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Qualnet simulation of VANET scinario for traffic light environment
VANET.rar
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b94d23d2fbb0007723cfc/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b94d23d2fbb0007723cfc/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ISSN (Print) : 2278-8948, Volume-2, Issue-6, 2013<span class="fs2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h2 y4 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">47<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y5 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="c x5 y6 w2 h4"><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y8 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">QualNet Simulation of VANET<span class="_ _0"></span> Scenario for TLE (T<span class="_ _0"></span>raffic Light </div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 y9 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Environment) Perfor<span class="_ _0"></span>mance Evaluation<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 yb ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 yc w2 h6"><div class="t m0 x9 h7 yd ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 ye ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Manjunath P S<span class="ff2"> <span class="ls2">&amp; </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xb h7 yd ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2 </div><div class="t m0 xc h8 ye ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Narayana Reddy<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h9 yf ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xe ha y10 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Dept. of T<span class="_ _0"></span>elecommunications Engineering,<span class="_ _0"></span> BMS College of<span class="_ _0"></span> Engineering </div><div class="t m0 xf h9 y11 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x10 hb y12 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="ff2">Dept of Electronics and Co<span class="_ _0"></span>mmunication Eng<span class="_ _0"></span>ineering, S V <span class="_ _0"></span>University, Tirupath<span class="_ _0"></span>y, India</span> </div><div class="t m0 x11 ha y13 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E-mail : manjunathp<span class="_ _0"></span>s.tce@bmsce.ac.in<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y14 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 y15 w2 hc"><div class="t m0 x12 h2 y16 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y17 ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff3"> <span class="_ _2"> </span>- <span class="_ _2"> </span>Vehicular <span class="_ _3"> </span>Ad-hoc <span class="_ _2"> </span>Netw<span class="_ _0"></span>orks <span class="_ _3"> </span>(VANETs) <span class="_ _3"> </span>are </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y18 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">attracting <span class="_ _4"> </span>considerable <span class="_ _4"> </span>attention <span class="_ _4"> </span>from <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>research<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y19 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">community <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>automotive <span class="_"> </span>industr<span class="_ _1"></span>y <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>im<span class="_ _1"></span>prove <span class="_"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y1a ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">services <span class="_ _6"> </span>of <span class="_ _6"> </span>Intelligent <span class="_ _6"> </span>Transportation <span class="_ _6"> </span>System <span class="_ _6"> </span>(ITS). <span class="_ _6"> </span>As </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y1b ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">today&#8217;s<span class="ff3"> <span class="_ _5"> </span>transporta<span class="_ _1"></span>tion <span class="_ _5"> </span>system <span class="_ _5"> </span>faces <span class="_ _7"> </span>serious <span class="_ _5"> </span>challenges <span class="_ _7"> </span>in </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y1c ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">terms <span class="_ _8"> </span>of <span class="_ _8"> </span>road <span class="_ _8"> </span>safety, <span class="_ _8"> </span>efficiency, <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _8"> </span>environmental </div><div class="t m0 x3 he y1d ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">friendliness, <span class="_ _9"></span>the <span class="_ _9"></span>idea <span class="_ _a"> </span>of <span class="_ _9"></span>so <span class="_ _a"></span>called <span class="_ _9"></span>&#8220;ITS&#8221; <span class="_ _a"></span>has <span class="_ _9"></span>emerged. <span class="_ _9"></span>Due </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y1e ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to <span class="_ _b"> </span>the <span class="_ _b"> </span>expensive <span class="_ _b"> </span>cost <span class="_ _b"> </span>of <span class="_ _6"> </span>deployment <span class="_ _b"> </span>and <span class="_ _b"> </span>complexity<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _b"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y1f ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">implementing <span class="_"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>uch <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_ _b"> </span>syste<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_ _b"> </span>real <span class="_ _b"> </span>world,<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>researc<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y20 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">VANET <span class="_ _c"> </span>relies <span class="_ _c"> </span>on <span class="_ _c"> </span>simulation. <span class="_ _c"> </span>The <span class="_ _c"> </span>Traffic <span class="_ _c"> </span>Light </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y21 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Environment <span class="_ _7"></span>(TLE) <span class="_ _7"> </span>on <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _7"></span>sma<span class="_ _1"></span>ll <span class="_ _7"> </span>section <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>road <span class="_ _5"> </span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>ap <span class="_ _7"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y22 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">simulated <span class="_ _d"> </span>with <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _e"> </span>help <span class="_ _d"> </span>of <span class="_ _e"> </span>QUALNET <span class="_ _d"> </span>in <span class="_ _d"> </span>order <span class="_ _e"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y23 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">understand <span class="_ _a"></span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>significance <span class="_ _a"></span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>VANET <span class="_ _a"></span>in <span class="_ _7"></span>our<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>day-<span class="ls3">to</span>-day </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y24 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lives. <span class="_ _7"> </span>Traffic <span class="_ _7"> </span>data <span class="_ _7"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>rom <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>li<span class="_ _0"></span>mited <span class="_ _7"></span>region <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>road <span class="_ _7"> </span>Map <span class="_ _7"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y25 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">collected <span class="_ _b"> </span>to <span class="_ _b"> </span>capture <span class="_ _b"> </span>the <span class="_ _b"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ealistic <span class="_ _b"> </span>mobility. <span class="_ _b"> </span>The <span class="_ _b"> </span>realistic </div><div class="t m0 x3 he y26 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mobility <span class="_ _f"> </span>mode<span class="_ _1"></span>l <span class="_ _f"> </span>used <span class="_ _f"> </span>here <span class="_ _6"> </span>considers <span class="_ _f"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>driver&#8217;s <span class="_ _6"> </span>route<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y27 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">choice <span class="_ _9"></span>at <span class="_ _a"></span>the <span class="_ _a"></span>run <span class="_ _9"></span>ti<span class="_ _0"></span>me. <span class="_ _9"></span>It <span class="_ _a"></span>also <span class="_ _a"></span>studies <span class="_ _9"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _9"></span>cl<span class="_ _0"></span>ustering <span class="_ _9"></span>effect </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y28 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">caused <span class="_ _9"></span>by <span class="_ _9"></span>traffic <span class="_ _0"></span>lights <span class="_ _9"></span>used <span class="_ _9"></span>at<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>ntersection <span class="_ _0"></span>to <span class="_ _9"></span>regulate </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y29 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">tr<span class="ls0">affic <span class="_ _d"> </span>movement <span class="_ _d"> </span>at <span class="_ _d"> </span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>ifferent <span class="_ _d"> </span>directions. <span class="_ _d"> </span>Finally, <span class="_ _d"> </span>the </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y2a ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">performance <span class="_ _f"> </span>of <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>VANET <span class="_ _3"> </span>is <span class="_ _f"> </span>evaluated <span class="_ _3"> </span>in <span class="_ _f"> </span>ter<span class="_ _0"></span>ms <span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y2b ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">number <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"></span>sent <span class="_ _7"></span>packe<span class="_ _1"></span>ts, <span class="_ _7"> </span>average <span class="_ _7"> </span>unicast <span class="_ _7"> </span>throughput <span class="_ _7"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y2c ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unicast <span class="_ _9"></span>end <span class="_ _a"></span>to <span class="_ _9"></span>end <span class="_ _a"></span>delay <span class="_ _9"></span>as <span class="_ _a"></span>statistical <span class="_ _a"></span>measures <span class="_ _9"></span>for <span class="_ _a"></span>driver </div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y2d ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">route choice with the traffic light scenario. </div><div class="t m0 x3 hf y2e ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords - ITS, Routing Protocols, TLE, VANET </div><div class="t m0 x13 ha y2f ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I. <span class="_ _10"> </span>INTRODUCT<span class="_ _0"></span>ION </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y30 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _11"> </span><span class="ff6">The <span class="_ _a"></span>vehicle&#8217;s <span class="_ _9"></span>destinat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion <span class="_ _a"></span>from <span class="_ _9"></span>the <span class="_ _a"></span>source <span class="_ _9"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _9"></span>their<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y31 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">turning d<span class="_ _0"></span>irections <span class="_ _0"></span>at <span class="_ _0"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>intersections, <span class="_ _0"></span>such<span class="_ _0"></span> as<span class="_ _0"></span> r<span class="_ _0"></span>ight <span class="_ _0"></span>turn, </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y32 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">left <span class="_ _a"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>urn <span class="_ _7"></span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _7"> </span>straight <span class="_ _12"></span>as <span class="_ _12"></span>per <span class="_ _12"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>heir <span class="_ _12"></span>destination <span class="_ _7"> </span>were <span class="_ _12"></span>also </div><div class="t m0 x3 h10 y33 ff6 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">set <span class="_ _0"></span>according <span class="_ _0"></span>to <span class="_ _0"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>dr<span class="_ _0"></span>iver&#8217;s <span class="_ _0"></span>route <span class="_ _0"></span>choice <span class="_ _0"></span>at <span class="_ _9"></span>intersection. </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y34 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The driver ro<span class="_ _0"></span>ute choice behavior <span class="_ _0"></span>with traffic lights at the </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y35 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">intersections <span class="_ _e"> </span>has <span class="_ _e"> </span>been <span class="_ _e"> </span>simulated <span class="_ _e"> </span>for <span class="_ _e"> </span>a <span class="_ _d"> </span>real <span class="_ _e"> </span>world </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y36 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scenario. <span class="_ _a"></span>I<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _a"></span>this, <span class="_ _12"></span>all <span class="_ _12"></span>possible <span class="_ _12"></span>routes <span class="_ _12"></span>from <span class="_ _a"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _a"></span>source <span class="_ _12"></span>to<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y37 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">destination <span class="_ _5"> </span>are <span class="_ _7"> </span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>efined <span class="_ _7"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>river <span class="_ _7"> </span>needs <span class="_ _5"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>decide </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y38 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">about which route <span class="_ _0"></span>is to be taken <span class="_ _0"></span>from among all possib<span class="_ _0"></span>le </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y39 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">routes <span class="_ _9"></span>at <span class="_ _a"></span>any <span class="_ _a"></span>intersection. <span class="_ _a"></span>The <span class="_ _a"></span>presence <span class="_ _9"></span>of <span class="_ _a"></span>traffic <span class="_ _9"></span>li<span class="_ _0"></span>ghts </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y3a ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">at <span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>ntersection <span class="_ _5"> </span>reg<span class="_ _0"></span>ulates <span class="_"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>smooth <span class="_"> </span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>ovement <span class="_"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y3b ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vehicles <span class="_ _6"> </span>in <span class="_ _f"> </span>different <span class="_ _6"> </span>directions <span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _6"> </span>causes <span class="_ _6"> </span>cl<span class="_ _0"></span>ustering </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y3c ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">effect <span class="_ _b"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_"> </span>forci<span class="_ _0"></span>ng <span class="_ _b"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _b"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _6"> </span>stop <span class="_ _6"> </span>at <span class="_ _b"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>ntersection </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y3d ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">when the si<span class="_ _0"></span>gnal is red<span class="_ _0"></span>. Therefore, <span class="_ _0"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>node density at t<span class="_ _0"></span>he </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y3e ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">intersection <span class="_ _e"> </span>increased <span class="_ _e"> </span>which <span class="_ _d"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>mproves <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _e"> </span>network </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y3f ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">connectivity <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>mong <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>peers <span class="_"> </span>at <span class="_ _6"> </span>intersection, <span class="_ _b"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>ut <span class="_"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y40 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">improved <span class="_ _5"> </span>connectivity <span class="_ _5"> </span>deteriorates <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>packet <span class="_ _5"> </span>deliver<span class="_ _0"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y41 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ratio. <span class="_ _a"></span>To <span class="_ _a"></span>maintain <span class="_ _a"></span>a <span class="_ _a"></span>practical <span class="_ _a"></span>mobility <span class="_ _a"></span>model <span class="_ _a"></span>is <span class="_ _a"></span>not <span class="_ _a"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y42 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">only <span class="_ _f"> </span>criteria. <span class="_ _f"> </span>It <span class="_ _6"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _f"> </span>also <span class="_ _6"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>mperative <span class="_ _f"> </span>that <span class="_ _f"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>VANET </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y43 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">network <span class="_ _9"></span>chosen <span class="_ _9"></span>is <span class="_ _a"></span>of <span class="_ _9"></span>lowest <span class="_ _9"></span>overhead, <span class="_ _a"></span>minimum <span class="_ _9"></span>delays </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y44 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _13"> </span>thus <span class="_ _13"> </span>maximum <span class="_ _13"> </span>efficiency. <span class="_ _13"> </span>Ve<span class="_ _0"></span>hicular <span class="_ _13"> </span>ad <span class="_ _13"> </span>hoc </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y45 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks <span class="_ _7"> </span>(VANET<span class="_ _0"></span>s) <span class="_ _12"></span>are <span class="_ _7"> </span>a <span class="_ _7"> </span>subgroup <span class="_ _7"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>mob<span class="_ _0"></span>ile <span class="_ _12"></span>ad <span class="_ _7"> </span>hoc </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y46 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks <span class="_"> </span>(MANETs) <span class="_"> </span>with <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>dist<span class="_ _0"></span>inguishing <span class="_"> </span>property </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y47 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that <span class="_ _a"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _12"></span>nodes <span class="_ _12"></span>are <span class="_ _7"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _12"></span>li<span class="_ _0"></span>ke <span class="_ _a"></span>car<span class="_ _0"></span>s, <span class="_ _a"></span>tr<span class="_ _0"></span>ucks, <span class="_ _12"></span>buses <span class="_ _12"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y48 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">motorcycles.[3] <span class="_ _7"> </span>VANET <span class="_ _7"> </span>syste<span class="_ _0"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _7"> </span>should <span class="_ _12"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _12"></span>capable <span class="_ _7"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y49 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">routing <span class="_ _5"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _7"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>hrough <span class="_ _7"> </span>pat<span class="_ _0"></span>hs <span class="_ _7"> </span>with <span class="_ _5"> </span>least <span class="_ _5"> </span>distance <span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4a ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">stoppage <span class="_ _6"> </span>time <span class="_ _6"> </span>due <span class="_ _f"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>traf<span class="_ _0"></span>fic <span class="_ _6"> </span>lights. <span class="_ _6"> </span>This <span class="_ _6"> </span>is <span class="_ _6"> </span>do<span class="_ _0"></span>ne <span class="_ _b"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4b ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">means <span class="_ _a"></span>of <span class="_ _12"></span>a <span class="_ _12"></span>traffic <span class="_ _a"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>ntrol <span class="_ _a"></span>sig<span class="_ _0"></span>nalling <span class="_ _a"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>ystem <span class="_ _a"></span>that <span class="_ _12"></span>works </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4c ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hand-<span class="ls4">in</span>-hand <span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _d"> </span>VANET<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>etwork <span class="_ _d"> </span>[5].If <span class="_ _d"> </span>tw<span class="_ _1"></span>o </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4d ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">service <span class="_ _12"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>hannels <span class="_ _7"> </span>are <span class="_ _7"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mbined <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_ _7"> </span>one <span class="_ _7"> </span>20MHz <span class="_ _7"> </span>channel </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4e ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _9"></span>transmission <span class="_ _a"></span>data <span class="_ _9"></span>rate <span class="_ _9"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _9"></span>reach <span class="_ _9"></span>up <span class="_ _a"></span>to <span class="_ _9"></span>54Mbp<span class="_ _0"></span>s. <span class="_ _0"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>he </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y4f ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">maximum do<span class="_ _0"></span>wnlink and the <span class="_ _0"></span>uplink p<span class="_ _0"></span>ower should <span class="_ _0"></span>be less </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y50 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">than 33dBm [4].