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Parking space Detection papers. very good papers very use full to us
parking-papers.zip
  • IJARECE-VOL-5-ISSUE-1-95-100.pdf
    771.7KB
  • 189-531-2-PB.Pdf
    220.3KB
  • Kevin_ICASSP2008.pdf
    1.1MB
  • Li_Jones_Vacant_Parking_Space_Detection_Algorithm.pdf
    8.8MB
  • WJET_2014050611391380.pdf
    2.4MB
  • Automatic free parking space detection by using motion stereo-based 3D reconstruction.pdf
    1.8MB
  • Parking_Space_Classification.pdf
    770.4KB
内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6267bf9c4c65f412597580ee/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6267bf9c4c65f412597580ee/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">V<span class="_ _0"></span>acant<span class="_ _1"> </span>P<span class="_ _2"></span>arking<span class="_ _1"> </span>Spot<span class="_ _1"> </span>Detection</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Michael<span class="_ _3"> </span>Jones</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Stanford<span class="_ _4"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Stanford,<span class="_ _4"> </span>California<span class="_ _4"> </span>94305</div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Email:<span class="_ _4"> </span>jonesmr@stanford.edu</div><div class="t m0 x6 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Le<span class="_ _2"></span>wis<span class="_ _3"> </span>Li</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y3 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Stanford<span class="_ _4"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Stanford,<span class="_ _4"> </span>California<span class="_ _4"> </span>94305</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Email:<span class="_ _4"> </span>lewisli@stanford.edu</div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y7 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff3">&#8212;W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>present<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>method<span class="_ _6"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>(1)<span class="_ _5"> </span>identifying<span class="_ _6"> </span>parking</span></div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y8 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">spaces<span class="_ _6"> </span>within<span class="_ _5"> </span>parking<span class="_ _6"> </span>structures,<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>(2)<span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>feature<span class="_ _6"> </span>detection</div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y9 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">algorithm<span class="_ _4"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>utilizes<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>results<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _4"> </span>step<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>determine</div><div class="t m0 xc h6 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">which<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>spots<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span>empty<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 xd h4 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I<span class="_ _8"></span>.<span class="_ _9"> </span>I<span class="_ _8"></span><span class="fs4">N<span class="_ _8"></span>T<span class="_ _8"></span>RO<span class="_ _8"></span>D<span class="_ _8"></span>U<span class="_ _8"></span>C<span class="_ _8"></span>T<span class="_ _8"></span>I<span class="_ _8"></span>O<span class="_ _8"></span>N</span></div><div class="t m0 xc h7 yc ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Motivation</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 yd ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">It<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>widely<span class="_ _a"> </span>noted<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>congestion<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>lots<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>high</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 ye ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">density<span class="_ _4"> </span>areas<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>great<span class="_ _4"> </span>source<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>frustration<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>driv<span class="_ _2"></span>ers.<span class="_ _4"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ith</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 yf ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _7"> </span>proliferation<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>car<span class="_ _4"> </span>mounted<span class="_ _7"> </span>GPS<span class="_ _7"> </span>units<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>smart-phones,</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y10 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">there<span class="_ _b"> </span>has<span class="_ _b"> </span>been<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>recent<span class="_ _b"> </span>increase<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>interest<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>de<span class="_ _2"></span>veloping<span class="_ _b"> </span>ways</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y11 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _6"> </span>driv<span class="_ _2"></span>ers<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>quickly<span class="_ _9"> </span>locate<span class="_ _6"> </span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>acant<span class="_ _6"> </span>parking<span class="_ _9"> </span>spots.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Current</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y12 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">methods<span class="_ _3"> </span>rely<span class="_ _3"> </span>either<span class="_ _3"> </span>on<span class="_ _3"> </span>counters,<span class="_ _3"> </span>which<span class="_ _3"> </span>can<span class="_ _3"> </span>only<span class="_ _3"> </span>provide<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y13 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">number<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>but<span class="_ _a"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>location<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>vacant<span class="_ _a"> </span>spots,<span class="_ _a"> </span>or<span class="_ _5"> </span>on<span class="_ _a"> </span>installing<span class="_ _5"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y14 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">choice<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>different<span class="_ _a"> </span>kinds<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _a"> </span>placed<span class="_ _5"> </span>underneath<span class="_ _a"> </span>each</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y15 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">parking<span class="_ _3"> </span>spot,<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_ _3"> </span>are<span class="_ _3"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>cost<span class="_ _3"> </span>ef<span class="_ _2"></span>fectiv<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>often<span class="_ _3"> </span>dif&#64257;cult</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y16 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _4"> </span>retro-&#64257;t<span class="_ _4"> </span>on<span class="_ _4"> </span>older<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>structures.