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蓄电池荷电状态健康评估,能够有效的估计电池的剩余电量
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  • High Fidelity Lithium Battery Model with Thermal Effect.pdf
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622bacea3d2fbb0007c6b411/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622bacea3d2fbb0007c6b411/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1 </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">978-1<span class="_ _0"></span>-4673-1561-6/12/$31.0<span class="_ _0"></span>0 &#169;2012 IEEE<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">High Fidelit<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> Electrical M<span class="_ _1"></span>odel with Thermal </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Dependence for Characte<span class="_ _1"></span>rization and Si<span class="_ _1"></span>mul<span class="_ _1"></span>a-</div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion of High Power Lithi<span class="_ _1"></span>um <span class="_ _1"></span>Ba<span class="_ _0"></span>tter<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> Cells</div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Tar<span class="_ _1"></span>un<span class="_ _0"></span> Huria, Massim<span class="_ _0"></span>o Ceraolo </div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y7 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Departme<span class="_ _0"></span>nt of<span class="_ _0"></span> Ener<span class="_ _1"></span>gy<span class="_ _0"></span> and Sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stems Engi<span class="_ _0"></span>neering<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">U<span class="_ _0"></span>ni<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ersity<span class="_ _0"></span> of Pisa </div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y9 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Largo Lazza<span class="_ _0"></span>rino, Pisa 561<span class="_ _0"></span>22 Italy<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa h6 ya ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">m.ceraolo<span class="_ _0"></span>@ing.unipi<span class="_ _0"></span>.it </div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y6 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Javie<span class="_ _0"></span>r Ga<span class="_ _1"></span>zzarri, Robyn<span class="_ _0"></span> Jackey </div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y7 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MathWorks<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">39555 Orc<span class="_ _0"></span>hard H<span class="_ _0"></span>ill <span class="_ _1"></span>P<span class="_ _0"></span>lace, Suite 2<span class="_ _0"></span>80 </div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y9 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Nov<span class="_ _0"></span>i, <span class="_ _1"></span>MI<span class="_ _0"></span> 48375 U<span class="_ _0"></span>SA </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 ya ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">r<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>by<span class="_ _0"></span>n.jackey<span class="_ _0"></span>@mathwo<span class="_ _0"></span>rks.<span class="_ _1"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>m </div><div class="t m0 x10 h6 yb ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yc ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstrac<span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="ff5">&#8212; <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff3">Th<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _2"> </span>gro<span class="_ _0"></span>wing<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>need<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or <span class="_ _2"> </span>ac<span class="_ _0"></span>curate <span class="_ _3"> </span>simula<span class="_ _0"></span>tion <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yd ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">advanc<span class="_ _0"></span>ed <span class="_"> </span>lithium <span class="_ _4"> </span>ce<span class="_ _0"></span>lls <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_"> </span>powertra<span class="_ _0"></span>in <span class="_ _4"> </span>elec<span class="_ _0"></span>trifica<span class="_ _0"></span>tion <span class="_"> </span>de-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 ye ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mands<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>fas<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>acc<span class="_ _0"></span>urate<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>model<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _5"> </span>scheme<span class="_ _0"></span>s. <span class="_ _5"> </span>A<span class="_ _0"></span>dditiona<span class="_ _0"></span>lly<span class="_ _0"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 yf ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">battery<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>mo<span class="_ _6"></span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>ls <span class="_ _7"></span>mu<span class="_ _0"></span>st <span class="_ _1"></span>acco<span class="_ _6"></span>unt<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>for <span class="_ _1"></span>therma<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>effec<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>becaus<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _7"></span>of<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y10 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_"> </span>pa<span class="_ _0"></span>ramount<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _6"></span>portance <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>f <span class="_"> </span>tempera<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>ure <span class="_ _2"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>k<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>ne<span class="_ _0"></span>tic <span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y11 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transpor<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>pheno<span class="_ _6"></span>mena <span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>elec<span class="_ _0"></span>trochem<span class="_ _0"></span>ical <span class="_ _8"></span>sy<span class="_ _6"></span>stems. <span class="_ _8"> </span>This <span class="_ _8"></span>p<span class="_ _6"></span>a-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y12 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">per <span class="_ _3"> </span>present<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _5"> </span>an <span class="_ _3"> </span>effective <span class="_ _5"> </span>method <span class="_ _5"> </span>for <span class="_ _3"> </span>dev<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>loping<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>mul<span class="_ _6"></span>ti-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y13 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tempera<span class="_ _0"></span>ture<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>lithium<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>cell <span class="_ _1"></span>simulat<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>on <span class="_ _1"></span>mo<span class="_ _0"></span>del <span class="_ _1"></span>with<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _0"></span>ermal<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>de-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y14 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pendenc<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>. <span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_"> </span>equ<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>alent <span class="_"> </span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>rcu<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>t <span class="_"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>odel<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>th<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_"> </span>one <span class="_"> </span>vo<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>tag<span class="_ _6"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y15 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sourc<span class="_ _0"></span>e, <span class="_ _7"></span>one<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>series <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>sistor<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _7"></span>and<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _7"></span>sing<span class="_ _0"></span>le <span class="_ _7"></span>RC <span class="_ _7"></span>blo<span class="_ _6"></span>ck <span class="_ _7"></span>was <span class="_ _7"></span>able<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y16 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to <span class="_ _8"></span>ac<span class="_ _0"></span>co<span class="_ _6"></span>unt <span class="_ _8"> </span>for <span class="_ _8"></span>the<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>discha<span class="_ _0"></span>rge <span class="_ _8"></span>dy<span class="_ _6"></span>namics <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>bserved <span class="_ _7"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>he <span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>x-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y17 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">perimen<span class="_ _0"></span>t. <span class="_ _8"> </span>A<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>paramete<span class="_ _0"></span>r <span class="_ _8"></span>es<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>imation<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>numerica<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>scheme <span class="_ _7"></span>using </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y18 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pulse <span class="_ _7"></span>curren<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _8"></span>d<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>scha<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ge <span class="_ _7"></span>tests <span class="_ _7"></span>on <span class="_ _7"></span>high <span class="_ _7"></span>pow<span class="_ _0"></span>er <span class="_ _7"></span>lithium <span class="_ _7"></span>(<span class="_ _1"></span>L<span class="_ _0"></span>iNi-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y19 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Co<span class="_ _0"></span>MnO</div><div class="t m0 x11 h8 y1a ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x12 h7 y19 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_"> </span>cathode <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _4"> </span>g<span class="_ _0"></span>raph<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>te-base<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_"> </span>anode)<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>cells <span class="_"> </span>under </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1b ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">differen<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>pe<span class="_ _1"></span>rat<span class="_ _0"></span>ing<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nditi<span class="_ _1"></span>ons<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>revea<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>ed <span class="_ _7"></span>depend<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>nc<span class="_ _0"></span>es <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>f <span class="_ _8"></span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1c ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equiva<span class="_ _0"></span>lent <span class="_ _7"></span>ci<span class="_ _0"></span>rcui<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _1"></span>elements<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _7"></span>state<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>charge, <span class="_ _1"></span>averag<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _1"></span>cur-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1d ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rent, <span class="_ _8"></span>an<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _7"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>emp<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>ratu<span class="_ _0"></span>re. <span class="_ _8"> </span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _8"></span>pro<span class="_ _6"></span>cess <span class="_ _8"></span>is <span class="_ _7"></span>useful <span class="_ _8"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or <span class="_ _8"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>eat<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _8"></span>a<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1e ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">high <span class="_"> </span>fidelity<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>mo<span class="_ _6"></span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>l <span class="_ _4"> </span>capa<span class="_ _6"></span>ble <span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>predic<span class="_ _0"></span>ting <span class="_"> </span>elec<span class="_ _0"></span>trical <span class="_"> </span>cur-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y1f ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rent/vo<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>tage<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>perfo<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>manc<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>estim<span class="_ _0"></span>ating <span class="_ _8"> </span>run-time <span class="_ _8"> </span>state <span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y20 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">charg<span class="_ _0"></span>e. <span class="_ _7"></span>The <span class="_ _1"></span>model <span class="_ _1"></span>was <span class="_ _7"></span>val<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>dat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed <span class="_ _7"></span>fo<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>lithium <span class="_ _1"></span>cell <span class="_ _1"></span>with <span class="_ _1"></span>an </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y21 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">indepen<span class="_ _0"></span>dent <span class="_ _5"> </span>drive <span class="_ _5"> </span>cy<span class="_ _6"></span>cle <span class="_ _3"> </span>showing<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>vo<span class="_ _0"></span>lta<span class="_ _1"></span>g<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _5"> </span>accurac<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>withi<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y22 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2%. <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>The <span class="_ _1"></span>mo<span class="_ _6"></span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>l <span class="_ _7"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>as <span class="_ _1"></span>also <span class="_ _1"></span>used <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>si<span class="_ _1"></span>mu<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>ate<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>the<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>mal <span class="_ _1"></span>buildup<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y23 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fo<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> a constant<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>curr<span class="_ _0"></span>ent discha<span class="_ _6"></span>rge scenar<span class="_ _0"></span>io. </div><div class="t m0 x4 h9 y24 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ke<span class="_ _0"></span>yw<span class="_ _0"></span>ords- <span class="_ _9"> </span>high<span class="_ _6"></span>-<span class="_ _1"></span>pow<span class="_ _6"></span>er <span class="_ _9"> </span>lith<span class="_ _0"></span>ium <span class="_ _9"> </span>ce<span class="_ _6"></span>ll; <span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ma<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>mo<span class="_ _0"></span>del, </div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y25 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ele<span class="_ _0"></span>ctrical <span class="_"> </span>equ<span class="_ _6"></span>iv<span class="_ _1"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>lent<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>lithium<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_"> </span>cell <span class="_"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>ode<span class="_ _6"></span>l. <span class="_"> </span>state <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>f <span class="_"> </span>charge<span class="_ _6"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y26 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pulse <span class="_ _8"> </span>discharge <span class="_ _8"> </span>test, <span class="_ _5"> </span>energy <span class="_ _8"> </span>storage<span class="_ _6"></span>;<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>electri<span class="_ _0"></span>c <span class="_ _5"> </span>vehic<span class="_ _0"></span>le, <span class="_ _5"> </span>hy-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y27 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">brid elect<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ic ve<span class="_ _6"></span>hi<span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>le </div><div class="t m0 x13 ha y28 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I.<span class="ff6"> <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>N<span class="fs5">OMENCL<span class="_ _1"></span>ATURE<span class="_ _1"></span></span> </div><div class="c x2 y29 w2 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">BM<span class="_ _0"></span>S</div></div><div class="c x14 y29 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y29 w4 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">batte<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>nage<span class="_ _0"></span>me<span class="_ _0"></span>nt sy<span class="_ _6"></span>stem</div></div><div class="c x16 y29 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y2b w5 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">C</div></div><div class="c x17 y2c w6 hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x18 y2b w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y2b w7 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cap<span class="_ _0"></span>acito<span class="_ _6"></span>r </div></div><div class="c x19 y2b w8 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x1a y2b w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, </div></div><div class="c x1b y2b w9 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">w<span class="_ _0"></span>here<span class="_ _0"></span> </div></div><div class="c x1c y2b w8 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x1d y2b wa hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x1e y2b wb hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is a<span class="_ _0"></span> natu<span class="_ _6"></span>ral numb<span class="_ _6"></span>er </div></div><div class="c x1f y2b w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y2e w5 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">C</div></div><div class="c x17 y2f wc hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Q</div></div><div class="c x7 y2e w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y2e wd hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll <span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>apacity<span class="_ _6"></span> (Ah)</div></div><div class="c x20 y2e w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y30 w5 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">C</div></div><div class="c x17 y31 we hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div></div><div class="c x18 y30 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y30 wf hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">heat c<span class="_ _6"></span>apacita<span class="_ _0"></span>nce<span class="_ _0"></span> (J <span class="_ _6"></span>m</div></div><div class="c x21 y32 w10 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x22 y32 w6 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div></div><div class="c x23 y30 w11 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x24 y30 w12 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">K</div></div><div class="c x25 y32 w10 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x26 y32 w13 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div></div><div class="c x27 y30 w6 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">)</div></div><div class="c x28 y30 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y34 w14 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E</div></div><div class="c x17 y35 wc hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">m</div></div><div class="c x7 y34 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y34 w15 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">elec<span class="_ _6"></span>tr<span class="_ _1"></span>omo<span class="_ _6"></span>tive f<span class="_ _6"></span>orce of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>main