
micro-grid.zip
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626b0e3b1e41a87e8a7ec052/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626b0e3b1e41a87e8a7ec052/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination.</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _0"> </span>TRANSA<span class="_ _1"></span>CTIONS<span class="_ _0"> </span>ON<span class="_ _0"> </span>POWER<span class="_ _0"> </span>SYSTEMS<span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls0">1</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Planned<span class="_ _3"> </span>Scheduling<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>Economic<span class="_ _3"> </span>Po<span class="_ _4"></span>wer</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sharing<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>CHP-Based<span class="_ _5"> </span>Micro-Grid</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ashoke<span class="_ _6"> </span>Kumar<span class="_ _7"> </span>Basu,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Aniruddha<span class="_ _7"> </span>Bhattacharya<span class="ff3">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Member<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff2">,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Sunetra<span class="_ _6"> </span>Cho<span class="_ _4"></span>wdhury<span class="ff3">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Member<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff2">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.<span class="_ _6"> </span>P<span class="_ _a"></span>.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Cho<span class="_ _4"></span>wdhury<span class="ff3">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Member<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y7 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract&#8212;<span class="ff5">At<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>planning<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>combined<span class="_ _b"> </span>heat<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>power</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y8 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(CHP)-based<span class="_ _6"> </span>micro-grid,<span class="_ _9"> </span>its<span class="_ _6"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _6"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>resour<span class="_ _1"></span>ces<span class="_ _9"> </span>(DER)</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y9 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">capacity<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>selected<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>deployed<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>such<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>way<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>it</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 ya ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">becomes<span class="_ _9"> </span>economically<span class="_ _9"> </span>self-suf&#64257;cient<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>cater<span class="_ _9"> </span>all<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>loads<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yb ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _e"> </span>without<span class="_ _e"> </span>utility&#8217;s<span class="_ _e"> </span>participation.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Economic<span class="_ _e"> </span>deployment<span class="_ _e"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yc ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DERs<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>meant<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>select<span class="_ _d"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _f"> </span>locations,<span class="_ _d"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _f"> </span>sizes,<span class="_ _d"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yd ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">optimal<span class="_ _8"> </span>technologies.<span class="_ _10"> </span>Optimal<span class="_ _8"> </span>locations<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>sizes,<span class="_ _10"> </span>which<span class="_ _8"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 ye ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">independent<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>CHP-based<span class="_ _11"> </span>DERs<span class="_ _11"> </span>types,<span class="_ _11"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>selected,<span class="_ _11"> </span>her<span class="_ _4"></span>e,<span class="_ _11"> </span>by<span class="_ _11"> </span>loss</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yf ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sensitivity<span class="_ _e"> </span>index<span class="_ _e"> </span>(LSI)<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>by<span class="_ _d"> </span>loss<span class="_ _e"> </span>minimization<span class="_ _e"> </span>using<span class="_ _e"> </span>particle</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y10 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">swarm<span class="_ _7"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _11"> </span>(PSO)<span class="_ _7"> </span>method,<span class="_ _7"> </span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>espectively.<span class="_ _11"> </span>In<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>micro-grid,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y11 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">both<span class="_ _e"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _e"> </span>costs<span class="_ _e"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x4 h8 y12 ff6 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0">NO</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h9 y13 ff7 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0">x</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y14 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">emissions<span class="_ _e"> </span>are,<span class="_ _e"> </span>mainly<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _e"> </span>dependent<span class="_ _e"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y15 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">types<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>DERs<span class="_ _6"> </span>used.