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y17 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">B.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Prior<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Related<span class="_ _4"> </span>W<span class="_ _c"></span>ork</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y18 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Presently<span class="_ _d"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>many<span class="_"> </span>high<span class="_ _b"> </span>traf<span class="_ _2"></span>&#64257;c<span class="_ _b"> </span>parking<span class="_ _b"> </span>structures<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_ _b"> </span>as<span class="_ _b"> </span>those</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y19 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">found<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>airports,<span class="_ _7"> </span>sports<span class="_ _b"> </span>stadiums<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>shopping<span class="_ _7"> </span>centres<span class="_ _b"> </span>utilize</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vehicle<span class="_ _a"> </span>entry<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>exit<span class="_ _a"> </span>counters.<span class="_ _a"> </span>While<span class="_ _a"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>simple<span class="_ _a"> </span>approach</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">indicates<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>number<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>sports<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>vacant<span class="_ _a"> </span>on<span class="_ _a"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">giv<span class="_ _d"></span>en<span class="_ _3"> </span>level,<span class="_ _4"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _3"> </span>provide<span class="_ _4"> </span>drivers<span class="_ _4"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>any<span class="_ _4"> </span>information</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">regarding<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _4"> </span>location<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>acant<span class="_ _7"> </span>parking<span class="_ _7"> </span>structures.<span class="_ _7"> </span>A</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _3"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>could<span class="_ _4"> </span>keep<span class="_ _3"> </span>track<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>av<span class="_ _d"></span>ailable<span class="_ _3"> </span>spots<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>push<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y1f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">data<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>driv<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _3"> </span>smart<span class="_ _3"> </span>phones<span class="_ _3"> </span>or<span class="_ _3"> </span>even<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>ticket<span class="_ _3"> </span>received<span class="_ _4"> </span>upon</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y20 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">entry<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>structure<span class="_ _5"> </span>would<span class="_ _5"> </span>improv<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>driv<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _5"> </span>experience<span class="_ _5"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y21 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reduce<span class="_ _4"> </span>congestion.</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y22 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">One<span class="_ _a"> </span>such<span class="_ _a"> </span>system<span class="_ _5"> </span>was<span class="_ _a"> </span>implemented<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>San<span class="_ _a"> </span>Francisco</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y23 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Municipal<span class="_ _b"> </span>Transportation<span class="_ _b"> </span>Authority<span class="_ _d"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>which<span class="_ _7"> </span>funded<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>SFpark</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y24 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">project<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>cover<span class="_ _6"> </span>5,100<span class="_ _9"> </span>metered<span class="_ _6"> </span>spaces<span class="_ _9"> </span>throughout<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>city</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y25 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">using<span class="_ _e"> </span>embedded<span class="_ _e"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _e"> </span>optical<span class="_ _e"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _e"> </span>[1].<span class="_ _e"> </span>The<span class="_ _e"> </span>sensors</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y26 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">provide<span class="_ _3"> </span>variable<span class="_ _a"> </span>accurac<span class="_ _2"></span>y<span class="_ _a"> </span>depending<span class="_ _3"> </span>on<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>operational<span class="_ _a"> </span>cost</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y27 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_"> </span>highest<span class="_ _b"> </span>accuracy<span class="_"> </span>reported<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>92%<span class="_"> </span>[2].<span class="_ _b"> </span>The<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensors<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#64257;ne-</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y28 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tuned<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>detect<span class="_ _5"> </span>vehicles<span class="_ _a"> </span>within<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>de&#64257;ned<span class="_ _5"> </span>area,<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _5"> </span>such</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y29 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">require<span class="_ _b"> </span>clear<span class="_ _7"> </span>demarcations<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>street.<span class="_ _b"> </span>The<span class="_ _7"> </span>cost<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>installing</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y2a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _7"> </span>operating<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _7"> </span>metering<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>approximately<span class="_ _7"> </span>an<span class="_ _7"> </span>annual</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y2b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cost<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>$500<span class="_ _4"> </span>per<span class="_ _4"> </span>unit<span class="_ _4"> </span>[3].