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MIMO检测算法,内含主程序,噪声信道产生,最大似然检测算法,最小均方误差检测算法及16qam调制,64qam调制
MIMO_detection.rar
  • MIMO_detection
  • Appro_MLD_detection.m
    3KB
  • Appro_MLD time.txt
    0B
  • Performance of zero-forcing detectors over MIMO flat-correlated Ricean fading channels.pdf
    191.2KB
  • ZF VS MMSE_2.jpg
    19.4KB
  • result.txt
    4.2KB
  • zero_joint_CS.m
    2KB
  • QR_detection.m
    450B
  • QAMmodu.asv
    1.7KB
  • err_count.m
    240B
  • channel_generator.m
    1016B
  • fast_MLD.m
    519B
  • test.m
    2.1KB
  • sort_optimal_index.m
    242B
  • ZF VS MMSE_3.jpg
    19.4KB
  • ZF VS MMSE_1.fig
    6.6KB
  • encoder.m
    253B
  • findPosition.m
    142B
  • MLD_detection.m
    3KB
  • ZF VS MMSE_2.fig
    6.5KB
  • one_joint_CS.m
    3.3KB
  • QAMmodu.m
    1.7KB
  • demodulation.m
    59B
  • noise_generator.m
    230B
  • component_wise.m
    723B
  • ZF_detection.m
    330B
  • ZF_IC_detection.m
    587B
  • main_sub.m
    4KB
  • ZF VS MMSE_1.jpg
    19.3KB
  • MMSE_detection.m
    315B
  • QAM64Dem.m
    756B
  • ZF VS MMSE_3.fig
    6.6KB
  • problem.txt
    397B
  • QAM16Dem.m
    319B
  • track.txt
    3.5KB
  • two_joint_CS.m
    3KB
  • draw picture.m
    742B
  • all_pro.m
    578B
内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b53243d2fbb000720bfcf/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b53243d2fbb000720bfcf/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Published<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"> </span>IET<span class="_ _0"> </span>Communications</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received<span class="_ _0"> </span>on<span class="_ _0"> </span>20th<span class="_ _0"> </span>February<span class="_ _0"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Revised<span class="_ _0"> </span>on<span class="_ _0"> </span>2nd<span class="_ _0"> </span>June<span class="_ _0"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y4 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">doi:<span class="_ _1"> </span>10.1049/iet<span class="_ _2"></span>-com:20080110</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ISSN<span class="_ _3"> </span>1751-8628</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P<span class="_ _2"></span>erformance<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>zer<span class="_ _2"></span>o-f<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _2"></span>cing<span class="_ _4"> </span>det<span class="_ _2"></span>ector<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _4"> </span>over</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">MIMO<span class="_ _4"> </span>&#64258;at<span class="_ _2"></span>-correlat<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_ _4"> </span>Ricean<span class="_ _4"> </span>fading<span class="_ _4"> </span>channels</div><div class="t m0 x3 h5 y8 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">H.A.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Abou<span class="_ _5"> </span>Saleh<span class="_ _6"> </span>W<span class="_ _7"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hamouda</div><div class="t m0 x3 h6 y9 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _3"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Concordia<span class="_ _3"> </span>University<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Montre</div><div class="t m0 x4 h6 ya ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#180;</div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y9 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">al,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Quebec,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Canada<span class="_ _3"> </span>H3G<span class="_ _3"> </span>1M8</div><div class="t m0 x3 h6 yb ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E-mail:<span class="_ _3"> </span>hamouda@ece.concordia.ca</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 yc ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ab<span class="_ _8"></span>strac<span class="_ _8"></span>t:<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff1">Th<span class="_ _8"></span>e<span class="_ _9"> </span>bit<span class="_ _9"> </span>error<span class="_ _9"> </span>rate<span class="_ _9"> </span>(B<span class="_ _8"></span>ER<span class="_ _8"></span>)<span class="_ _9"> </span>perfor<span class="_ _8"></span>m<span class="_ _8"></span>an<span class="_ _8"></span>ce<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>zero-<span class="_ _8"></span>forc<span class="_ _8"></span>in<span class="_"> </span>g<span class="_ _9"> </span>(Z<span class="_ _8"></span>F)<span class="_ _9"> </span>rec<span class="_ _8"></span>ei<span class="_ _8"></span>ve<span class="_ _8"></span>r<span class="_ _a"> </span>ove<span class="_ _8"></span>r<span class="_ _a"> </span>t<span class="_ _8"></span>ran<span class="_ _8"></span>sm<span class="_ _8"></span>it-c<span class="_ _8"></span>or<span class="_ _8"></span>re<span class="_ _8"></span>la<span class="_ _8"></span>ted<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64258;<span class="_ _8"></span>a<span class="_"> </span>t</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 yd ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ricean<span class="_ _a"> </span>fading<span class="_ _a"> </span>channels<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>investigated.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _a"> </span>particular<span class="_ _b"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>multi<span class="_ _8"></span>ple-inp<span class="_ _8"></span>ut<span class="_ _a"> </span>multiple-o<span class="_ _8"></span>utput<span class="_ _a"> </span>(MI<span class="_"> </span>MO)<span class="_ _a"> </span>ch<span class="_ _8"></span>annel<span class="_ _a"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 ye ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">M<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff1">transmit<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span></span>N<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff1">receive<span class="_ _3"> </span>antennas,<span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>approximation<span class="_ _a"> </span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>average<span class="_ _a"> </span>BER<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>substr<span class="_ _2"></span>eam<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>der<span class="_ _8"></span>ived.