b<span class="_ _6"></span>ranc<span class="_ _0"></span>h</div></div><div class="c x29 y34 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y36 w14 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E</div></div><div class="c x2a y37 w13 hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">p</div></div><div class="c x18 y36 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y36 w16 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">elec<span class="_ _6"></span>tr<span class="_ _1"></span>omo<span class="_ _6"></span>tive f<span class="_ _6"></span>orce of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>paras<span class="_ _6"></span>itic b<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>anc<span class="_ _6"></span>h</div></div><div class="c x2b y36 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y38 w17 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ECM</div></div><div class="c x2c y38 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y38 w18 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equiv<span class="_ _0"></span>ale<span class="_ _6"></span>nt <span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>ir<span class="_ _1"></span>cu<span class="_ _6"></span>it mode<span class="_ _6"></span>l</div></div><div class="c x2d y38 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y39 w19 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">EKF</div></div><div class="c x3 y39 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x15 y39 w1a hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">exte<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ded<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>K<span class="_ _0"></span>alma<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_ _1"></span>fi<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>te<span class="_ _6"></span>r</div></div><div class="c x2e y39 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y3a w1b hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I</div></div><div class="c x2f y3b wc hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">m</div></div><div class="c x30 y3a w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 y3a w1c hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">curre<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _0"></span>in m<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>in b<span class="_ _6"></span>ranc<span class="_ _0"></span>h (A)</div></div><div class="c x28 y3a w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y3c w1b hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I</div></div><div class="t m0 x2f he y3d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div><div class="c x2a y3c w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 y3c w1d hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">curre<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_ _c"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>ranch </div></div><div class="c x31 y3c w8 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x32 y3c w1e hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, </div></div><div class="c x33 y3c w1f hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">w<span class="_ _0"></span>here<span class="_ _0"></span> </div></div><div class="c x34 y3c w8 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x35 y3c w20 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x36 y3c w21 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is <span class="_ _4"> </span>a <span class="_ _4"> </span>natural<span class="_ _6"></span> </div></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y3e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">numb<span class="_ _6"></span>er (A)<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="c x2 y3f w1b hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y40 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I</div></div><div class="c x2f y41 w13 hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">p</div></div><div class="c x2a y3f w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y40 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 y3f w22 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y40 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">curre<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _0"></span>in pa<span class="_ _6"></span>ra<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span>itic b<span class="_ _0"></span>ranc<span class="_ _0"></span>h (A)</div></div><div class="c x37 y3f w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y40 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x2 y42 w23 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">NMC</div></div><div class="c x38 y42 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x5 y42 w20 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div></div><div class="c x39 y42 w24 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ickel</div></div><div class="c x3a y42 w6 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x3b y42 w25 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mang<span class="_ _0"></span>anese</div></div><div class="c x3c y42 w13 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x3d y42 w26 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">co<span class="_ _6"></span>balt</div></div><div class="c x26 y42 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y43 w27 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">OCV</div></div><div class="c x3f y43 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y43 w28 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ope<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_ _1"></span>ci<span class="_ _0"></span>rcui<span class="_ _0"></span>t vo<span class="_ _0"></span>ltage<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>(V<span class="_ _0"></span>)</div></div><div class="c x41 y43 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y44 w29 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P</div></div><div class="c x42 y45 w11 hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">s</div></div><div class="c x43 y44 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y44 w2a hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pow<span class="_ _6"></span>er <span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>issipa<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _6"></span> inside<span class="_ _6"></span> </div></div><div class="c x44 y44 w2b hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _0"></span> cel<span class="_ _6"></span>l (W)</div></div><div class="c x45 y44 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y46 w12 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Q</div></div><div class="c x46 y47 w2c hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">e</div></div><div class="c x47 y46 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y46 w2d hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ext<span class="_ _0"></span>racted<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>harge f<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>om<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll (A<span class="_ _6"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>)</div></div><div class="c x48 y46 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y48 w14 