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Bi-directional DC DC Buck Boost for battery storage systems
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624fdc9b6caf596192f7255e/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624fdc9b6caf596192f7255e/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Energy and Power Engineering<span class="ff2 ls1 ws1">, 2012, 4, 315-<span class="_ _0"></span>323 </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff3 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws2">http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/epe.2012.45041</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y3 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> Published Online September 2012 (h<span class="ws2">ttp://www.SciRP.or<span class="_ _0"></span>g/journal/epe) </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws4">Design and <span class="_ _1"></span>Analysis of a 24 <span class="_ _0"></span>Vdc to 48 <span class="_ _2"></span>Vdc Bidir<span class="_ _2"></span>ectional </div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws5">DC-DC Converter<span class="_ _2"></span> Specifically for a Distributed Energy <span class="_"> </span> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws2">Application </div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws6">Ambrosio B. Cultura II</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y8 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2">1</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws7">, Ziyad M. Salameh</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y8 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2">2</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y9 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2">1</div><div class="t m0 xb h3 ya ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws8">Mindanao University of Scie<span class="lsa ws9">nce and Technology, Caga<span class="_ _0"></span>yan <span class="lsb wsa">de Oro City, Philippines </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xc h7 yb ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2">2</div><div class="t m0 xd h3 yc ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc wsb">University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowe<span class="_ _0"></span>ll, USA </div><div class="t m0 xe h3 yd ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd wsc">Email: acultura2003@<span class="_ _0"></span>yahoo.c<span class="lsc wsb">om, ziyadsalameh@uml.edu </span></div><div class="t m0 xf h3 ye ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 yf ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse wsd">Received July 1<span class="_ _0"></span>9,<span class="ff4 ls8 ws2"> </span><span class="lsa ws9">2012; revised August 20, 2012; accepted August 31, 2012<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ff4 ls8 ws2"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y10 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsf ws2">ABSTRACT </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y11 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls10 wse">The design of a bi<span class="_ _0"></span>directional DC-<span class="_ _0"></span>DC power converter<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>specifi<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls11 wsf">cally for a d<span class="_ _3"></span>istribu<span class="_ _3"></span>ted energy a<span class="_ _3"></span>p<span class="ls12 ws10">plication is presented. The </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y12 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws11">existing two <span class="_ _2"></span>different DC voltage <span class="_ _2"></span>battery bank of the di<span class="_ _0"></span>stributed <span class="_ _0"></span>generation nee<span class="_ _2"></span>d<span class="_ _3"></span>s to interl<span class="_ _0"></span>ink each ot<span class="_ _0"></span>her using a<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y13 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws12">bi-directional DC-DC converter in order to minimize the unba<span class="ls15 ws13">lance of the output load currents of the three i<span class="_ _0"></span>nverters </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y14 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws14">connected to electric grid system<span class="_ _0"></span>. Throug<span class="ls17 ws15">h this co<span class="_ _0"></span>nnection, a cu<span class="_ _0"></span>rrent can <span class="_ _0"></span>flow from<span class="_ _2"></span> one system to anoth<span class="_ _0"></span>er or vice vers<span class="_ _0"></span>a </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y15 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws16">depending <span class="_ _0"></span>on which sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stems need t<span class="_ _0"></span>he current m<span class="_ _2"></span>ost. Thus, unbalanced<span class="_ _2"></span> currents of the gri<span class="_ _2"></span>d line have been m<span class="_ _2"></span>inimized and </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y16 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws17">the reliability and performance of the DER grid connected sy<span class="ls19">stem has been increased. A detailed mathematical analysis </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y17 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws18">of the converter under steady state and tran<span class="_ _3"></span>sient condition <span class="ls19">are presen<span class="_ _3"></span>ted. Mathematical models for boost and<span class="_ _3"></span> buck </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y18 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws19">modes are being <span class="_ _2"></span>derived and the Sim<span class="_ _0"></span>ulink m<span class="_ _0"></span>odel is constructe<span class="_ _0"></span>d in order<span class="_ _0"></span> to simulat<span