<span class="_ _7"> </span>So<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>main<span class="_ _6"> </span>f<span class="_ _1"></span>ocus<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>present<span class="_ _7"> </span>paper<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y16 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">incorporate<span class="_ _7"> </span>originality<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>ideas<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>evaluate<span class="_ _7"> </span>how<span class="_ _11"> </span>different<span class="_ _7"> </span>optimal</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y17 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">output<span class="_ _12"> </span>sets<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>DER-mix,<span class="_ _12"> </span>operating<span class="_ _12"> </span>within<span class="_ _12"> </span>their<span class="_ _12"> </span>respectiv<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"> </span>capacity</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y18 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">limits,<span class="_ _9"> </span>could<span class="_ _9"> </span>share<span class="_ _9"> </span>an<span class="_ _9"> </span>electrical<span class="_ _9"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _13"> </span>demand,<span class="_ _9"> </span>economically<span class="_ _4"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y19 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">among<span class="_ _8"> </span>micro-turbines<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>diesel<span class="_ _8"> </span>generators<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>various<span class="_ _f"> </span>sizes,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1a ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">satisfying<span class="_ _7"> </span>different<span class="_ _7"> </span>heat<span class="_ _7"> </span>demands,<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>basis<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>multi-objective</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1b ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">optimization<span class="_ _f"> </span>compr<span class="_ _4"></span>omising<span class="_ _f"> </span>between<span class="_ _f"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _d"> </span>cost<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>emission<span class="_ _f"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1c ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _e"> </span>4-DER<span class="_ _e"> </span>14-bus<span class="_ _e"> </span>radial<span class="_ _e"> </span>micro-grid.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Optimization<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>done<span class="_ _d"> </span>using</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1d ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">differential<span class="_ _9"> </span>evolution<span class="_ _9"> </span>(DE)<span class="_ _9"> </span>technique<span class="_ _13"> </span>under<span class="_ _9"> </span>real<span class="_ _9"> </span>power<span class="_ _13"> </span>demand</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1e ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equality<span class="_ _7"> </span>constraint,<span class="_ _7"> </span>heat<span class="_ _6"> </span>balance<span class="_ _7"> </span>inequality<span class="_ _7"> </span>constraint,<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>DER</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1f ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">capacity<span class="_ _11"> </span>limits<span class="_ _12"> </span>constraint.<span class="_ _11"> </span>DE<span class="_ _11"> </span>results<span class="_ _12"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>compared<span class="_ _12"> </span>with<span class="_ _11"> </span>PSO.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y20 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _11"> </span>T<span class="_ _14"></span>erms&#8212;<span class="ff5">Diesel<span class="_ _11"> </span>generator<span class="_ _14"></span>,<span class="_ _11"> </span>differential<span class="_ _12"> </span>evolution,<span class="_ _11"> </span>economic</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y21 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">emission<span class="_ _7"> </span>load<span class="_ _7"> </span>dispatch,<span class="_ _7"> </span>loss<span class="_ _7"> </span>sensitivity<span class="_ _7"> </span>index,<span class="_ _7"> </span>micro-turbine,<span class="_ _7"> </span>par<span class="_ _4"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y22 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ticle<span class="_ _7"> </span>swarm<span class="_ _11"> </span>optimization.</div><div class="t m0 xa ha y23 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">N<span class="fs8">OMENCLA<span class="_ _14"></span>TURE</span></div><div class="t m0 xb ha y24 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DER<span class="_ _15"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _11"> </span>energy<span class="_ _11"> </span>resources.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y25 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">CHP<span class="_ _16"> </span>Combined<span class="_ _7"> </span>heat<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>power.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y26 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mt<span class="_ _17"> </span>Micro-turbine.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y27 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Dg<span class="_ _18"> </span>Diesel<span class="_ _7"> </span>generator.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y28 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DG<span class="_ _19"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _11"> </span>generator/generation.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y29 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DE<span class="_ _1a"> </span>Differential<span class="_ _11"> </span>ev<span class="_ _1"></span>olution.</div><div class="t m0 xc ha y2a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">System<span class="_ _7"> </span>electric<span class="_ _11"> </span>loss<span class="_ _7"> </span>(kW).</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y2b ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Manuscript<span class="_ _7"> </span>received<span class="_ _7"> </span>March<span class="_ _7"> </span>18,<span class="_ _7"> </span>2010;<span class="_ _7"> </span>revised<span class="_ _7"> </span>October<span class="_ _7"> </span>04,<span class="_ _7"> </span>2010,<span class="_ _7"> </span>February</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y2c ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">24,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2011,<span class="_ _12"> </span>April<span class="_ _12"> </span>05,<span class="_ _12"> </span>2011,<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>June<span class="_ _12"> </span>08,<span class="_ _12"> </span>2011;<span class="_ _0"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _12"> </span>July<span class="_ _12"> </span>17,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2011.