Texas-Instruments-Software-Implementation-of-Auto

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Texas Instruments Software Implementation of Automatic Gain Controller
Texas-Instruments-Software-Implementation-of-Auto
  • Texas Instruments Software Implementation of Automatic Gain Controller
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6256e3e8bd8c6f2306a9502e/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6256e3e8bd8c6f2306a9502e/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _0"> </span>Introduction</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">White<span class="_ _1"> </span>Paper</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">SPRAAL1<span class="_ _2"> </span>&#8211;<span class="_ _3"> </span>July<span class="_ _4"> </span>2008</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y4 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Software<span class="_ _5"> </span>Implementation<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>Automatic<span class="_ _8"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _9"> </span>Controller<span class="_ _a"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Speech<span class="_ _b"> </span>Signal</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y6 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fitzgerald<span class="_ _c"> </span>J.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Archibald<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff4 fs5 fc1">.......................................................................................................................</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y7 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">An<span class="_ _f"> </span>Automatic<span class="_ _10"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _11"> </span>Controller<span class="_ _12"> </span>(AGC)<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>speech<span class="_ _15"> </span>signals<span class="_ _16"> </span>embedded<span class="_ _17"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>additive<span class="_ _18"> </span>noise<span class="_ _19"> </span>requires<span class="_ _1a"> </span>Voice<span class="_ _1b"> </span>Activity</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y8 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Detection<span class="_ _1c"> </span>(VAD)<span class="_ _1d"> </span>to<span class="_ _1e"> </span>avoid<span class="_ _1f"> </span>noise<span class="_ _1f"> </span>amplification,<span class="_ _20"> </span>a<span class="_ _21"> </span>peak<span class="_ _22"> </span>level<span class="_ _23"> </span>detector<span class="_ _24"> </span>for<span class="_ _25"> </span>computing<span class="_ _26"> </span>gain,<span class="_ _22"> </span>and<span class="_ _27"> </span>a<span class="_ _21"> </span>gain</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y9 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">controller<span class="_ _28"> </span>for<span class="_ _29"> </span>adjusting<span class="_ _2a"> </span>gain.<span class="_ _23"> </span>This<span class="_ _2b"> </span>paper<span class="_ _2c"> </span>describes<span class="_ _2d"> </span>a<span class="_ _2e"> </span>low<span class="_ _2f"> </span>computational-intensive<span class="_ _30"> </span>software<span class="_ _31"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _23"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>use<span class="_ _32"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 ya ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">handheld<span class="_ _33"> </span>devices.<span class="_ _34"> </span>The<span class="_ _7"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _35"> </span>provides<span class="_ _36"> </span>options<span class="_ _37"> </span>for<span class="_ _38"> </span>static<span class="_ _39"> </span>and<span class="_ _3a"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _31"> </span>noise<span class="_ _1b"> </span>floor<span class="_ _3b"> </span>estimation<span class="_ _3c"> </span>in<span class="_ _3d"> </span>a<span class="_ _3e"> </span>VAD</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 yb ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">module.<span class="_ _3f"> </span>Further,<span class="_ _40"> </span>this<span class="_ _41"> </span>paper<span class="_ _42"> </span>describes<span class="_ _43"> </span>analog<span class="_ _44"> </span>and<span class="_ _45"> </span>digital<span class="_ _46"> </span>gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>adjustment<span class="_ _48"> </span>with<span class="_ _49"> </span>gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>curve<span class="_ _4a"> </span>selection<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _4b"> </span>allow</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 yc ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _14"> </span>distance<span class="_ _4c"> </span>perception<span class="_ _3c"> </span>during<span class="_ _4d"> </span>the<span class="_ _4e"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _4f"> </span>operation.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 yd ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _4a"> </span>Terms&#8212;<span class="_ _50"> </span>AGC,<span class="_ _4a"> </span>ALC,<span class="_ _51"> </span>Automatic<span class="_ _10"> </span>Volume<span class="_ _52"> </span>Controller,<span class="_ _53"> </span>Digital<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _11"> </span>Controller,<span class="_ _53"> </span>Digital<span class="_ _54"> </span>amplification,<span class="_ _55"> </span>Gain</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 ye ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">curve,<span class="_ _56"> </span>VAD.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 yf ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Contents</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y10 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _4"> </span>Introduction<span class="_ _3c"> </span><span class="fs5">...................................................................................................................