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Then</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 yf ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>ystem<span class="_ _3"> </span>performance<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>receive-correlated<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64258;at<span class="_ _3"> </span>Ricean<span class="_ _a"> </span>fading<span class="_ _3"> </span>channels<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>addressed.<span class="_ _3"> </span>In<span class="_ _a"> </span>this<span class="_ _d"> </span>case,<span class="_ _d"> </span>it<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>shown</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y10 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">that<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>performance,<span class="_ _d"> </span>when<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff3 ls0">N<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ff4">&#188;<span class="_ _3"> </span></span>M</span><span class="ls3">,<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>same<span class="_ _d"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>transmit<span class="_ _2"></span>-correlat<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64258;at<span class="_ _a"> </span>Ricean<span class="_ _a"> </span>fading<span class="_ _d"> </span>channels.</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y11 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">A<span class="_ _a"> </span>closed-form<span class="_ _d"> </span>expression<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>optimum<span class="_ _9"> </span>transmit<span class="_ _d"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _a"> </span>coef&#64257;cient,<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_ _a"> </span>achieves<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>maximum</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y12 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">capacity<span class="_ _e"> </span>(i.e.<span class="_ _e"> </span>uncorrelat<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_ _e"> </span>case),<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>also<span class="_ _e"> </span>derived.<span class="_ _e"> </span>As<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ls6">a<span class="_ _e"> </span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>esult,<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _e"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _9"> </span>c<span class="_"> </span>apacity<span class="_ _e"> </span>g<span class="_ _2"></span>ain<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>achieved<span class="_ _e"> </span>by</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y13 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">exploiting<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>knowledge<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>Ricean<span class="_ _f"> </span>channel.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Extensive<span class="_ _10"> </span>simulations<span class="_ _10"> </span>are<span class="_ _f"> </span>present<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>validate<span class="_ _10"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x3 h7 y14 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">demonstrat<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>performance<span class="_ _d"> </span>gain<span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _d"> </span>differ<span class="_ _2"></span>ent<span class="_ _d"> </span>system<span class="_ _3"> </span>parameters.</div><div class="t m0 x3 h8 y15 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">1<span class="_ _11"> </span>Introduction</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y16 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">Multiple-input<span class="_ _3"> </span>multiple-output<span class="_ _a"> </span>(MIMO)<span class="_ _d"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _d"> </span>multiplexing</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y17 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _0"> </span>have<span class="_ _c"> </span>recently<span class="_ _c"> </span>received<span class="_ _c"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _3"> </span>attention<span class="_ _c"> </span>owing<span class="_ _c"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y18 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _f"> </span>extraordinary<span class="_ _f"> </span>high<span class="_ _f"> </span>spectral<span class="_ _f"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _f"> </span>they<span class="_ _f"> </span>provide<span class="_ _10"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y19 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">wireless<span class="_ _12"> </span>communication<span class="_ _12"> </span>systems<span class="_ _12"> </span><span class="fc1">[1,<span class="_ _12"> </span>2]</span>.