WiMAX.rar

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The compander useslaw compression and expansion at the transmitter and receiver, respectively.
WiMAX.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625ef9522cc14f6636235e16/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625ef9522cc14f6636235e16/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">26</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">th</div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws1"> NATIONAL RADIO SCIENCE <span class="ls3 ws0">CONFERENCE (NRSC2009) </span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">1 <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls5">C35 </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws2">March 17-19, 2009, Faculty of <span class="ls7 ws3">Engineering, Future Univ., Egypt</span><span class="ff2 ws0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y6 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">26</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y7 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">th</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y6 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsa ws4"> NATOINAL RADIO SCIENCE CONFERENCE, NRSC'2009 </div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y8 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsb ws5">Future University, 5</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y9 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">th</div><div class="t m0 xc h6 ya ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsc ws6"> Compound, New Cairo, Egypt, Marc<span class="_ _1"></span>h 17-19, 2009 </div><div class="t m0 xd h8 yb ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsd ws7">WiMAX Performance with Compand<span class="lse ws8">er for PAPR Reduction in the </span></div><div class="t m0 xe h8 yc ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws9">Presence of Non-Linear Power Amp<span class="lsf wsa">lifier over SUI MultiPath Channels<span class="_ _2"></span></span><span class="ff2 ws0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xf h9 yd ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xf h9 ye ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 ha yf ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">H. Y. Sakran</div><div class="t m0 x11 h6 y10 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0"> 1</div><div class="t m0 x12 ha yf ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls11 wsb">, M. Shokair</div><div class="t m0 x13 h6 y10 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0"> 2</div><div class="t m0 x14 hb yf ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">, A. Abou Elazm<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h6 y10 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0"> 3</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha yf ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x17 hc y11 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsc">Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Electronic </div><div class="t m0 x18 hc y12 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsd">Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt </div><div class="t m0 x19 hc y13 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls11 wsb">Email: </div><div class="t m0 x1a hd y14 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">1 </div><div class="t m0 x1b hc y13 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">hefdh_sakran@yahoo.com </div><div class="t m0 xf hb y15 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xf hb y16 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1c hb y17 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">Abstract </div><div class="t m0 xf he y18 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 hf y19 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0"> <span class="fs2 ls15 wse">This paper presents proposed WiMAX system<span class="_ _1"></span> with com<span class="_ _1"></span>pander for reducing peak-to-average power ratio </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls16 wsf">(PAPR). The compander uses &#181;-law com<span class="_ _1"></span>pression and expa<span class="ls17 ws10">nsion at the transm<span class="_ _1"></span>itter and receiver, respectively. </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws11">Moreover, the performance of the proposed system will be<span class="ls19 ws12"> com<span class="_ _1"></span>pared with conventional system, i.e., a system </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws13">without compander, and a system th<span class="ls1b ws14">at uses clipping techni<span class="ls1c ws15">que for reduction. All these systems will be </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws16">investigated over Standard<span class="_ _2"></span> University Interim (SUI) channels and Additive W<span class="_ _2"></span>hite Gaussian Noise (AW<span class="_ _2"></span>GN). </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws17">The Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) equalization also will be used on th<span class="_ _2"></span>e pervious systems. The </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y1f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws18">simulati<span class="_ _1"></span>on results show that, the peak power reduced by about 4 dB and SNR also decreases more than 5 dB at </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y20 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws19">Bit Error Rate (BER) =10</div><div class="t m0 x1d h10 y21 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">-4</div><div class="t m0 x1e h4 y22 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws1a"> in presence of nonlinear power amplifier. </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y23 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y24 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 hb y25 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls11 wsb">1. Introduction </div><div class="t m0 x6 h11 y26 ff2 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y27 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws1b"> WiMAX <span class="_ _2"></span>system <span class="_ _2"></span>[1] <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>new <span class="_ _3"></span>wireless <span class="_ _2"></span>technol<span class="ls22 ws1c">ogy that provi<span class="_ _1"></span>des high throughput <span class="_ _1"></span>broadband connections over </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y28 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws1d">long distances based on IEEE 802.16. It<span class="ls15 ws1e"> can be used for a number of a<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls1d ws1f">pplications, including "last mile" </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y29 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws20">broadband connections, hotspots and <span class="_ _1"></span>cellu<span class="ls24 ws21">lar backhaul<span class="_ _1"></span>, and high-speed enterprise connecti<span class="_ _1"></span>vity for business. Due </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws22">to its high spectrum efficiency and r<span class="ls25 ws23">obustness in multi-path propagation, OF<span class="ls19 ws24">DM is used in the WiMAX system. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws25">OFDM [2] is a special form <span class="_ _1"></span>of multi carrier m<span class="_ _1"></span>odula<span class="ls17 ws26">tion and mitigate Inter Sym<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls26 ws27">bol Interference (ISI) by </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws28">multiplexing the data on orthogonal prope<span class="ls27 ws29">rty. Moreover, it is spectrally mo<span class="ls1c ws15">re efficient technique than a </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws2a">conventional single carrier m<span class="_ _1"></span>odulation t<span class="_ _1"></span>echnique. </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws2b"> <span class="_ _4"></span>A principal drawback of<span class="_ _2"></span> OFDM is that the peak transmitted power may be up to <span class="ff4 ls6 ws0">N</span><span class="ls17 ws2c"> times the average, which </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y2f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws2d">results in high PAPR, where <span class="ff4 ls6 ws0">N</span><span class="ls15 ws2e"> is the number of sub-carriers. High PAPR values m<span class="_ _1"></span>ainly cause two </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y30 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws2f">disadvantages. Firstly, in the digit<span class="_ _1"></span>al part, high PAPR si<span class="ls29 ws30">gnals <span class="_ _1"></span>need longer word- lengt<span class="_ _1"></span>h digital<span class="_ _1"></span> signal processors </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y31 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws31">and analog-to-digital (A/<span class="_ _1"></span>D) converters, which increase the <span class="ls2a ws32">expenses considerably; Secondly, in the analog part, </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y32 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws33">high PAPR signals lead t<span class="_ _1"></span>o in-band distortion and out-o<span class="ls23 ws34">f-band radi<span class="_ _1"></span>ation when it pass through nonlinear devices </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y33 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws1a">such as RF power amplifiers (PA) [3 ]. </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y34 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws1b">Several researc<span class="_ _1"></span>hers have p<span class="_ _1"></span>roposed schem<span class="_ _1"></span>es for reduci<span class="_ _1"></span>ng peak<span class="ws35"> am<span class="_ _1"></span>plitude ,s<span class="_ _1"></span>uch as clippin<span class="_ _1"></span>g [4],codin<span class="_ _1"></span>g[5] , interle- </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y35 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">-aving [6],Act<span class="_ _1"></span>ive Const<span class="_ _1"></span>ellatio<span class="_ _1"></span>n Extension<span class="_ _1"></span> (ACE) [7], <span class="_ _1"></span>partial<span class="_ _1"></span> transmit seque<span class="_ _1"></span>nces [8], Tu<span class="_ _1"></span>rbo Coded O<span class="_ _1"></span>FDM [9]<span class="_ _1"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y36 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws36">In this paper, proposed WiMAX system with comp<span class="ls2a ws37">ander and without compa<span class="ls2c ws38">nder will be studied. The </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y37 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws39">companding technique is used to reduce PAPR based on <span class="ls26 ws3a">the properti<span class="_ _1"></span>es of the &#181;-law t<span class="_ _1"></span>o decrease dynamic range </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y38 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws3b">of the signal. Moreover, the performance of the proposed <span class="ls1d ws3c">system will be com<span class="_ _1"></span>pared w<span class="ls2d ws3d">ith the system that uses </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y39 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws3e">clipping as a reduction of PAPR. Th<span class="ls7 ws3f">ese systems will be investigated<span class="ls24 ws2a"> under SUI channels and AWGN. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y3a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws40">The paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the PA<span class="ls20 ws41">PR in OFDM will be introduced. In Section 3, proposed </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y3b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws19">system will be described. Simulation results will be m<span class="_ _1"></span>ade<span class="ls18 ws42"> in Section 4. Conclusions will be done in Section 5. </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 hb y3c ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 hb y3d ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">2. PAPR in OFDM System </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y3e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y3f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws1b"> If <span class="_ _5"></span>we <span class="_ _5"></span>consider <span class="_ _5"></span><span class="ff4 ls6 ws0">N</span><span class="ls18 ws43"> modulated data sym<span class="_ _1"></span>bols from a pa<span class="ls19 ws44">rticular signalling constellation, <span class="ff4 ls6 ws0">X</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1f h12 y40 ff4 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">k</div><div class="t m0 x20 h13 y41 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws45">= (X</div><div class="t m0 x21 h12 y40 ff4 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">0 </div><div class="t m0 x22 h13 y41 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">,X</div><div class="t m0 x23 h12 y40 ff4 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">1 </div><div class="t m0 x24 h13 y41 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws46">, ...,X</div><div class="t m0 x25 h12 y40 ff4 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">N<span class="ff5">&#8722;</span>1</div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y41 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">),<span class="ff2 ls6"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y42 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws47">over a time interval [0, T], the OFDM symbol can be written as, </div><div class="t m0 x13 h4 y43 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y44 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0"> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y45 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws48"> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> (1) </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y46 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws49"> where &#402;</div><div class="t m0 x27 h10 y47 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x28 h11 y48 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws4a"> =1/ T .<span class="fs9 ls31 ws0"> <span class="fs2 ls6"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x29 h14 y49 ff6 fsa fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">&#8721;</div><div class="t m0 x2a h15 y4a ff6 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">&#8722;</div><div class="t m0 x2b h15 y4b ff6 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">=</div><div class="t m0 x2c h16 y4c ff6 fsc fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">=</div><div class="t m0 x2d h17 y4a ff2 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x2e h17 y4b ff2 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x2f h18 y4d ff2 fsd fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x30 h19 y4e ff2 fse fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x31 h1a y4c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">)<span class="_ _6"></span>(</div><div class="t m0 x32 h1b y4a ff4 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">N</div><div class="t m0 x32 h1b y4b ff4 fsb fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">k</div><div class="t m0 x33 h1c y4f ff4 fsc fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">e</div><div class="t m0 x34 h1d y4e ff4 fse fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">t<span class="_ _7"></span>kf<span class="_ _8"></span>j</div><div class="t m0 x35 h1d y50 ff4 fse fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">k</div><div class="t m0 x36 h1e y4c ff4 fsf fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">X<span class="_ _9"></span>t<span class="_ _a"></span>x</div><div class="t m1 x37 h1f y4e ff6 fs10 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">&#960;</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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