<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y51 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _11"> </span>IEEE <span class="_ _14"> </span>802.11p <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _4"> </span>an <span class="_ _14"> </span>appro<span class="_ _0"></span>ved <span class="_ _14"> </span>amendment <span class="_ _14"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y52 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the IEEE <span class="_ _e"> </span>802.11 standar<span class="_ _0"></span>d to <span class="_ _d"> </span>ad<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless <span class="_ _e"> </span>access <span class="_ _e"> </span>in </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y53 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vehicular <span class="_"> </span>environments <span class="_"> </span>(W<span class="_ _0"></span>AVE) <span class="_"> </span>which <span class="_"> </span>includes <span class="_"> </span>data </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y54 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">exchange <span class="_ _a"></span>between <span class="_ _9"></span>high<span class="_ _0"></span>-speed <span class="_ _a"></span>vehicles <span class="_ _9"></span>and <span class="_ _a"></span>between <span class="_ _a"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y55 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vehicles <span class="_ _12"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _12"></span>the <span class="_ _12"></span>road<span class="_ _0"></span>side <span class="_ _12"></span>infrastructure <span class="_ _7"></span>in <span class="_ _12"></span>the <span class="_ _12"></span>licen<span class="_ _0"></span>sed </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y56 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ITS band of 5.9<span class="_ _0"></span> GHz (5.85<span class="_ _0"></span>-5.925 GHz) [8]. </div><div class="t m0 x15 ha y57 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">II.<span class="ls0"> <span class="_ _4"> </span>REVIEW OF I<span class="_ _0"></span>NTELLIGENT ROAD T<span class="_ _0"></span>RAFFIC </span></div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y58 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">SIGNALLING SYST<span class="_ _0"></span>EM (IRTSS).<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y59 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _11"> </span>The <span class="_ _9"></span>main <span class="_ _0"></span>ai<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _0"></span>an <span class="_ _9"></span>IRT<span class="_ _0"></span>SS <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _9"></span>to<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>rovide <span class="_ _0"></span>a <span class="_ _9"></span>safe <span class="_ _9"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y5a ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conflict <span class="_ _6"> </span>free <span class="_ _6"> </span>move<span class="_ _0"></span>ment <span class="_ _b"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _6"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _6"> </span>through <span class="_ _6"> </span>differe<span class="_ _0"></span>nt </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y5b ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">roads, <span class="_ _14"> </span>junctions <span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _14"> </span>other <span class="_ _4"> </span>tr<span class="_ _0"></span>affic <span class="_ _4"> </span>structure<span class="_ _0"></span>s. <span class="_ _14"> </span>An </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y5c ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">intelligent <span class="_"> </span>road <span class="_"> </span>traffic <span class="_"> </span>system <span class="_"> </span>can <span class="_"> </span>react <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>change <span class="_"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y5d ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">traffic <span class="_ _12"></span>flows, <span class="_ _12"></span>road <span class="_ _12"></span>la<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>uts <span class="_ _a"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _12"></span>other <span class="_ _12"></span>time <span class="_ _12"></span>based<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _12"></span>events </div><div class="t m0 x14 ha y5e ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">quicker <span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>han <span class="_ _0"></span>a <span class="_ _9"></span>conventional <span class="_ _9"></span>road <span class="_ _9"></span>traffic <span class="_ _9"></span>system. <span class="_ _0"></span>C<span class="_ _0"></span>urrent </div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' 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