<span class="_ _57"> </span></span><span class="fc2">1</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y11 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2<span class="_ _4"> </span>Algorithm<span class="_ _58"> </span>Design<span class="_ _59"> </span><span class="fs5">.............................................................................................................<span class="_ _5a"> </span></span><span class="fc2">2</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y12 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3<span class="_ _4"> </span>Results<span class="_ _5b"> </span><span class="fs5">.......................................................................................................................<span class="_ _5c"> </span></span><span class="fc2">13</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y13 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4<span class="_ _4"> </span>Summary<span class="_ _50"> </span><span class="fs5">....................................................................................................................<span class="_ _5d"> </span></span><span class="fc2">14</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y14 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">5<span class="_ _4"> </span>References<span class="_ _5e"> </span><span class="fs5">..................................................................................................................<span class="_ _5f"> </span></span><span class="fc2">15</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y15 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">List<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _60"> </span>Figures</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y16 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _4"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _2b"> </span>Block<span class="_ _23"> </span>Diagram<span class="_ _61"> </span><span class="fs5">.........................................................................................................<span class="_ _62"> </span></span><span class="fc2">2</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y17 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2<span class="_ _4"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _2b"> </span>Flowchart<span class="_ _31"> </span><span class="fs5">...............................................................................................................<span class="_ _63"> </span></span><span class="fc2">3</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y18 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3<span class="_ _4"> </span>Dynamic<span class="_ _40"> </span>VAD<span class="_ _7"> </span>Flowchart<span class="_ _31"> </span><span class="fs5">....................................................................................................<span class="_ _64"> </span></span><span class="fc2">5</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y19 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4<span class="_ _4"> </span>Binary<span class="_ _65"> </span>Search<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _66"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>Selection<span class="_ _1a"> </span><span class="fs5">..........................................................................................<span class="_ _67"> </span></span><span class="fc2">6</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1a ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">5<span class="_ _4"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Output<span class="_ _59"> </span>(Non-Linear)<span class="_ _69"> </span><span class="fs5">.........................................................................................<span class="_ _6a"> </span></span><span class="fc2">7</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1b ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">6<span class="_ _4"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Output<span class="_ _59"> </span>(Pseudo<span class="_ _61"> </span>Linear)<span class="_ _6b"> </span><span class="fs5">.....................................................................................<span class="_ _6c"> </span></span><span class="fc2">8</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1c ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">7<span class="_ _4"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Output<span class="_ _59"> </span>(Linear)<span class="_ _6d"> </span><span class="fs5">...............................................................................................<span class="_ _6e"> </span></span><span class="fc2">9</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1d ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">8<span class="_ _4"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>(Pseudo<span class="_ _37"> </span>Linear)<span class="_ _56"> </span><span class="fs5">......................................................................................<span class="_ _6f"> </span></span><span class="fc2">10</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1e ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">9<span class="_ _4"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>(Constant)<span class="_ _70"> </span><span class="fs5">.............................................................................................<span class="_ _71"> </span></span><span class="fc2">11</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y1f ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">10<span class="_ _72"> </span>Input<span class="_ _68"> </span>Versus<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _73"> </span>(Linear)<span class="_ _74"> </span><span class="fs5">................................................................................................<span class="_ _75"> </span></span><span class="fc2">12</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y20 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">11<span class="_ _72"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _2b"> </span>Internal<span class="_ _76"> </span>and<span class="_ _77"> </span>External<span class="_ _78"> </span>Signal<span class="_ _79"> </span>Plot<span class="_ _2f"> </span><span class="fs5">..................................................................................