Design-of-Power-System-Stabilizer-with-Neuro-Fuzz

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design of power system stabilizer
Design-of-Power-System-Stabilizer-with-Neuro-Fuzz
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6250b0bb6caf59619212c261/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6250b0bb6caf59619212c261/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#61472;<span class="ff2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff2 ls0">&#8212;<span class="fs0 ls2">The <span class="_ _0"> </span>growth <span class="_ _0"> </span>in <span class="_ _0"> </span>the <span class="_ _0"> </span>demand <span class="_ _0"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>electrical <span class="_ _0"> </span>energy <span class="_ _0"> </span>is </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">leading <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>load <span class="_ _1"></span>on <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>Power <span class="_ _1"></span>system <span class="_ _1"></span>which <span class="_ _1"></span>increases <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>occurre<span class="ls4">nce </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y4 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">of <span class="_ _1"></span>frequent <span class="_ _1"></span>osc<span class="_ _2"></span>illations <span class="_ _1"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>syste<span class="_ _3"></span>m. <span class="_ _3"></span>The <span class="_ _1"></span>reason <span class="_ _3"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>osci<span class="ls6">llati<span class="_ _3"></span>ons </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y5 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">is <span class="_ _4"> </span>due <span class="_ _4"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>lack <span class="_ _4"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>damping <span class="_ _4"></span>torque <span class="_ _4"></span>which <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _4"> </span>required <span class="_ _4"> </span>to <span class="_ _4"> </span>domin<span class="ls8">ate </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y6 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">the <span class="_ _4"></span>disturban<span class="_ _2"></span>ces <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>Power <span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _3"></span>ystem. <span class="_ _1"></span>By <span class="_ _4"></span>using <span class="_ _1"></span>FACT <span class="_ _4"></span>devices, <span class="_ _1"></span>such <span class="_ _4"></span>as </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y7 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">Unified <span class="_ _0"> </span>Po<span class="_ _2"></span>wer <span class="_ _0"> </span>Flow <span class="_"> </span>Controller <span class="_ _0"> </span>(UPFC) <span class="_"> </span>can <span class="_ _0"> </span>control <span class="_"> </span>power <span class="_ _0"> </span>flow, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y8 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">reduce <span class="_ _5"> </span>sub-synchronous <span class="_ _5"> </span>resonances <span class="_ _4"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>inc<span class="_ _3"></span>rease <span class="_ _4"> </span>transient <span class="_ _5"> </span>stabil<span class="lsc">ity.<span class="_ _3"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y9 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd ws0">H<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _6"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _6"></span> U<span class="_ _6"></span>P<span class="_ _6"></span>F<span class="_ _6"></span>C<span class="_ _6"></span> i<span class="_ _6"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span> u<span class="_ _6"></span>s<span class="_ _7"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>d<span class="_ _6"></span> t<span class="_ _6"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span> d<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _6"></span>m<span class="_ _6"></span>p<span class="_ _6"></span> t<span class="_ _6"></span>h<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span> o<span class="_ _6"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _6"></span>l<span class="_ _7"></span>l<span class="_ _6"></span>a<span class="_ _6"></span>t<span class="_ _6"></span>i<span class="_ _6"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _6"></span>s<span class="_ _6"></span> o<span class="_ _6"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>c<span class="_ _6"></span>u<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _7"></span>d<span class="_ _6"></span> i<span class="_ _6"></span>n<span class="_ _6"></span> P<span class="_ _6"></span>o<span class="_ _6"></span>w<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _6"></span>r<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 ya ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">system. <span class="_ _3"></span>This <span class="_ _1"></span>research <span class="_ _3"></span>focuses <span class="_ _1"></span>on <span class="_ _3"></span>adapting <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>neuro <span class="_ _3"></span>fuzzy <span class="_ _1"></span>contr<span class="lsf">oller </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 yb ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">for <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>UPFC <span class="_ _4"> </span>design <span class="_ _4"></span>by <span class="_ _1"></span>connecting <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>infinite <span class="_ _1"></span>bus <span class="_ _4"> </span>(SMIB <span class="_ _4"></span>- <span class="_ _1"></span>Sing<span class="ls10">le </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 yc ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">machine <span class="_ _3"></span>Infinite <span class="_ _1"></span>Bus) <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>linearized <span class="_ _3"></span>model <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>s<span class="_ _3"></span>ynchronous <span class="_ _1"></span>mach<span class="ls11">ine<span class="_ _2"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 yd ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws0">(Heffron-P<span class="_ _2"></span>hillips) <span class="_ _8"> </span>in <span class="_ _8"> </span>the <span class="_ _8"> </span>power <span class="_ _8"> </span>system<span class="_ _2"></span>. <span class="_ _8"> </span>This <span class="_ _8"> </span>model <span class="_ _8"> </span>gains <span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 ye ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">capability <span class="_ _8"> </span>to <span class="_ _8"> </span>improve <span class="_ _8"> </span>the <span class="_ _8"> </span>trans<span class="_ _3"></span>ient <span class="_ _8"> </span>stability <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _8"> </span>to <span class="_ _8"> </span>damp <span class="_ _8"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 yf ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">oscillation<span class="_ _2"></span>s of the system<span class="_ _2"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y10 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y11 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">Keywords<span class="ff4 ls0">&#8212;</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y12 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsf ws0">Power <span class="_ _9"> </span>System, <span class="_ _9"> </span>UPFC, <span class="_ _9"> </span>(ANFIS) <span class="_ _9"> </span>Adaptive <span class="_ _9"> </span>Neuro </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y13 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Fuzzy Inference System, transient, Low frequency oscillations<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y14 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y15 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">I.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff2">I</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y16 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws0">NTRODUCTION<span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fs1 ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y17 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws0">UE <span class="_ _a"> </span>to <span class="_ _0"> </span>t<span class="_ _3"></span>he <span class="_ _0"> </span>ad<span class="_ _3"></span>vance<span class="_ _3"></span>ments<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>in <span class="_ _a"> </span>tec<span class="_ _3"></span>hnolo<span class="_ _3"></span>gy <span class="_ _0"> </span>an<span class="_ _3"></span>d <span class="_ _0"> </span>ind<span class="_ _3"></span>ustr<span class="_ _3"></span>ial </div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y18 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">growth, <span class="_ _b"> </span>today&#8217;s <span class="_ _b"> </span>power <span class="_ _b"> </span>sy<span class="_ _3"></span>stem <span class="_ _9"> </span>has <span class="_ _8"> </span>become <span class="_ _b"> </span>a <span class="_ _b"> </span>highly<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y19 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">complex in nature. <span class="_ _3"></span>It is essential <span class="_ _3"></span>to improve <span class="_ _3"></span>the power transfe<span class="ls1a">r </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1a ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">limits <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>st<span class="_ _2"></span>ability <span class="_ _c"> </span>limits <span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>existing <span class="_"> </span>Power <span class="_ _c"> </span>system </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1b ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">lines <span class="_ _d"> </span>for <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _d"> </span>effective <span class="_ _d"> </span>implantation <span class="_ _d"> </span>of <span class="_ _d"> </span>these <span class="_ _d"> </span>policies <span class="_ _d"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1c ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">overcome <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>constraints <span class="_ _1"></span>imposed <span class="_ _1"></span>by <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>cost <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>c<span class="_ _3"></span>onstruction, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1d ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">right of way issues and envi<span class="_ _2"></span>ronmental factor. </div><div class="t m0 x2 h4 y1e ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws0">Unified <span class="_ _e"> </span>Power <span class="_ _e"> </span>Flow <span class="_ _e"> </span>Controller <span class="_ _e"> </span>(UPFC) <span class="_ _e"> </span>is <span class="_ _e"> </span>power </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1f ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">electronics <span class="_ _5"> </span>based <span class="_ _f"> </span>system <span class="_ _5"> </span>that <span class="_ _f"> </span>can <span class="_ _5"> </span>provide <span class="_ _f"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>control <span class="_ _f"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y20 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">Power <span class="_ _3"></span>system <span class="_ _3"></span>line i<span class="_ _3"></span>mpedance, phase <span class="_ _3"></span>angle <span class="_ _3"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>reactive <span class="_ _3"></span>power </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y21 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">[1]. <span class="_ _f"> </span>This <span class="_ _f"> </span>versatility <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _f"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>UPFC <span class="_ _f"> </span>makes <span class="_ _f"> </span>it <span class="_ _c"> </span>a <span class="_ _f"> </span>prime <span class="_ _f"> </span>FACTS </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y22 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws0">devic<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _3"></span>that<span class="_ _3"></span> c<span class="_ _3"></span>an <span class="_ _3"></span>pr<span class="_ _3"></span>ovide<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>many <span class="_ _3"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>f <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>c<span class="_ _3"></span>ontrol<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>func<span class="_ _3"></span>tions<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>requi<span class="_ _3"></span>red </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y23 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">to <span class="_ _4"></span>solve <span class="_ _4"> </span>a <span class="_ _5"> </span>wide <span class="_ _4"></span>range <span class="_ _4"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>dyna<span class="_ _3"></span>mic <span class="_ _4"></span>and <span class="_ _4"></span>Steady <span class="_ _4"> </span>state <span class="_ _5"> </span>problems </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y24 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">encountered <span class="_ _a"> </span>i<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _a"> </span>power <span class="_ _9"> </span>syste<span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>s <span class="_ _9"> </span>[2]-[4]. <span class="_ _9"> </span>Conventional <span class="_ _a"> </span>fixed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y25 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">structure <span class="_ _1"></span>power <span class="_ _1"></span>system <span class="_ _1"></span>stabilizers <span class="_ _4"></span>(CPSS) <span class="_ _1"></span>are <span class="_ _1"></span>widely <span class="_ _1"></span>used <span class="_ _1"></span>by </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y26 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">power <span class="_ _1"></span>sys<span class="_ _3"></span>tem <span class="_ _1"></span>utilities <span class="_ _4"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>damp <span class="_ _1"></span>out <span class="_ _4"></span>small <span class="_ _1"></span>oscillations <span class="_ _4"> </span>[5], <span class="_ _4"></span>[6].<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y27 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws0">The <span class="_ _1"></span>para<span class="_ _3"></span>meters <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>power <span class="_ _4"></span>system <span class="_ _1"></span>sta<span class="_ _3"></span>bilizer <span class="_ _4"></span>(PSS) <span class="_ _1"></span>must <span class="_ _4"></span>be </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y28 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">re-tuned <span class="_ _3"></span>so <span class="_ _3"></span>tha<span class="_ _3"></span>t <span class="_ _3"></span>it <span class="_ _3"></span>can <span class="_ _1"></span>provide <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>des<span class="_ _3"></span>ired <span class="_ _3"></span>performance. <span class="_ _3"></span>S<span class="_ _3"></span>elf <span class="_ _3"></span>&#8211;</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y29 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">tuning <span class="_ _f"> </span>PSS <span class="_"> </span>have <span class="_ _f"> </span>been <span class="_ _c"> </span>proposed <span class="_ _c"> </span>to <span class="_ _f"> </span>overcome <span class="_"> </span>such <span class="_ _5"> </span>pr<span class="_ _3"></span>oblem </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2a ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">[7]. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Such <span class="_ _5"> </span>as <span class="_ _5"> </span>Artificial <span class="_ _5"> </span>Neural <span class="_ _5"> </span>Network <span class="_ _4"> </span>(ANN), <span class="_ _5"> </span>Fuzzy<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>Log<span class="_ _2"></span>ic </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2b ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">Systems <span class="_ _9"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>FLC) <span class="_ _b"> </span>and <span class="_ _b"> </span>Genetic <span class="_ _b"> </span>Algorithms <span class="_ _9"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>GA) <span class="_ _b"> </span>have <span class="_ _b"> </span>been </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2c ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">applied <span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>var<span class="_ _3"></span>ious <span class="_ _a"> </span>power <span class="_ _9"> </span>system <span class="_ _9"> </span>problems <span class="_ _9"> </span>including <span class="_ _a"> </span>PS<span class="_ _3"></span>S </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2d ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">design <span class="_ _4"></span>[8]-[10]. <span class="_ _5"> </span>By <span class="_ _4"></span>designing <span class="_ _4"></span>a <span class="_ _4"> </span>suitable <span class="_ _4"> </span>UPFC <span class="_ _5"> </span>controller, <span class="_ _4"></span>an </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2e ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">effective da<span class="_ _3"></span>mping control <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>achieved. <span class="_ _3"></span>It <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>usual <span class="_ _3"></span>that <span class="_ _3"></span>Heffron<span class="ls0">-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y2f ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y30 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws0">U.Ramesh <span class="_ _10"> </span>Babu <span class="_ _10"> </span>is <span class="_ _10"> </span>with <span class="_ _10"> </span>the <span class="_ _10"> </span>Electrical <span class="_ _10"> </span>Engineering <span class="_ _10"> </span>Department, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y31 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws0">Neduramalli <span class="_ _1"></span>Balakrishn<span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _3"></span>Reddy<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>Institu<span class="_ _3"></span>te <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>Science <span class="_ _3"></span>an<span class="_ _3"></span>d <span class="_ _3"></span>Techn<span class="_ _3"></span>olo<span class="ls24">gy, <span class="_ _3"></span>Andhra </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y32 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws0">Pradesh, India <span class="_ _2"></span>(phone: 91-9949360473; e-ma<span class="_ _2"></span>il: uramesh25@ gmail.<span class="ls26">com). </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y33 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">V. <span class="_ _11"> </span>Vijaya <span class="_ _11"> </span>Kumar <span class="_ _11"> </span>Reddy <span class="_ _11"> </span>is <span class="_ _11"> </span>with <span class="_ _11"> </span>t<span class="_ _3"></span>he <span class="_ _11"> </span>Neduramalli <span class="_ _11"> </span>Balakrishna <span class="_ _11"> </span>Reddy<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y34 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">Institute of Science and Tec<span class="ls29">hnology, Andhra Prade<span class="_ _3"></span>sh, India. </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y35 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">S. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Tara <span class="_ _4"> </span>kalyani <span class="_ _5"> </span>is <span class="_ _5"> </span>with <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>Electrical <span class="_ _5"> </span>Engineering <span class="_ _4"> </span>Department, <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ls2b">JNTUH, </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y36 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">Telangana, India. </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y37 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">Phillips <span class="_ _4"> </span>model <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _4"> </span>used <span class="_ _4"> </span>in <span class="_ _4"> </span>power <span class="_ _4"> </span>system <span class="_ _4"> </span>to <span class="_ _4"> </span>study <span class="_ _4"> </span>s<span class="_ _3"></span>mall <span class="_ _1"></span>si<span class="_ _3"></span>gnal </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y38 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">stability.<span class="ff4 ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y39 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">II.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _12"></span><span class="ff2">S</span></span></div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y3a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">YSTEM <span class="fs1 ls0">M</span><span class="ls2d">ODEL<span class="fs1 ls0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y3b ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">In this Section, <span class="_ _3"></span>Power system consists o<span class="_ _3"></span>f UPFC as <span class="_ _3"></span>shown in </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3c ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">Fig <span class="_ _f"> </span>1. <span class="_"> </span>A <span class="_ _f"> </span>Single <span class="_"> </span>Machine <span class="_ _f"> </span>Infinite <span class="_"> </span>B<span class="_ _2"></span>us <span class="_ _f"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>SMIB) <span class="_ _c"> </span>system <span class="_ _c"> </span>with </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3d ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">synchronous <span class="_ _13"> </span>generator <span class="_ _13"> </span>provided <span class="_ _13"> </span>with <span class="_ _13"> </span>IEEE <span class="_ _13"> </span>type-ST1A </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3e ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">excitation <span class="_ _4"> </span>system <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _4"> </span>considered. <span class="_ _5"> </span>It <span class="_ _4"></span>is <span class="_ _4"></span>assumed <span class="_ _4"></span>that <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>UPFC </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3f ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">performance <span class="_ _0"> </span>is <span class="_ _a"> </span>based <span class="_ _0"> </span>on <span class="_ _a"> </span>Pulse <span class="_ _0"> </span>Width <span class="_ _a"> </span>Modulation <span class="_ _0"> </span>(PWM) </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y40 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">converters. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Here <span class="_ _5"> </span>m1, <span class="_ _5"> </span>m2 <span class="_ _5"> </span>are <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>amplitude <span class="_ _5"> </span>modulation <span class="_ _5"> </span>ratio </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y41 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">and&#948;</div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y42 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xd h4 y43 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">,&#948;</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y42 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">2 </div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y43 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">are <span class="_ _1"></span>th<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _1"></span>phase <span class="_ _4"></span>angles <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>reference <span class="_ _1"></span>voltage <span class="_ _4"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>each </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y44 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">voltage <span class="_ _4"></span>source <span class="_ _4"> </span>converter <span class="_ _4"> </span>respectively. <span class="_ _4"> </span>The <span class="_ _4"> </span>nominal <span class="_ _4"> </span>operating<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y45 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">conditions and system paramet<span class="ls31">ers are given in ap<span class="_ _2"></span>pendix </span></div><div class="t m0 x10 h2 y46 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y47 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x12 h2 y48 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">Fig. 1 UPFC connected to<span class="_ _2"></span> SMIB </div><div class="t m0 x13 h2 y49 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y4a ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">The <span class="_"> </span>basic <span class="_ _0"> </span>components <span class="_"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>UPFC <span class="_ _0"> </span>are <span class="_"> </span>two <span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage <span class="_"> </span>sou<span class="_ _3"></span>rce </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4b ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">inverters <span class="_ _3"></span>(VSIs) <span class="_ _3"></span>sharing a <span class="_ _3"></span>common dc <span class="_ _3"></span>storage <span class="_ _3"></span>capacitor <span class="_ _3"></span>which </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4c ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">is <span class="_ _14"> </span>connected <span class="_ _14"> </span>to <span class="_ _14"> </span>the <span class="_ _14"> </span>power <span class="_ _14"> </span>system <span class="_ _14"> </span>through <span class="_ _14"> </span>coupling </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4d ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">transformers. One of the VSI is <span class="_ _3"></span>connected to power system via </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4e ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">a <span class="_ _3"></span>shunt <span class="_ _1"></span>transformer, <span class="_ _3"></span>while <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>other <span class="_ _1"></span>one <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>connected <span class="_ _3"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>series<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4f ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">through <span class="_ _15"> </span>a <span class="_ _15"> </span>series <span class="_ _15"> </span>transformer. <span class="_ _15"> </span>A <span class="_ _15"> </span>basic <span class="_ _15"> </span>UPFC <span class="_ _15"> </span>functional </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y50 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws0">diagram is shown in Fig<span class="_ _2"></span>. 1. </div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y51 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">The <span class="_ _3"></span>ser<span class="_ _3"></span>ies <span class="_ _3"></span>inverter <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>operated <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>inject <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>symmetrical <span class="_ _1"></span>three </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y52 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">phase <span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _0"> </span>syste<span class="_ _3"></span>m <span class="_"> </span>(V</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y53 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws0">se</div><div class="t m0 x15 h4 y54 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">), <span class="_ _0"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>controllable <span class="_ _a"> </span>magnitude <span class="_ _0"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y55 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">phase <span class="_ _a"> </span>angle <span class="_ _9"> </span>in <span class="_ _9"> </span>series <span class="_ _a"> </span>with <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _a"> </span>line <span class="_ _9"> </span>to <span class="_ _a"> </span>control <span class="_ _9"> </span>active <span class="_ _a"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y56 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">reactive <span class="_ _5"> </span>power <span class="_ _5"> </span>flows <span class="_ _f"> </span>on <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>power <span class="_ _f"> </span>system. <span class="_ _5"> </span>So, <span class="_ _f"> </span>this <span class="_ _5"> </span>inverter </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y57 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws0">will exchange active and reactive power with the l<span class="_ _2"></span>ine. </div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y58 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">The