<span class="_ _12"> </span>However,<span class="_ _12"> </span>some</div><div class="t m0 x3 ha y1a ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">impairments,<span class="_ _f"> </span>such<span class="_ _f"> </span>as<span class="_ _f"> </span>correlation,<span class="_ _f"> </span>at<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>transmit<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="ff6">/</span>or</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y1b ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">receive<span class="_ _3"> </span>antennas<span class="_ _a"> </span>may<span class="_ _d"> </span>lead<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>substantial<span class="_ _d"> </span>degradation<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y1c ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _c"> </span>performance.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Many<span class="_ _c"> </span>detectors<span class="_ _3"> </span>have<span class="_ _c"> </span>been<span class="_ _3"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _3"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y1d ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">overcome<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>effect<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>fading<span class="_ _14"> </span>and<span class="_ _14"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _14"> </span>correlation,</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y1e ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resulting<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _e"> </span>gain<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>sy<span class="_ _2"></span>stem<span class="_ _9"> </span>capacity<span class="_ _15"> </span><span class="fc1">[3]</span><span class="lsa">.I<span class="_ _16"></span>ti<span class="_ _16"></span>s</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y1f ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">well-known<span class="_ _15"> </span>that<span class="_ _10"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _e"> </span>multiplexing<span class="_ _e"> </span>systems<span class="_ _15"> </span>that<span class="_ _e"> </span>em<span class="_ _8"></span>ploy</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y20 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">linear<span class="_ _0"> </span>receivers,<span class="_ _0"> </span>either<span class="_ _0"> </span>zero-forcing<span class="_ _0"> </span>(ZF<span class="_ _8"></span>)<span class="_ _0"> </span>or<span class="_ _0"> </span>minimu<span class="_ _8"></span>m<span class="_ _0"> </span>mean-</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y21 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">square<span class="_ _d"> </span>error<span class="_ _a"> </span>(MMSE),<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>practically<span class="_ _d"> </span>important<span class="_ _a"> </span>because<span class="_ _a"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y22 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">their<span class="_ _5"> </span>minimal<span class="_ _5"> </span>complexity<span class="_ _5"> </span>requirements.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Ho<span class="_ _2"></span>wever,<span class="_ _5"> </span>these</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y23 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">detectors<span class="_ _3"> </span>result<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>loss<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>diversity<span class="_ _3"> </span>gai<span class="_ _8"></span>n<span class="_ _3"> </span>relative<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y24 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">maximum-likelihood<span class="_ _5"> </span>(ML)<span class="_ _13"> </span>receiver.<span class="_ _5"> </span>For<span class="_ _5"> </span>instance,<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _13"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y25 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _17"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="ff7">M<span class="_ _17"> </span></span>transmit<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _17"> </span><span class="ff7">N<span class="_ _0"> </span></span>receive<span class="_ _17"> </span>antenna<span class="_ _8"></span>s,<span class="_ _0"> </span>ZF<span class="_ _17"> </span>receivers</div><div class="t m0 x3 hb y26 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">achieve<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>diversity<span class="_ _a"> </span>order<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff7">N<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff8">&#58882;<span class="_ _0"> </span></span>M<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ff8">&#254;<span class="_ _17"> </span></span></span>1,<span class="_ _a"> </span>whereas<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>more</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y27 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complex<span class="_ _17"> </span>ML<span class="_ _0"> </span>detectors<span class="_ _17"> </span>achieve<span class="_ _17"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"> </span>diversity<span class="_ _17"> </span>order<span class="_ _17"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="ff7">N<span class="_ _17"> </span></span><span class="fc1">[3]</span>.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h9 y28 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="fc1">[4]</span>,<span class="_ _18"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>authors<span class="_ _18"> </span>study<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>perfo<span class="_ _8"></span>rmance<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _18"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>ZF</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y29 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">receiver<span class="_ _19"> </span>in<span class="_ _19"> </span>Rayleigh<span class="_ _1a"> </span>fading<span class="_ _19"> </span>channels<span class="_ _1a"> </span>with<span class="_ _1a"> </span>transmit</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y2a ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">correlation.