</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y2c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Another<span class="_ _b"> </span>approach<span class="_ _b"> </span>has<span class="_ _7"> </span>been<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>embed<span class="_ _7"> </span>ultrasonic<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _b"> </span>on-</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y2d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">board<span class="_ _b"> </span>vehicles<span class="_ _b"> </span>coupled<span class="_ _7"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>GPS,<span class="_ _7"> </span>which<span class="_ _b"> </span>can<span class="_ _7"> </span>provide<span class="_ _b"> </span>driv<span class="_ _2"></span>e-by</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y2e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sensing<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>spot<span class="_ _3"> </span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>acancy<span class="_ _4"> </span>[4].<span class="_ _4"> </span>Ho<span class="_ _2"></span>wev<span class="_ _2"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>placement</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y2f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>sensor<span class="_ _e"> </span>on<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _e"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _f"> </span>platform<span class="_ _e"> </span>introduces<span class="_ _f"> </span>additional</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y30 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _c"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>deplo<span class="_ _2"></span>yment<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>technology<span class="_ _5"> </span>presents<span class="_ _6"> </span>its</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y31 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">own<span class="_ _7"> </span>challenges.</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y7 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Other<span class="_ _5"> </span>approaches<span class="_ _6"> </span>using<span class="_ _5"> </span>image<span class="_ _6"> </span>processing<span class="_ _5"> </span>have<span class="_ _5"> </span>relied<span class="_ _6"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y32 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">predominantly<span class="_ _9"> </span>on<span class="_ _6"> </span>image<span class="_ _9"> </span>segmentation<span class="_ _9"> </span>based<span class="_ _6"> </span>on<span class="_ _9"> </span>color<span class="_ _9"> </span>his-</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y33 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tograms.<span class="_"> </span>This<span class="_"> </span>has<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>disadvantage<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>not<span class="_"> </span>being<span class="_"> </span>rob<span class="_ _d"></span>ust<span class="_"> </span>towards</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y34 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cars<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _6"> </span>are<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>similar<span class="_ _9"> </span>color<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>background;<span class="_ _6"> </span>but<span class="_ _9"> </span>also</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y35 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">requiring<span class="_ _b"> </span>variable<span class="_ _b"> </span>thresholds<span class="_ _b"> </span>depending<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>lighting<span class="_ _7"> </span>conditions</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y36 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">which<span class="_ _6"> </span>can<span class="_ _9"> </span>be<span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _6"> </span>problem<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>quantify<span class="_ _d"></span>.<span class="_ _6"> </span>[5]<span class="_ _9"> </span>Another</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y37 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">aspect<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>existing<span class="_ _5"> </span>algorithms<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>reliance<span class="_ _5"> </span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>using<span class="_ _6"> </span>hand</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y38 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">labelled<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>re<span class="_ _2"></span>gions<span class="_ _a"> </span>-<span class="_ _a"> </span>while<span class="_ _a"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>acceptable<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>small</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y39 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">problems,<span class="_ _5"> </span>it<span class="_ _a"> </span>would<span class="_ _5"> </span>be<span class="_ _5"> </span>tedious<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>unrealistic<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>implement</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y3a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _4"> </span>large<span class="_ _7"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>structures<span class="_ _4"> </span>with<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>large<span class="_ _4"> </span>number<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>spots.</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y3b ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">C.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Goals</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y3c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _a"> </span>project<span class="_ _5"> </span>intends<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>build<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>system<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _5"> </span>makes<span class="_ _a"> </span>use<span class="_ _5"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y3d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">existing<span class="_ _4"> </span>infrastructure<span class="_ _3"> </span>found<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>parking<span class="_ _3"> </span>garages<span class="_ _3"> </span>(surveillance</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y3e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cameras)<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>detect<span class="_ _a"> </span>v<span class="_ _d"></span>acant<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>spots.<span class="_ _a"> </span>The<span class="_ _a"> </span>aim<span class="_ _a"> </span>here<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y3f ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">provide<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>more<span class="_ _b"> </span>cost<span class="_ _b"> </span>effecti<span class="_ _d"></span>ve<span class="_ _b"> </span>solution<span class="_ _b"> </span>while<span class="_ _b"> </span>maintaining<span class="_ _7"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y40 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">parable<span class="_ _3"> </span>detection<span class="_ _3"> </span>accuracy<span class="_ _c"></span>.