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Performance Evaluation of Urban and Rural Areas for VANET
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6252e53f6caf5961927ae171/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6252e53f6caf5961927ae171/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">International Journal of Technology Research and Management </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ISSN (Online): 2348-9006 </div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Vol 1 Issue 5 October 2014 </div><div class="t m0 x4 h2 y4 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y7 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Paper ID: 2014/IJTR<span class="_ _0"></span>M/<span class="ls1">10</span>/2014/1609 <span class="_ _1"> </span> <span class="_ _2"> </span> 1 </div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y8 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Performance Evaluation of Urban and Rural Areas for </div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y9 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">VANET </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 ya ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">*Anjali Bhatt<span class="ls2">, <span class="ls3">**</span></span>N<span class="_ _3"></span>aresh Purohit<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 yb ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">*Patel college of science a<span class="_ _3"></span>nd technology, Indore, Dep<span class="_ _3"></span>artment of Electronics and <span class="_ _3"></span>Communication Engineerin<span class="_ _3"></span>g </div><div class="t m0 xa h6 yc ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ralamandal, B<span class="_ _3"></span>ypass Road, Indore Gpo, <span class="_ _3"></span>Indore <span class="ff4">&#8211;<span class="_ _3"></span></span> 452001 (M.P.)<span class="_ _3"></span> India (M Tech Student), <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ls3">**</span>Patel co<span class="_ _3"></span>llege of science </div><div class="t m0 xb h6 yd ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and technology,Indore,<span class="_ _3"></span>Department of E<span class="_ _3"></span>lectronics and Co<span class="_ _3"></span>mmunication Engineerin<span class="_ _3"></span>g , Ralamandal, Bypass Road<span class="_ _3"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 xc h6 ye ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Indore Gpo,<span class="_ _3"></span> Indore - 452001(M.P<span class="_ _3"></span>.) India (Assistance Professo<span class="_ _3"></span>r ) </div><div class="t m0 xd h6 yf ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y10 ff5 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract: <span class="_ _4"></span>VANET <span class="_ _4"></span>is <span class="_ _4"></span>different <span class="_ _4"></span>from <span class="_ _4"></span>MANET <span class="_ _4"></span>due <span class="_ _4"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>high <span class="_ _4"></span>mobility <span class="_ _4"></span>of <span class="_ _4"></span>nodes <span class="_ _4"></span>and <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>large <span class="_ _4"></span>scale <span class="_ _4"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y11 ff5 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks. <span class="_ _3"></span>Security <span class="_ _4"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>tr<span class="_ _3"></span>affic <span class="_ _3"></span>are <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>two <span class="_ _4"></span>main <span class="_ _4"></span>concerns <span class="_ _3"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>d<span class="_ _3"></span>esigning <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _4"></span>VANET <span class="_ _4"></span>.Although <span class="_ _3"></span>there </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y12 ff5 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are <span class="_ _5"> </span>many <span class="_ _5"> </span>proposed <span class="_ _5"> </span>solutions <span class="_ _5"> </span>for <span class="_ _5"> </span>improving <span class="_ _5"> </span>securities <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>VANET <span class="_ _5"> </span>but <span class="_ _5"> </span>security <span class="_ _5"> </span>still <span class="_ _5"> </span>remains <span class="_ _5"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y13 ff5 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">delicate research <span class="_ _3"></span>subject. <span class="_ _3"></span>In <span class="_ _3"></span>this <span class="_ _3"></span>paper <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc1">Creation <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _3"></span>Rural <span class="_ _3"></span>area <span class="_ _3"></span>network an<span class="_ _3"></span>d Urban <span class="_ _3"></span>area <span class="_ _3"></span>netwo<span class="_ _3"></span>rk </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y14 ff5 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">in <span class="_ _5"> </span>VANET <span class="_ _6"> </span>Scenario <span class="_ _5"> </span>for <span class="_ _5"> </span>NS<span class="_ _3"></span>-2 <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _6"> </span>then <span class="_ _5"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>create <span class="_ _5"> </span>Different <span class="_ _6"> </span>routing <span class="_ _5"> </span>protocols <span class="_ _5"> </span>with <span class="_ _6"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>use <span class="_ _5"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y15 ff5 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Various <span class="_ _3"></span>performance <span class="_ _3"></span>matrices <span class="_ _3"></span>Like <span class="_ _3"></span>Residual <span class="_ _3"></span>Energy <span class="_ _3"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>hroughput <span class="_ _3"></span>with tw<span class="_ _3"></span>o <span class="_ _3"></span>routing <span class="_ _3"></span>protocols </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y16 ff5 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">which are AODV and DSR. </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y17 ff5 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords: VANET, AODV, DSR and IEEE80211p<span class="ff6 fs3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y18 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xe h8 y19 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1.