class="_ _0"></span>e the system. M<span class="_ _0"></span>oreover, the m<span class="_ _2"></span>odel </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y19 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws1a">has been validated on the actual operatio<span class="ls15 ws1b">n of the converter, showi<span class="_ _0"></span>ng that the <span class="ls1c ws1c">simulated results in Matlab Simulink are </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1a ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws1d">consistent wi<span class="_ _0"></span>th the expe<span class="_ _0"></span>rimental<span class="_ _0"></span> ones. </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y1c ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws2">Keywords:<span class="ff3 ls1d ws1e"> <span class="_ _2"></span>Distributed Ene<span class="_ _0"></span>rgy Resources; Bidirec<span class="ls1e">tional DC-DC Converter; ELECTR<span class="_ _0"></span>IC Grid </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y1d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws1f">1. Introduction </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1e ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws20">The distributed energy resources (DER<span class="_ _0"></span>) considered in thi<span class="_ _3"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y1f ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws21">study is c<span class="_ _2"></span>omposed of phot<span class="_ _2"></span>ovoltaics (PV),<span class="_ _0"></span> wind t<span class="_ _0"></span>urbines, </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y20 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws22">a fuel cell, batteries and supercapacitors. The system<span class="_ _0"></span> is </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y21 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws23">divided i<span class="_ _0"></span>nto two subsy<span class="_ _0"></span>stems. Sub<span class="_ _0"></span>system 1 i<span class="_ _0"></span>s composed<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y22 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws24">of PV, a PEM fuel cell, wind turbines and 24 V batteries. </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y23 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws25">Subsystem<span class="_ _0"></span> 2 is compose<span class="_ _0"></span>d of PV, a <span class="_ _2"></span>wind turbine, super- </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y24 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws26">capacitor and <span class="_ _0"></span>48 V batteries.<span class="_ _2"></span> The detailed schematic dia- </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y25 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws27">gram of grid connected <span class="_ _0"></span>DER <span class="ls25 ws28">at the University of Massa- </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y26 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws29">chusetts Lowell (UMass Lowell) is presented in <span class="ff2 ls27 ws2a">Figure 1</span><span class="ls24 ws2">. </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y27 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws2b">This DER, as it stands now, consists of four r<span class="_ _2"></span>oof top <span class="_ _3"></span>mou<span class="_ _3"></span>- </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y28 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws2c">nted wind turbines rated<span class="_ _3"></span> for 2.4 kW, 1.5 kW, 500 W, and </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y29 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws2d">300 W; two photovoltaic arrays r<span class="_ _3"></span>ated for 2.5 kW and </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2a ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws2e">10.56 kW that are connected thr<span class="_ _3"></span>ough a microprocessor- </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws2f">controlled<span class="_ _0"></span> maximum<span class="_ _2"></span> power point tracker<span class="_ _0"></span>s (MPPT); t<span class="_ _0"></span>wo </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2c ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws30">battery storage b<span class="_ _3"></span>anks rated at 24 V, 45 kWh and 48 V, 30 </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2d ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws31">kWh; a 1.2 kW PEM type fuel cell; four modules <span class="_ _2"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2e ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws32">Maxwell Supe<span class="_ _2"></span>r capacitors, each of w<span class="_ _0"></span>hich is rated at<span class="_ _0"></span> 48 V, </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y2f ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws33">140 Farads;<span class="_ _0"></span> and three 4 <span class="_ _0"></span>kW sine wave<span class="_ _0"></span> inverters t<span class="_ _0"></span>hat are </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y30 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws34">connected to the utility grid. A d<span class="_ _3"></span>ata acquisition system </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y31 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws35">(DAQ) is installed in order to monitor the performance of </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y32 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws36">all energy resources. </div><div class="t m0 x11 ha y33 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws37">In its operation, there are times that the 24 V battery </div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y34 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws38">bank supplies less current to Inverter 1 than the 48 V bat-<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y35 