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Paper<span class="_ _0"> </span>no.</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y2d ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">TPWRS-00214-2010.</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y2e ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _0"> </span>K.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Basu<span class="_ _1b"> </span>is<span class="_ _1b"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _1b"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _0"> </span>Department,<span class="_ _0"> </span>C.I.E.M.,<span class="_ _0"> </span>K<span class="_ _4"></span>olkata,</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y2f ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">India<span class="_ _12"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _11"> </span>ak_basu2004@yahoo.com).</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y30 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Bhattacharya<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _6"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _9"> </span>Department,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Jadavpur</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y31 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Univ<span class="_ _1"></span>ersity<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _12"> </span>Kolkata,<span class="_ _0"> </span>India<span class="_ _12"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _12"> </span>ani_bhatta2004@rediffmail.com).</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y32 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Chowdhury<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>S.<span class="_ _12"> </span>P.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Chowdhury<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _12"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _11"> </span>De-</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y33 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">partment,<span class="_ _0"> </span>University<span class="_ _1b"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>Cape<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>own,<span class="_ _0"> </span>Cape<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>own,<span class="_ _1b"> </span>South<span class="_ _0"> </span>Africa<span class="_ _12"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _0"> </span>Sunetra.</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y34 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Chowdhury@uct.ac.za;<span class="_ _0"> </span>sp.chowdhury@uct.ac.za).</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y35 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Color<span class="_ _0"> </span>versions<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>one<span class="_ _12"> </span>or<span class="_ _0"> </span>more<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>&#64257;gures<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"> </span>this<span class="_ _12"> </span>paper<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _0"> </span>available<span class="_ _0"> </span>online</div><div class="t m0 x2 hb y36 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">at<span class="_ _11"> </span>http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y37 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Digital<span class="_ _12"> </span>Object<span class="_ _12"> </span>Identi&#64257;er<span class="_ _11"> </span>10.1109/TPWRS.2011.2162754</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y38 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Activ<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _9"> </span>power<span class="_ _9"> </span>generation<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>th</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y39 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DER(kW).</div><div class="t m0 xf ha y3a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Upper<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>lower<span class="_ _11"> </span>limits<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _1c"> </span>,</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">respectiv<span class="_ _4"></span>ely.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Activ<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>injection<span class="_ _11"> </span>at<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _12"> </span>bus<span class="_ _12"> </span>(kW).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Phase<span class="_ _7"> </span>angle<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _7"> </span>bus.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">V<span class="_ _a"></span>oltage<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _7"> </span>bus<span class="_ _7"> </span>(p.u.).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y40 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Upper<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>lower<span class="_ _7"> </span>bounds<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _1e"> </span>(p.u.),</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y41 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">respectiv<span class="_ _4"></span>ely.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y42 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Reactiv<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _12"> </span>generation<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _11"> </span>DER.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y43 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Upper<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>lower<span class="_ _7"> </span>bounds<span class="_ _9"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y44 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(kvar),<span class="_ _11"> </span>respectively.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y45 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _14"></span>otal<span class="_ _7"> </span>electric<span class="_ _7"> </span>demand<span class="_ _11"> </span>(kW).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y46 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Line<span class="_ _11"> </span>&#64258;ow<span class="_ _11"> </span>from<span class="_ _5"> </span>th<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _1f"> </span>th<span class="_ _11"> </span>bus<span class="_ _11"> </span>(kW).