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R</div></div><div class="t m0 x42 he y49 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div><div class="c x49 y48 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="t m0 x40 h6 y4a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resisto<span class="_ _6"></span>r <span class="ff4">n, </span>w<span class="_ _6"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="ff4">n<span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ff3"> is a na<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>u<span class="_ _0"></span>ral<span class="_ _0"></span> numb<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> (</span></span></div><div class="c x4a y4b w1e h11"><div class="t m0 x0 h12 y4c ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#61527;</div></div><div class="t m0 x4b h6 y4a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">) </div><div class="c x3e y4d w14 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R</div></div><div class="c x42 y4e we hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div></div><div class="c x49 y4d w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y4d w2e hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">co<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _0"></span>ction <span class="_ _0"></span>resist<span class="_ _6"></span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _6"></span> </div></div><div class="c x4c y4d w2f hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(W</div></div><div class="c x4d y4f w13 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div></div><div class="c x4e y4d wa hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x4f y4d w1e hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">m</div></div><div class="c x50 y4f w10 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x51 y4f w6 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div></div><div class="c x52 y4d w11 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x53 y4d w12 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">K</div></div><div class="c x54 y4f w10 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">-</div></div><div class="c x55 y4f w13 hf"><div class="t m0 x0 h10 y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div></div><div class="c x56 y4d w6 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">)</div></div><div class="c x57 y4d w6 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">)</div></div><div class="c x58 y4d w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y50 w30 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">s</div></div><div class="c x59 y50 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y50 w31 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Laplac<span class="_ _0"></span>e t<span class="_ _6"></span>ran<span class="_ _1"></span>sf<span class="_ _6"></span>orm va<span class="_ _6"></span>riable</div></div><div class="c x5a y50 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y51 w24 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">SOC</div></div><div class="c x5b y51 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y51 w32 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">state o<span class="_ _0"></span>f c<span class="_ _6"></span>harge</div></div><div class="c x5c y51 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y52 w29 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div></div><div class="c x42 y52 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y52 w33 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inne<span class="_ _0"></span>r cel<span class="_ _6"></span>l t<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>mpera<span class="_ _0"></span>ture<span class="_ _0"></span> (&#186;C)</div></div><div class="c x4f y52 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y53 w29 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div></div><div class="c x42 y54 w6 hd"><div class="t m0 x0 he y2d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a</div></div><div class="c x43 y53 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y53 w34 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">amb<span class="_ _0"></span>ie<span class="_ _0"></span>nt tempe<span class="_ _6"></span>rature <span class="_ _6"></span>(&#186;C)</div></div><div class="c x4d y53 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y55 w12 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">V</div></div><div class="c x42 y55 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 hc y2a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x40 y55 w35 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vo<span class="_ _6"></span>lt<span class="_ _1"></span>age<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>(V)</div></div><div class="c x5d y55 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="c x3e y56 w36 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Z</div></div><div class="t m0 x42 h10 y57 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">p</div><div class="c x49 y56 w3 hb"><div class="t m0 x0 h6 y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="t m0 x40 h6 y58 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">imped<span class="_ _6"></span>ance of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>pa<span class="_ _6"></span>ra<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>tic<span class="_ _0"></span> b<span class="_ _6"></span>ran<span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>h <span class="_ _1"></span>(</div><div class="c x48 y59 w37 h11"><div class="t m0 x0 h12 y4c ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#61527;</div></div><div class="t m0 x5e h6 y58 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">) </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y5a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">II.<span class="ff6"> <span class="_ _d"> </span></span>I<span class="fs5">NT<span class="_ _1"></span>RODUCTION<span class="_ _1"></span></span> </div><div class="t m0 x5f h6 y5b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _8"></span>accu<span class="_ _6"></span>rate<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>forec<span class="_ _0"></span>ast <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>f <span class="_ _7"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>re<span class="_ _0"></span>maini<span class="_ _6"></span>ng <span class="_ _8"></span>driv<span class="_ _6"></span>ing <span class="_ _7"></span>range </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y5c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>an <span class="_ _7"></span>elec<span class="_ _6"></span>tric vehic<span class="_ _0"></span>le (EV) is<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ucia<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span> to <span class="_ _1"></span>avo<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _0"></span> range anx-</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y5d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">iety<span class="_ _6"></span>. <span class="_ _9"> </span>Drive<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _c"> </span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ee<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _a"> </span>to <span class="_ _c"> </span>kn<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>how<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>muc<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_ _9"> </span>fu<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>the<span class="_ _6"></span>r <span class="_ _9"> </span>they </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y5e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">w<span class="_ _0"></span>ould <span class="_ _8"> </span>trave<span class="_ _6"></span>l <span class="_ _5"> </span>be<span class="_ _6"></span>fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _8"></span>the<span class="_ _0"></span>ir <span class="_ _8"> </span>ve<span class="_ _0"></span>hicle<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>batte<span class="_ _6"></span>ries <span class="_ _8"></span>requ<span class="_ _6"></span>ire <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_ _8"></span>re-</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y5f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cha<span class="_ _0"></span>rge. <span class="_ _a"> </span>In <span class="_ _a"> </span>addit<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>n, <span class="_ _a"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>tte<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>nage<span class="_ _0"></span>me<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _9"> </span>sy<span class="_ _6"></span>stem </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y60 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">shou<span class="_ _0"></span>ld <span class="_"> </span>predic<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _4"> </span>w<span class="_ _6"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _c"> </span>ba<span class="_ _0"></span>tterie<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>eed<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>repl<span class="_ _0"></span>aceme<span class="_ _6"></span>nt. <span class="_"> </span>The </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y22 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rem<span class="_ _0"></span>aining <span class="_ _8"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>harge <span class="_ _8"> </span>calcu<span class="_ _6"></span>lation <span class="_ _8"></span>must<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>be <span class="_ _8"></span>prec<span class="_ _0"></span>ise <span class="_ _8"></span>to<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>utilize </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y61 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _8"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>atte<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span>&#8217;s <span class="_ _5"> </span>full <span class="_ _8"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>pabi<span class="_ _0"></span>lity<span class="_ _6"></span>. <span class="_ _8"> </span>Th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>sta<span class="_ _0"></span>te <span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>charge <span class="_ _8"></span>(S<span class="_ _0"></span>OC<span class="_ _0"></span>) </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y62 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>a <span class="_ _3"> </span>ba<span class="_ _0"></span>tte<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>or <span class="_ _5"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ack <span class="_ _8"> </span>of <span class="_ _8"> </span>batte<span class="_ _6"></span>ri<span class="_ _1"></span>es <span class="_ _8"></span>is <span class="_ _8"></span>analogo<span class="_ _6"></span>us <span class="_ _8"></span>to <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_ _5"> </span>fuel </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y63 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gauge<span class="_ _0"></span> of<span class="_ _6"></span> a <span class="_ _1"></span>co<span class="_ _6"></span>nvent<span class="_ _0"></span>iona<span class="_ _0"></span>l v<span class="_ _0"></span>ehicle<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x5f h6 y64 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Acc<span class="_ _6"></span>urate run-ti<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>SOC es<span class="_ _0"></span>tima<span class="_ _6"></span>ti<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>n t<span class="_ _1"></span>ec<span class="_ _6"></span>hniques<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>are<span class="_ _0"></span> al-</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y65 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">so<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ee<span class="_ _6"></span>ded by<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>ba<span class="_ _0"></span>ttery<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>manage<span class="_ _6"></span>ment <span class="_ _1"></span>sy<span class="_ _6"></span>stem<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>(BM<span class="_ _0"></span>S)<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>fo<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y66 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll <span class="_ _8"> </span>bala<span class="_ _0"></span>nci<span class="_ _0"></span>ng <span class="_ _8"></span>of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>batte<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>pac<span class="_ _0"></span>ks<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _8"> </span>ve<span class="_ _6"></span>hicles<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>with <span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>lect<span class="_ _6"></span>ri-</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y67 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fie<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _7"></span>pow<span class="_ _0"></span>ertrai<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>s.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>Th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>SOC<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>est<span class="_ _0"></span>imatio<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_ _8"></span>m<span class="_ _6"></span>ust <span class="_ _8"></span>be<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>acc<span class="_ _0"></span>ura<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y68 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unde<span class="_ _6"></span>r <span class="_ _5"> </span>all <span class="_ _5"> </span>ve<span class="_ _6"></span>hicle<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>ope<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>at<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _5"> </span>co<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>itio<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span>, <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _8"> </span>acco<span class="_ _0"></span>unt <span class="_ _5"> </span>fo<span class="_ _6"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y69 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cha<span class="_ _0"></span>nges <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _3"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>em<span class="_ _6"></span>peratu<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e, <span class="_ _5"> </span>di<span class="_ _1"></span>ff<span class="_ _6"></span>erent<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>rates<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>curre<span class="_ _6"></span>nt, <span class="_ _3"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll <span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>gi<span class="_ _6"></span>ng. <span class="_ _a"> </span>Hig<span class="_ _6"></span>h <span class="_ _a"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>mpera<span class="_ _0"></span>tures<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>b<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>oa<span class="_ _6"></span>d<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>SOC <span class="_ _c"> </span>ope<span class="_ _6"></span>ratio<span class="_ _0"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">range<span class="_ _0"></span>s, and strenuo<span class="_ _6"></span>us l<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>ad pr<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>fi<span class="_ _6"></span>les accele<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ate cel<span class="_ _0"></span>l a<span class="_ _1"></span>g<span class="_ _0"></span>ing<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Coulo<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>cou<span class="_ _6"></span>nting <span class="_ _3"> </span>(i<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span>e.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>integrat<span class="_ _0"></span>io<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_ _2"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _2"> </span>cu<span class="_ _6"></span>rr<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>nt) <span class="_ _5"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">simple<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>tec<span class="_ _6"></span>hnique<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or <span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>stim<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>ti<span class="_ _0"></span>ng<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>S<span class="_ _0"></span>OC<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>int<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>grati<span class="_ _6"></span>ng </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>su<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _9"> </span>cu<span class="_ _6"></span>rr<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _9"> </span>wi<span class="_ _6"></span>th <span class="_ _9"> </span>time. <span class="_ _9"> </span>Ho<span class="_ _6"></span>wev<span class="_ _0"></span>er, <span class="_ _9"> </span>coulo<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>b </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y6f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">co<span class="_ _6"></span>un<span class="_ _1"></span>ting<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>has<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>seve<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>al <span class="_ _8"></span>d<span class="_ _6"></span>rawb<span class="_ _0"></span>acks. <span class="_ _7"></span>Coulo<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>b<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>co<span class="_ _6"></span>unting <span class="_ _7"></span>de-</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y70 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pends<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>n <span class="_ _7"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>urre<span class="_ _6"></span>nt <span class="_ _8"></span>f<span class="_ _6"></span>low<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _7"></span>fro<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>el<span class="_ _0"></span>l <span class="_ _7"></span>into <span class="_ _7"></span>ex<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>rnal </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y71 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ci<span class="_ _0"></span>rcuits<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>and<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _8"></span>do<span class="_ _0"></span>es<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ot<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>cc<span class="_ _6"></span>ount <span class="_ _7"></span>fo<span class="_ _6"></span>r <span class="_ _7"></span>self-d<span class="_ _6"></span>ischa<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ge<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>curre<span class="_ _6"></span>nts </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y72 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">or <span class="_ _5"> </span>paras<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>tic<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>actio<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>ce<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _1"></span>l.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>Current<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>measu<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>me<span class="_ _0"></span>nt </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y73 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">erro<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s accu<span class="_ _0"></span>mulate<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>wit<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_ _1"></span>ti<span class="_ _0"></span>me, and <span class="_ _1"></span>shou<span class="_ _6"></span>ld <span class="_ _1"></span>be<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>correc<span class="_ _6"></span>ted <span class="_ _1"></span>by </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y74 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">perio<span class="_ _0"></span>dic<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>rec<span class="_ _0"></span>alib<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>at<span class="_ _0"></span>ion. The maximu<span class="_ _6"></span>m <span class="_ _7"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>har<span class="_ _1"></span>ge<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>cap<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>ci<span class="_ _0"></span>ty<span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y75 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _6"></span>ll <span class="_ _1"></span>depe<span class="_ _6"></span>nds <span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>n a<span class="_ _1"></span> numb<span class="_ _0"></span>er of facto<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s, suc<span class="_ _6"></span>h <span class="_ _1"></span>as a<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>ra<span class="_ _1"></span>ge </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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