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Due<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>dif&#64257;culty<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>detection</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y41 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">under<span class="_ _9"> </span>different<span class="_ _9"> </span>lighting<span class="_ _9"> </span>conditions,<span class="_ _9"> </span>parking<span class="_ _9"> </span>scenarios<span class="_ _9"> </span>have</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y42 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been<span class="_ _a"> </span>limited<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>structures<span class="_ _a"> </span>where<span class="_ _a"> </span>lighting<span class="_ _a"> </span>conditions</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y43 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _9"> </span>constant.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Furthermore,<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>project<span class="_ _e"> </span>intends<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>establish</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y44 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _6"> </span>method<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>automatically<span class="_ _6"> </span>detect<span class="_ _6"> </span>parking<span class="_ _6"> </span>lines<span class="_ _9"> </span>rather<span class="_ _6"> </span>than</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y45 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">relying<span class="_ _4"> </span>on<span class="_ _4"> </span>human<span class="_ _4"> </span>intervention.</div><div class="t m0 x10 h4 y46 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I<span class="_ _8"></span>I<span class="_ _8"></span>.<span class="_ _9"> </span>A<span class="_ _8"></span><span class="fs4">L<span class="_ _8"></span>G<span class="_ _8"></span>O<span class="_ _8"></span>R<span class="_ _8"></span>I<span class="_ _8"></span>T<span class="_ _8"></span>H<span class="_ _8"></span>M</span></div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y47 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _6"> </span>P<span class="_ _c"></span>arking<span class="_ _4"> </span>Spot<span class="_ _4"> </span>Detection</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y48 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Identi&#64257;cation<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>individual<span class="_ _f"> </span>parking<span class="_ _f"> </span>spots<span class="_ _10"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>done<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y49 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">controlled<span class="_ _a"> </span>scenario<span class="_ _a"> </span>where<span class="_ _5"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>spot<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>vacant.<span class="_ _a"> </span>This</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y4a ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_ _3"> </span>necessary<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>properly<span class="_ _3"> </span>identify<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>region<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>interest<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y4b ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">image<span class="_ _4"> </span>that<span class="_ _4"> </span>corresponds<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>each<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>spot.<span class="_ _4"> </span>The<span class="_ _4"> </span>goal<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y4c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">parking<span class="_ _b"> </span>spot<span class="_ _7"> </span>detection<span class="_ _b"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _7"> </span>to:<span class="_ _b"> </span>(1)<span class="_ _7"> </span>exclusi<span class="_ _2"></span>vely<span class="_ _b"> </span>identify</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y4d ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>line<span class="_ _4"> </span>dividers,<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>(2)<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _3"> </span>neighboring<span class="_ _4"> </span>dividers<span class="_ _4"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y4e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">record<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>coordinates<span class="_ _4"> </span>corresponding<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>spot.</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y4f ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1)<span class="_ _6"> </span>P<span class="_ _c"></span>arking<span class="_ _e"> </span>line<span class="_ _9"> </span>divider<span class="_ _e"> </span>identi&#64257;cation:<span class="_ _11"> </span><span class="ff1">Parking<span class="_ _9"> </span>lines<span class="_ _9"> </span>are</span></div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y50 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">identi&#64257;ed<span class="_ _4"> </span>by<span class="_ _4"> </span>segmenting<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>image<span class="_ _4"> </span>using<span class="_ _4"> </span>8<span class="_ _4"> </span>steps:</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y51 ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff1">HSV<span class="_ _a"> </span>thresholding:<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#64257;lter<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>HSV<span class="_ _a"> </span>values<span class="_ _a"> </span>corresponding</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 y52 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _4"> </span>yellow<span class="_ _7"> </span>parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>line<span class="_ _4"> </span>dividers</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y53 ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff1">V<span class="_ _c"></span>ertical-coordinate<span class="_ _e"> </span>centroid:<span class="_ _f"> </span>any<span class="_ _e"> </span>regions<span class="_ _e"> </span>lying<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 y2c ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">upper<span class="_ _4"> </span>half<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>image<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>eliminated</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y2d ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff1">Solidity:<span class="_ _10"> </span>re<span class="_ _2"></span>gions<span class="_ _f"> </span>with<span class="_ _10"> </span>solidity<span class="_ _f"> </span>under<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _10"> </span>threshold<span class="_ _f"> </span>are</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 y2e ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">eliminated</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y2f ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff1">Area:<span class="_ _4"> </span>small<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>large<span class="_ _4"> </span>regions<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>eliminated</span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y54 ff5 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff1">Eccentricity:<span class="_ _3"> </span>regions<span class="_ _4"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>eccentricity<span class="_ _3"> </span>under<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>threshold</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 y31 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _4"> </span>eliminated</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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