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Robust Watermarking Algorithms for Content Authentication and Secure Image Transmission through Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b73ea3d2fbb0007efec7b/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622b73ea3d2fbb0007efec7b/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y4 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#169;2012-14 Inter<span class="_ _0"></span>national Journal of I<span class="_ _0"></span>nformation T<span class="_ _0"></span>echnology<span class="_ _0"></span> and Electrical E<span class="_ _0"></span>ngineering </div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y6 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="ff2"> </span></div><div class="c x4 y7 w2 h4"><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ITEE<span class="ff1"> Journal </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y9 ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Information Te<span class="_ _0"></span>chnology &amp; E<span class="_ _0"></span>lectrical En<span class="_ _0"></span>gineering </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h2 yb ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div></div><div class="c x8 yc w3 h8"><div class="t m0 x9 h9 yd ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Volume 3, <span class="_ _0"></span>Issue<span class="ls1">1 </span></div><div class="t m0 xa h9 ye ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">February <span class="ls1">201</span>4 </div></div><div class="c xb yf w4 ha"><div class="t m0 xc h9 y10 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ISSN: - <span class="ls1">2306</span>-708X </div><div class="t m0 xd hb y11 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y12 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></div></div><div class="t m0 xe hc y13 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Robust Watermarking Algorithms for C<span class="_ _0"></span>ontent <span class="_ _1"></span>Authentication and Secure Image </div><div class="t m0 xf hc y14 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Transmission through Single Carrier Frequency Divisio<span class="_ _0"></span>n Multiple Access<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 hd y15 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y16 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h2 y17 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Safey A. S. Abdel<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>ahab<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h2 y18 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Engineering Depart<span class="_ _1"></span>ment, Nuclear Research Center<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 he y19 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">safeyash@yahoo.co<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="ff2 fs8"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x13 hf y1a ff6 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x14 hf y1b ff4 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ABSTRACT<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h2 y1c ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 h2 y1d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Images <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>most <span class="_ _2"></span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>mm<span class="_ _0"></span>on <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>convenient <span class="_ _2"></span>mea<span class="_ _1"></span>ns <span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f <span class="_ _1"></span>tra<span class="_ _1"></span>nsmitting <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>nformation <span class="_ _2"></span>as <span class="_ _2"></span>one <span class="_ _2"></span>image <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>worth <span class="_ _2"></span>than <span class="_ _2"></span>thousand <span class="_ _3"></span>words. </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y1e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The need<span class="_ _1"></span> for <span class="_ _1"></span>the protection <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>digital <span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>edia has <span class="_ _1"></span>gained <span class="_ _1"></span>im<span class="_ _0"></span>portance <span class="_ _1"></span>as the <span class="_ _1"></span>networked <span class="_ _1"></span>multimedia systems <span class="_ _1"></span>have r<span class="_ _1"></span>apid growth<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls2">. <span class="_ _1"></span></span>Also </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y1f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">images <span class="_ _2"></span>ca<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>now <span class="_ _2"></span>ea<span class="_ _1"></span>sily <span class="_ _2"></span>be <span class="_ _3"></span>copied <span class="_ _3"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>distributed<span class="_ _1"></span>due <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>improve<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>ents <span class="_ _2"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>imagin<span class="_ _1"></span>g<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>tech<span class="_ _1"></span>nologies <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>ease <span class="_ _3"></span>with <span class="_ _3"></span>wh<span class="_ _1"></span>ich <span class="_ _2"></span>digital </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y20 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">content <span class="_ _1"></span>can <span class="_ _1"></span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _1"></span>created <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>manipulated.This <span class="_ _1"></span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>aper <span class="_ _1"></span>presents <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>age <span class="_ _1"></span>watermark <span class="_ _2"></span>algorithms <span class="_ _2"></span>which<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>developed <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>ensure <span class="_ _1"></span>security </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y21 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _3"></span>protectio<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>images <span class="_ _3"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>pictures. <span class="_ _4"></span>The <span class="_ _3"></span>purpose <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>proposed <span class="_ _3"></span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>ig<span class="_ _0"></span>ital <span class="_ _3"></span>watermarking <span class="_ _3"></span>is<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>not <span class="_ _3"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>nly<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>restrict <span class="_ _3"></span>use <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _4"></span>multimedia<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y22 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resources, <span class="_ _1"></span>but <span class="_ _1"></span>also <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>facilitate <span class="_ _2"></span>data <span class="_ _1"></span>authentication <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>py<span class="_ _0"></span>right <span class="_ _1"></span>protectio<span class="_ _1"></span>n <span class="_ _1"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or <span class="_ _1"></span>secure <span class="_ _1"></span>image <span class="_ _1"></span>transmission <span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>hrough <span class="_ _1"></span>Si<span class="_ _1"></span>ng<span class="_ _0"></span>le <span class="_ _1"></span>Carrier </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y23 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Frequency <span class="_ _3"></span>Divi<span class="_ _1"></span>sion <span class="_ _2"></span>Mul<span class="_ _1"></span>tiple <span class="_ _3"></span>Access <span class="_ _3"></span>(<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls3">SC</span>-FDMA).Simulation <span class="_ _3"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>roposed <span class="_ _3"></span>algorithms <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _4"></span>done <span class="_ _3"></span>usin<span class="_ _1"></span>g <span class="_ _2"></span>Matlab <span class="_ _4"></span>soft<span class="_ _1"></span>ware <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _4"></span>a </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y24 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">comparison <span class="_ _2"></span>between <span class="_ _1"></span>the<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>one. <span class="_ _2"></span>The <span class="_ _1"></span>proposed<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>algorithms <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>tested <span class="_ _1"></span>against <span class="_ _2"></span>image <span class="_ _2"></span>attacks <span class="_ _1"></span>usi<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _0"></span>g <span class="_ _1"></span>C<span class="_ _1"></span>heckmark <span class="_ _1"></span>soft<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y25 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">experimental <span class="_ _1"></span>results <span class="_ _1"></span>appr<span class="_ _1"></span>oved <span class="_ _1"></span>that <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>proposed <span class="_ _1"></span>algorithms <span class="_ _1"></span>have <span class="_ _2"></span>good <span class="_ _1"></span>robustness <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>they <span class="_ _1"></span>are <span class="_ _1"></span>resista<span class="_ _1"></span>nt agai<span class="_ _1"></span>nst <span class="_ _1"></span>cropping, <span class="_ _1"></span>scal<span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>ng </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y26 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and compression distortio<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x16 h10 y27 ff4 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 h10 y28 ff7 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords<span class="ff4">:<span class="ff8 fsa ls4">SC<span class="ls0">-FDMA<span class="ls2">, </span>Image Watermarking, Wireless Communication, Communication<span class="ff1"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h11 y29 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x17 h12 y2a ff4 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1.<span class="ff9"> <span class="_ _5"> </span></span>INTRODUCTION </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y2b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Single <span class="_ _4"></span>Carrier <span class="_ _4"></span>Frequency<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>Division <span class="_ _4"></span>Multiple<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>Access <span class="_ _3"></span>(SC<span class="_ _1"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">FDMA) <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_"> </span>promisin<span class="_ _0"></span>g <span class="_"> </span>techn<span class="_ _0"></span>ique <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_"> </span>high<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>data <span class="_"> </span>rate <span class="_"> </span>uplin<span class="_ _0"></span>k </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">commun<span class="_ _0"></span>ication. <span class="_ _1"></span>It <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>recent <span class="_ _1"></span><span class="fc1 sc0">v</span><span class="fc1 sc0">ar</span><span class="fc1 sc0">i</span><span class="fc1 sc0">an</span><span class="fc1 sc0">t</span> <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>Orthogon<span class="_ _0"></span>al <span class="_ _1"></span>Frequency<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Division <span class="_ _4"></span>Multiple <span class="_ _4"> </span>Access <span class="_ _4"> </span>(OFDMA) <span class="_ _7"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>similar <span class="_ _4"> </span>throughput </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">perform<span class="_ _0"></span>ance <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>complexity<span class="ls2">. <span class="_ _2"></span></span>The <span class="_ _3"></span>advantage <span class="_ _3"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>SC<span class="_ _1"></span>-FDMA <span class="_ _3"></span>is </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _1"></span>lower <span class="_ _1"></span>Peak-<span class="ls5">to</span>-Av<span class="_ _0"></span>erage Power <span class="_ _1"></span>Ratio <span class="_ _1"></span>(PAPR<span class="_ _0"></span>) <span class="_ _1"></span>because<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>its </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inherent singl<span class="_ _0"></span>e carrier nature where low peak-<span class="ls6">to</span>-average power </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y33 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ratio <span class="_ _5"> </span>gre<span class="_ _0"></span>atly <span class="_ _5"> </span>benefits<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>mobile <span class="_ _5"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>erminal<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>terms<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y34 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transmitti<span class="_ _0"></span>ng <span class="_ _8"> </span>power <span class="_ _8"> </span>effic<span class="_ _0"></span>iency<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _8"> </span>manufactu<span class="_ _0"></span>ring <span class="_ _8"> </span>cost. </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y35 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Therefore<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls7">SC</span>-FDMA <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>seen <span class="_"> </span>as <span class="_ _9"> </span>an <span class="_"> </span>attractive <span class="_"> </span>alternativ<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y36 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">OFDMA [<span class="ff2">1:3</span>].<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y37 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y38 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _1"></span>recent <span class="_ _1"></span>progress in <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>digital <span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>ultim<span class="_ _0"></span>edia <span class="_ _1"></span>technologies </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y39 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">has <span class="_ _6"> </span>offered <span class="_ _7"> </span>many<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>facilities <span class="_ _6"> </span>in <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>transm<span class="_ _0"></span>ission, <span class="_ _6"> </span>rep<span class="_ _1"></span>roduction </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _4"></span>manipulation <span class="_ _3"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>f<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>images. <span class="_ _4"></span>Howev<span class="_ _0"></span>er, <span class="_ _4"></span>this <span class="_ _4"> </span>advancement <span class="_ _4"></span>has </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">also <span class="_"> </span>brought <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>challeng<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>su<span class="_ _0"></span>ch <span class="_"> </span>as <span class="_ _7"> </span>copyright <span class="_ _7"> </span>pr<span class="_ _1"></span>otection <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">content <span class="_ _1"></span>providers. <span class="_ _1"></span>Digital <span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>atermarkin<span class="_ _0"></span>g <span class="_ _1"></span>is one <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>solution<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for <span class="_ _a"> </span>copyright <span class="_ _a"> </span>protection <span class="_ _a"> </span>of <span class="_ _a"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>ultim<span class="_ _0"></span>edia <span class="_ _a"> </span>data. <span class="_ _b"> </span>Image </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">waterm<span class="_ _0"></span>arking <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _6"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>pro<span class="_ _1"></span>cess <span class="_ _3"></span>that <span class="_ _6"> </span>embeds <span class="_ _6"> </span>a <span class="_ _4"></span>watermark <span class="_ _3"></span>into <span class="_ _6"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y3f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cover <span class="_ _c"> </span>image. <span class="_ _c"> </span>The <span class="_ _c"> </span>waterm<span class="_ _0"></span>ark <span class="_ _c"> </span>is <span class="_ _c"> </span>a <span class="_ _c"> </span>secret <span class="_ _c"> </span>cod<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _c"> </span>that </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y40 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">containingidentification <span class="_ _a"> </span>inf<span class="_ _0"></span>ormation <span class="_ _a"> </span>such <span class="_ _a"> </span>as <span class="_ _a"> </span>copyright, </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y41 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">license, <span class="_ _1"></span>authorship <span class="_ _1"></span>etc. <span class="_ _2"></span>The <span class="_ _1"></span>earliest <span class="_ _1"></span>use <span class="_ _1"></span>has <span class="_ _2"></span>been <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ecord <span class="_ _1"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y42 ffa fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">manu<span class="_ _0"></span>facture&#8217;s <span class="_ _6"> </span>trad<span class="_ _1"></span>em<span class="_ _0"></span>ark <span class="_ _7"> </span>on <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>product <span class="_ _7"> </span>so <span class="_ _7"> </span>that <span class="_"> </span>au<span class="_ _0"></span>thenticity<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y43 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">could <span class="_ _d"> </span>be <span class="_ _d"> </span>easily <span class="_ _d"> </span>established. <span class="_ _d"> </span>The <span class="_ _d"> </span>Government <span class="_ _d"> </span>us<span class="_ _0"></span>es <span class="_ _d"> </span>it <span class="_ _d"> </span>for </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y44 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">currencies, <span class="_ _3"></span>p<span class="_ _1"></span>ostage <span class="_ _3"></span>stamps, <span class="_ _4"></span>revenue <span class="_ _3"></span>stamps, <span class="_ _3"></span>etc.<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>Now <span class="_ _4"></span>due <span class="_ _4"></span>to </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y45 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _9"> </span>information <span class="_ _9"> </span>and <span class="_ _9"> </span>computer <span class="_ _9"> </span>age, <span class="_ _9"> </span>d<span class="_ _1"></span>ig<span class="_ _0"></span>ital <span class="_ _9"> </span>watermarking<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y46 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">being expanded [<span class="ff2">4</span><span class="ls5">:8<span class="_ _1"></span></span>]. </div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y47 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y48 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A <span class="_ _e"> </span>waterm<span class="_ _0"></span>arking <span class="_ _e"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>ystem<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>hich <span class="_ _e"> </span>plays<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>an <span class="_ _e"> </span>increasingly<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y49 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">important <span class="_ _f"> </span>role <span class="_ _f"> </span>for <span class="_ _c"> </span>proving <span class="_ _f"> </span>authenticity <span class="_ _f"> </span>and <span class="_ _f"> </span>cop<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>right </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">protection <span class="_ _2"></span>can <span class="_ _2"></span>be <span class="_ _1"></span>modeled <span class="_ _2"></span>as <span class="_ _2"></span>comm<span class="_ _0"></span>unication <span class="_ _1"></span>where <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>cover </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">image <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _7"> </span>treated <span class="_ _7"> </span>as <span class="_ _6"> </span>no<span class="_ _1"></span>ise <span class="_ _6"> </span>and <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>watermark <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _7"> </span>viewed <span class="_ _6"> </span>as <span class="_ _7"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signal <span class="_ _2"></span>that <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>transmitted <span class="_ _2"></span>through <span class="_ _2"></span>it, <span class="_ _3"></span>it <span class="_ _3"></span>was <span class="_ _2"></span>only <span class="_ _2"></span>natural <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>try </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to <span class="_ _10"> </span>apply <span class="_ _10"> </span>techniques <span class="_ _10"> </span>that <span class="_ _10"> </span>worked <span class="_ _10"> </span>in <span class="_ _10"> </span>comm<span class="_ _0"></span>unications <span class="_ _10"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">waterm<span class="_ _0"></span>arking. </div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y4f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y50 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In <span class="_ _1"></span>order <span class="_ _1"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>watermark <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>be <span class="_ _1"></span>eff<span class="_ _0"></span>ective <span class="_ _1"></span>it <span class="_ _1"></span>should <span class="_ _1"></span>not <span class="_ _1"></span>degrade </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y51 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">or <span class="_ _7"> </span>affect <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>image <span class="_ _7"> </span>quality, <span class="_ _7"> </span>it <span class="_ _6"> </span>should <span class="_ _7"> </span>be <span class="_ _7"> </span>resistant <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>attack<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y52 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such <span class="_ _c"> </span>as <span class="_ _c"> </span>cr<span class="_ _1"></span>opping, <span class="_ _c"> </span>scaling, <span class="_ _c"> </span>rotation, <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _c"> </span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>pression </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y53 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distortion, <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>also <span class="_ _2"></span>waterm<span class="_ _0"></span>ark <span class="_ _2"></span>should <span class="_ _1"></span>not <span class="_ _2"></span>be <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>em<span class="_ _0"></span>oved <span class="_ _2"></span>beyond </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y54 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reliable detection by targeted attacks.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1b h2 y55 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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