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws39">tery bank suppli<span class="_ _0"></span>es to Invert<span class="_ _0"></span>ers 2 and 3. This cause<span class="_ _2"></span>s an </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y36 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws3a">imbalance of currents t<span class="_ _0"></span>o the 3-phase electric grid. There </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y37 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws38">are also times that Inverter 1 <span class="_ _0"></span>or 2 shuts-down or ma<span class="_ _0"></span>lfun<span class="_ _3"></span>c- </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y38 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws3b">tions. In other words, the quality, the reliability and<span class="_ _3"></span> the </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y39 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws3c">performance of the system are compromised. Hence, in<span class="_ _3"></span>te- </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3a ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws3d">grating the t<span class="_ _2"></span>wo systems can lessen or<span class="_ _0"></span> resolve thi<span class="_ _0"></span>s prob- </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws3e">lem. So, there was a need for the design and construction </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3c ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws3f">of a bidirectional DC-DC convert<span class="_ _0"></span>er. This bidirectional<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3d ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws40">DC-DC conve<span class="_ _2"></span>rter would connect t<span class="_ _2"></span>he two-battery banks </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3e ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls33 wsf">of the distri<span class="_ _0"></span>buted energy<span class="_ _0"></span> resources. Thr<span class="_ _0"></span>ough this con<span class="_ _0"></span>nec-</div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y3f ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws41">tion, a cu<span class="_ _0"></span>rrent wo<span class="_ _0"></span>uld flow <span class="_ _2"></span>from one system t<span class="_ _0"></span>o another </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y40 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws42">depending o<span class="_ _0"></span>n which system<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>n<span class="ls34 ws43">eeded the current the most. </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y41 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws44">Imbalanced cu<span class="_ _0"></span>rrents of the gr<span class="_ _0"></span>id line would<span class="_ _0"></span> be minimi<span class="_ _0"></span>zed, </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y42 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws45">and the reliability and performance of th<span class="_ _3"></span>e existing DER </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y43 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws46">grid connected system<span class="_ _2"></span> would increase. The author desig<span class="_ _3"></span>n<span class="_ _3"></span>ed<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y44 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws47">the power and control circuit for this bidirectional DC- </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y45 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws48">DC converter and it is suited to this us<span class="_ _3"></span>e. The mathemati-</div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y46 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws49">cal analysis, S<span class="_ _0"></span>imulink m<span class="_ _0"></span>odel and sim<span class="_ _2"></span>u<span class="_ _3"></span>lation res<span class="_ _0"></span>ults are </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y47 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws4a">presented here <span class="_ _2"></span>and a prototype was fabri<span class="_ _2"></span>cated and tested. </div><div class="t m0 x12 h9 y48 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws4b">2. System Design </div><div class="t m0 x12 hb y49 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws4c">Figure 2<span class="ff3 ls26 ws4d"> illustrates the power circuit configuration of a </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y4a ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws4e">bidirectional DC-DC converter that was installed between </div><div class="t m0 x12 ha y4b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws4f">the two banks of batteries <span class="_ _3"></span>at the renewable ener<span class="_ _2"></span>gy<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y4c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws2">C</div><div class="t m0 x13 h8 y4d ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws2">o<span class="_ _4"></span>p<span class="_ _4"></span>y<span class="_ _4"></span>r<span class="_ _4"></span>i<span class="_ _4"></span>g<span class="_ _4"></span>h<span class="_ _4"></span>t<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>&#169;<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>2<span class="_ _4"></span>0<span class="_ _4"></span>1<span class="_ _4"></span>2<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>S<span class="_ _4"></span>c<span class="_ _4"></span>i<span class="_ _4"></span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _4"></span>s<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_ _4"></span> <span class="ff1 lsd">EPE</span><span class="ls8"> </span></div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.613445,0.000000,0.000000,1.613445,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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