<span class="_ _10"> </span>On<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>basis<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>Wishart<span class="_ _10"> </span>matrix<span class="_ _10"> </span>analysis,<span class="_ _10"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x3 h9 y2b ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">authors<span class="_ _3"> </span>show<span class="_ _c"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>ZF<span class="_ _3"> </span>detector<span class="_ _3"> </span>decomposes<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>MIMO</div><div class="t m0 x3 hb y2c ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _9"> </span>into<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff7">M<span class="_ _15"> </span></span>parallel<span class="_ _e"> </span>streams<span class="_ _15"> </span>with<span class="_ _15"> </span><span class="ff7">N<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff8">&#58882;<span class="_ _0"> </span></span>M<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ff8">&#254;<span class="_ _17"> </span></span></span>1<span class="_ _e"> </span>diversity</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y2d ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">order.<span class="_ _10"> </span>In<span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="fc1">[5]</span>,<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>capacity<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>MIMO<span class="_ _f"> </span>Ricean<span class="_ _f"> </span>distributed</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y2e ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">channels<span class="_ _10"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>investigated.<span class="_ _10"> </span>In<span class="_ _10"> </span>particula<span class="_ _8"></span>r,<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>authors<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _10"> </span><span class="fc1">[5]</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y2f ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">show<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>as<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>line-of-sight<span class="_ _9"> </span>(LOS)<span class="_ _3"> </span>compo<span class="_ _8"></span>nent<span class="_ _d"> </span>increases,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y30 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _14"> </span>MIMO<span class="_ _14"> </span>system<span class="_ _13"> </span>capacity<span class="_ _14"> </span>decreases,<span class="_ _14"> </span>even<span class="_ _14"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>large</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y31 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">number<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>transmit<span class="_ _e"> </span>antennas.<span class="_ _10"> </span>In<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="fc1">[6]</span>,<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>performance<span class="_ _e"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y32 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _18"> </span>ZF<span class="_ _18"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _18"> </span>is<span class="_ _18"> </span>inves<span class="_ _2"></span>tigated<span class="_ _18"> </span>ov<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _18"> </span>independent<span class="_ _18"> </span>Ricean</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y33 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fading<span class="_ _3"> </span>channels<span class="_ _3"> </span>where<span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _d"> </span>approximation<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>average<span class="_ _3"> </span>bit</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y34 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">error<span class="_ _f"> </span>rate<span class="_ _10"> </span>(BER)<span class="_ _18"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>given.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Note<span class="_ _f"> </span>that<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>authors<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _18"> </span><span class="fc1">[6]</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y35 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">assume<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>subchannels<span class="_ _a"> </span>fade<span class="_ _a"> </span>independently.<span class="_ _d"> </span>However,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y36 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _18"> </span>re<span class="_ _2"></span>al<span class="_ _18"> </span>propagation<span class="_ _f"> </span>environments,<span class="_ _18"> </span>fading<span class="_ _f"> </span>signals<span class="_ _18"> </span>are<span class="_ _f"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y37 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">independent,<span class="_ _e"> </span>where<span class="_ _15"> </span>measurement<span class="_ _e"> </span>results<span class="_ _15"> </span>indicate<span class="_ _e"> </span>that<span class="_ _15"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y38 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">channels<span class="_ _5"> </span>suffer<span class="_ _12"> </span>from<span class="_ _5"> </span>correla<span class="_ _2"></span>tion<span class="_ _12"> </span><span class="fc1">[7<span class="_ _1"></span>&#8211;<span class="_ _1b"></span>9]</span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>The<span class="_ _12"> </span>impact<span class="_ _5"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y39 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">correlation<span class="_ _15"> </span>on<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>capacity<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>multiple-antenna<span class="_ _e"> </span>systems<span class="_ _9"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3a ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">investigated<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="fc1">[10]</span>.