<span class="_ _7a"> </span></span><span class="fc2">14</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y21 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _60"> </span>Digital<span class="_ _4d"> </span>Still<span class="_ _7b"> </span>Camera<span class="_ _3f"> </span>(DSC),<span class="_ _6d"> </span>sound<span class="_ _56"> </span>is<span class="_ _7c"> </span>recorded<span class="_ _2"> </span>along<span class="_ _39"> </span>with<span class="_ _49"> </span>captured<span class="_ _36"> </span>video<span class="_ _19"> </span>frames<span class="_ _6d"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>movie<span class="_ _59"> </span>capture</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y22 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">application.<span class="_ _7d"> </span>The<span class="_ _7e"> </span>sound<span class="_ _56"> </span>signal<span class="_ _46"> </span>is<span class="_ _7c"> </span>converted<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _60"> </span>an<span class="_ _7f"> </span>electrical<span class="_ _2"> </span>signal<span class="_ _46"> </span>by<span class="_ _66"> </span>a<span class="_ _80"> </span>microphone<span class="_ _81"> </span>and<span class="_ _45"> </span>converted<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _60"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y23 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">digital<span class="_ _46"> </span>signal<span class="_ _46"> </span>by<span class="_ _66"> </span>an<span class="_ _82"> </span>Analog<span class="_ _16"> </span>to<span class="_ _60"> </span>Digital<span class="_ _83"> </span>Converter<span class="_ _c"> </span>(ADC).<span class="_ _6d"> </span>The<span class="_ _7e"> </span>need<span class="_ _51"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>an<span class="_ _7f"> </span>Automatic<span class="_ _10"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _11"> </span>Controller<span class="_ _12"> </span>(AGC)<span class="_ _84"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y24 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _60"> </span>amplify<span class="_ _85"> </span>speech<span class="_ _15"> </span>segments<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _60"> </span>an<span class="_ _7f"> </span>intelligible<span class="_ _c"> </span>sound<span class="_ _56"> </span>level,<span class="_ _86"> </span>while<span class="_ _35"> </span>not<span class="_ _4e"> </span>amplifying<span class="_ _87"> </span>noise<span class="_ _19"> </span>only<span class="_ _7"> </span>segments<span class="_ _12"> </span>[<span class="fc2">4<span class="_ _21"> </span></span>],<span class="_ _88"> </span>[<span class="fc2">5<span class="_ _21"> </span></span>],</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y25 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">[<span class="fc2">6<span class="_ _89"> </span></span>].<span class="_ _88"> </span>This<span class="_ _47"> </span>paper<span class="_ _65"> </span>describes<span class="_ _43"> </span>an<span class="_ _7f"> </span>AGC<span class="_ _4f"> </span>using<span class="_ _19"> </span>a<span class="_ _88"> </span>low<span class="_ _8a"> </span>computation<span class="_ _8b"> </span>intensive<span class="_ _2"> </span>Voice<span class="_ _79"> </span>Activity<span class="_ _85"> </span>Detector<span class="_ _58"> </span>(VAD)<span class="_ _56"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y26 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">detecting<span class="_ _70"> </span>speech<span class="_ _8c"> </span>embedded<span class="_ _17"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>stationary<span class="_ _12"> </span>noise.<span class="_ _8d"> </span>In<span class="_ _60"> </span>addition,<span class="_ _34"> </span>the<span class="_ _4e"> </span>paper<span class="_ _42"> </span>explains<span class="_ _8e"> </span>the<span class="_ _4e"> </span>use<span class="_ _7b"> </span>of<span class="_ _60"> </span>gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>curve<span class="_ _4a"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y27 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">preserve<span class="_ _36"> </span>relative<span class="_ _15"> </span>sound<span class="_ _56"> </span>level<span class="_ _8f"> </span>of<span class="_ _60"> </span>different<span class="_ _1a"> </span>speech<span class="_ _8c"> </span>segments<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _60"> </span>retain<span class="_ _1b"> </span>distance<span class="_ _4c"> </span>perception<span class="_ _3c"> </span>contained<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y28 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">audio<span class="_ _39"> </span>signal.<span class="_ _5b"> </span>The<span class="_ _7e"> </span>paper<span class="_ _65"> </span>provides<span class="_ _58"> </span>three<span class="_ _35"> </span>different<span class="_ _1a"> </span>means<span class="_ _76"> </span>of<span class="_ _60"> </span>gain<span class="_ _47"> </span>correction;<span class="_ _3c"> </span>namely,<span class="_ _40"> </span>analog,<span class="_ _78"> </span>digital<span class="_ _46"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y29 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">combination<span class="_ _90"> </span>of<span class="_ _60"> </span>analog<span class="_ _44"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>digital<span class="_ _46"> </span>gain.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2a ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">SPRAAL1<span class="_ _40"> </span>&#8211;<span class="_ _91"> </span>July<span class="_ _4e"> </span>2008<span class="_ _92"> </span><span class="ff2">Software<span class="_ _16"> </span>Implementation<span class="_ _8b"> </span>of<span class="_ _93"> </span>Automatic<span class="_ _94"> </span>Gain<span class="_ _0"> </span>Controller<span class="_ _18"> </span>for<span class="_ _3d"> </span>Speech<span class="_ _95"> </span>Signal<span class="_ _61"> </span></span>1</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2b ff2 fs6 fc2 sc0 ls0 ws0">Submit<span class="_ _4a"> </span>Documentation<span class="_ _96"> </span>Feedback</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d 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