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y47 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _14"></span>otal<span class="_ _7"> </span>numbers<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>DERs.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y48 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _14"></span>otal<span class="_ _7"> </span>cost<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>emission<span class="_ _7"> </span>plus<span class="_ _11"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _11"> </span>($/h).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y49 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fuel<span class="_ _7"> </span>cost<span class="_ _6"> </span>function<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>its<span class="_ _7"> </span>value<span class="_ _7"> </span>at</div><div class="t m0 x10 ha y4a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _7"> </span>respecti<span class="_ _4"></span>vely<span class="_ _7"> </span>($/h).</div><div class="t m0 x11 ha y4b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">emission<span class="_ _7"> </span>function<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>its<span class="_ _7"> </span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>alue</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">at</div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y4d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _11"> </span>respectively<span class="_ _11"> </span>(g/kWh).</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _14"></span>eighting<span class="_ _7"> </span>factor.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Penalty<span class="_ _11"> </span>factor<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _20"> </span>emission.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y50 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fuel<span class="_ _11"> </span>cost<span class="_ _7"> </span>coef&#64257;cients<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _7"> </span>DER.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y51 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Emission<span class="_ _11"> </span>coef&#64257;cients<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>th<span class="_ _11"> </span>DER.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y52 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Thermal<span class="_ _7"> </span>ef<span class="_ _4"></span>&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _1d"> </span>th<span class="_ _7"> </span>DER.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y53 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ef&#64257;cienc<span class="_ _4"></span>y<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>heat<span class="_ _11"> </span>exchanger.</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y54 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Heat<span class="_ _7"> </span>demand<span class="_ _7"> </span>(kWh).</div><div class="t m0 x13 ha y55 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">LSI<span class="_ _21"> </span>Loss<span class="_ _7"> </span>sensiti<span class="_ _1"></span>vity<span class="_ _7"> </span>index.</div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y56 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I.<span class="_ _1d"> </span>I</div><div class="t m0 x15 hb y57 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">NTR<span class="_ _1"></span>ODUCTION</div><div class="t m0 x16 hc y58 ff5 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W</div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y59 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ITH<span class="_ _12"> </span>rapid<span class="_ _12"> </span>escalation<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>fossil<span class="_ _12"> </span>fuel<span class="_ _11"> </span>price<span class="_ _12"> </span>as<span class="_ _12"> </span>well<span class="_ _11"> </span>as<span class="_ _12"> </span>sharp</div><div class="t m0 x17 ha y5a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">increase<span class="_ _13"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>capital<span class="_ _13"> </span>cost<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>new<span class="_ _9"> </span>central<span class="_ _13"> </span>generating</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y5b ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">plant,<span class="_ _0"> </span>there<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>focused<span class="_ _12"> </span>attention<span class="_ _12"> </span>on<span class="_ _12"> </span>alternate<span class="_ _12"> </span>generating<span class="_ _0"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y5c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _0"> </span>higher<span class="_ _12"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>energy<span class="_ _0"> </span>use.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Under<span class="_ _12"> </span>deregulation<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>re-</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y5d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">structuring<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _11"> </span>system,<span class="_ _11"> </span>electricity<span class="_ _11"> </span>market<span class="_ _11"> </span>becomes<span class="_ _7"> </span>highly</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y5e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">competitiv<span class="_ _4"></span>e.<span class="_ _6"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>oday<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _7"> </span>micro-grid,<span class="_ _6"> </span>due<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>its<span class="_ _6"> </span>major<span class="_ _6"> </span>technological</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y5f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _11"> </span>regulatory<span class="_ _12"> </span>innov<span class="_ _1"></span>ation<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>its<span class="_ _11"> </span>small-scale,<span class="_ _11"> </span>on-site<span class="_ _11"> </span>CHP-based</div><div class="t m0 x18 hb y60 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">0885-8950/$26.00<span class="_ _11"> </span>&#169;<span class="_ _11"> </span>2011<span class="_ _11"> </span>IEEE</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.616162,0.000000,0.000000,1.616162,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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