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _d"> </span>that,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>authors<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="fc1">[10]<span class="_ _d"> </span></span>show<span class="_ _d"> </span>that</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3b ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">an<span class="_ _3"> </span>increase<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _3"> </span>coef&#64257;cients<span class="_ _d"> </span>results<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>capacity</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3c ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">decrease,<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>when<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _d"> </span>coef&#64257;cients<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _d"> </span>equal<span class="_ _d"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3d ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unity,<span class="_ _c"> </span>no<span class="_ _3"> </span>advantage<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>provided<span class="_ _3"> </span>by<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>MIMO<span class="_ _3"> </span>architecture.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3e ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hence,<span class="_ _c"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _c"> </span>can<span class="_ _3"> </span>potentially<span class="_ _3"> </span>lead<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y3f ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MIMO<span class="_ _3"> </span>system<span class="_ _3"> </span>capacity.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Therefore<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>independe<span class="_ _8"></span>nt<span class="_ _3"> </span>Ricean</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y40 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fading<span class="_ _5"> </span>model<span class="_ _12"> </span>assumed<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="fc1">[6]<span class="_ _12"> </span></span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>not<span class="_ _5"> </span>ideal<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>practice,</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y41 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">especially<span class="_ _15"> </span>for<span class="_ _15"> </span>systems<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _15"> </span>have<span class="_ _15"> </span>poor<span class="_ _15"> </span>scattering<span class="_ _e"> </span>conditions</div><div class="t m0 x7 ha y42 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="ff6">/</span>or<span class="_ _14"> </span>insuf&#64257;cient<span class="_ _13"> </span>spacing<span class="_ _14"> </span>between<span class="_ _13"> </span>adjacent<span class="_ _14"> </span>antennas.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y43 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _14"> </span>widely<span class="_ _14"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _1c"> </span>mathematical<span class="_ _14"> </span>model<span class="_ _1c"> </span>for<span class="_ _1c"> </span>corre<span class="_ _2"></span>lated</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y44 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fading<span class="_ _10"> </span>channels<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>presented<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="fc1">[11<span class="_ _1b"></span>&#8211;<span class="_ _1b"></span>14]</span>.<span class="_ _10"> </span>Their<span class="_ _10"> </span>comm<span class="_ _8"></span>on</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y45 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">approach<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>model<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _a"> </span>at<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>at</div><div class="t m0 x7 h9 y46 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _13"> </span>transmitter<span class="_ _13"> </span>independently,<span class="_ _13"> </span>neglecting<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>statistical</div><div class="t m0 x8 h3 y47 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">10<span class="_ _1d"> </span><span class="ff3">IET<span class="_ _3"> </span>Commun.</span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>2009,<span class="_ _0"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>ol.<span class="_ _3"> </span>3,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Iss.<span class="_ _3"> </span>1,<span class="_ _3"> </span>pp.<span class="_ _3"> </span>10<span class="_ _1b"></span>&#8211;<span class="_ _1b"></span>16</div><div class="t m0 x8 hc y48 ff9 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&amp;</div><div class="t m0 x9 h3 y49 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _3"> </span>Institution<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>T<span class="_ _b"></span>echnology<span class="_ _3"> </span>2009<span class="_ _1e"> </span>doi:<span class="_ _1f"> </span>10.1049/iet-com:20080110</div><div class="t m0 x8 hd y4a ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">www<span class="_ _b"></span>.ietdl.or<span class="_ _2"></span>g</div><div class="t m0 xa he y4b ffa fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: Shantou University. 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