shunt inver<span class="_ _3"></span>ter is <span class="_ _3"></span>operated in such <span class="_ _3"></span>a way <span class="_ _3"></span>that it de<span class="_ _3"></span>mands </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y59 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">the <span class="_"> </span>dc <span class="_"> </span>terminal <span class="_"> </span>power <span class="_"> </span>(positive <span class="_"> </span>or <span class="_"> </span>negative) <span class="_"> </span>from <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>line </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y5a ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">keeping <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>voltage <span class="_ _1"></span>across <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>storage <span class="_ _4"></span>capacitor <span class="_ _1"></span>V</div><div class="t m0 x16 h6 y5b ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">dc</div><div class="t m0 x17 h4 y5c ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0"> <span class="_ _1"></span>constant.<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y5d ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">So, <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>net <span class="_ _1"></span>real <span class="_ _1"></span>power <span class="_ _1"></span>absorbed <span class="_ _1"></span>from <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>lin<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _1"></span>by <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>UPFC <span class="_ _3"></span>is </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y5e ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws0">eq<span class="_ _2"></span>u<span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _2"></span>l<span class="_ _2"></span> on<span class="_ _2"></span>l<span class="_ _2"></span>y<span class="_ _2"></span> to<span class="_ _2"></span> t<span class="_ _2"></span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span> lo<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span> of<span class="_ _2"></span> t<span class="_ _2"></span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>e i<span class="_ _2"></span>n<span class="_ _2"></span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>rt<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span> an<span class="_ _2"></span>d<span class="_ _2"></span> t<span class="_ _2"></span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>ei<span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span> t<span class="_ _2"></span>ra<span class="_ _2"></span>n<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _2"></span>f<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls36">s. </span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y5f ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">The <span class="_ _f"> </span>remaining <span class="_ _c"> </span>capacity <span class="_ _f"> </span>of <span class="_ _f"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>shunt <span class="_ _c"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _f"> </span>canbe <span class="_ _c"> </span>used <span class="_ _f"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y60 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">exchange <span class="_ _f"> </span>reactive <span class="_ _c"> </span>power <span class="_ _f"> </span>with <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>line <span class="_ _c"> </span>so <span class="_ _f"> </span>as <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>provide <span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _2"></span>he </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y61 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">voltage regulation at the connection point. </div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y62 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">The <span class="_ _f"> </span>two <span class="_ _f"> </span>VSI&#8217;s <span class="_ _f"> </span>can <span class="_ _c"> </span>work <span class="_ _f"> </span>independently <span class="_ _f"> </span>of <span class="_ _f"> </span>each <span class="_ _c"> </span>other <span class="_ _f"> </span>by </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y63 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">separating <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span>dc <span class="_ _a"> </span>side. <span class="_ _9"> </span>In <span class="_ _9"> </span>this <span class="_ _9"> </span>case <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span>shunt <span class="_ _9"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _9"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x18 h7 y64 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">U. Ramesh Babu, V. Vijay K<span class="_ _3"></span>umar Reddy, S. Tara Kalyani </div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y65 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws0">Design of Power System Stabilizer with Neuro-Fuzzy </div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y66 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws0">UPFC Controller </div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y67 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">D</div><div class="t m0 x1a ha y68 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology</div><div class="t m0 x1b ha y69 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Vol:8 2015-10-01 </div><div class="t m0 x1c ha y6a ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1387<span class="_ _16"></span>International Scholarly and Scientific Research &amp; Innovation 8(12) 2014<span class="_ _17"> </span>scholar.waset.org/1999.0/10002786</div><div class="t m1 x1d ha y6b ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">International Science Index, Vol:8, No:12, 2014 waset.org/Publication/10002786</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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