<span class="ff7"> <span class="_ _7"> </span></span>INTRODUCTION </div><div class="t m0 xe h6 y1a ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">VANET <span class="_ _8"> </span>presents <span class="_ _8"></span>a <span class="_ _9"></span>new <span class="_ _9"></span>a<span class="_ _3"></span>nd <span class="_ _8"> </span>promising <span class="_ _9"> </span>field <span class="_ _8"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y1b ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">research, <span class="_ _a"> </span>development <span class="_ _b"> </span>and <span class="_ _a"> </span>standardization. </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y1c ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Throughout <span class="_ _8"> </span>the <span class="_ _8"> </span>world, <span class="_ _8"> </span>there <span class="_ _8"> </span>are <span class="_ _8"> </span>many <span class="_ _8"> </span>national <span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y1d ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">international <span class="_ _8"> </span>pr<span class="_ _3"></span>ojects <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _8"> </span>govern<span class="_ _3"></span>ments, <span class="_ _8"> </span>industr<span class="_ _3"></span>y, <span class="_ _8"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y1e ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">academia <span class="_ _c"> </span>devoted <span class="_ _c"> </span>to <span class="_ _c"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>de<span class="_ _3"></span>velopment <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _d"> </span>VANET </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y1f ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">protocols <span class="_ _e"> </span>(Appendix <span class="_ _e"> </span>B). <span class="_ _e"> </span> <span class="_ _f"> </span>These <span class="_ _e"> </span>projects <span class="_ _e"> </span>include </div><div class="t m0 x5 h9 y20 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">consortiums <span class="_ _10"> </span>like <span class="_ _10"> </span>&#8222;The <span class="_ _10"> </span>Ded<span class="_ _3"></span>icated <span class="_ _10"> </span>Short <span class="_ _10"> </span>Range </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y21 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Communications <span class="_ _d"> </span>(D<span class="_ _3"></span>SRC)&#8223; <span class="_ _d"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>USA), <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _f"> </span>&#8222;Car<span class="ff2">-<span class="ls4">to</span>-Car<span class="_ _3"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h9 y22 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Communication&#8223; <span class="_ _11"> </span>(Europe) <span class="_ _11"> </span>and <span class="_ _11"> </span>the <span class="_ _11"> </span>&#8222;<span class="_ _0"></span>Intelligent </div><div class="t m0 x5 h9 y23 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Transportatio<span class="_ _3"></span>n Systems &#8223; <span class="_ _3"></span>(Japan), and <span class="_ _3"></span>standardization<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y24 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">efforts <span class="_"> </span>like <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff4">the <span class="_"> </span>IEEE <span class="_"> </span>802.11p <span class="_"> </span>&#8222;<span class="_ _0"></span>Wireless <span class="_"> </span>Access <span class="_"> </span>in </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y25 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Vehicular <span class="_ _4"></span>Environment&#8223; <span class="_ _4"></span>(W<span class="_ _3"></span>AVE) <span class="_ _4"></span>[<span class="_ _3"></span>1]<span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ff2 ls5">. <span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ls0">IEEE<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>802.11p </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y26 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">is <span class="_ _8"> </span>for <span class="_ _8"> </span>short <span class="_ _8"> </span>range <span class="_ _8"> </span>communication <span class="_ _8"> </span>with <span class="_ _8"> </span>up <span class="_ _8"> </span>to <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_ _8"> </span>few </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y27 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hundred <span class="_ _3"></span>meters. With <span class="_ _3"></span>this lim<span class="_ _3"></span>itation, we <span class="_ _3"></span>need to <span class="_ _3"></span>have </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y28 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">several <span class="_"> </span>APs/Road<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_"> </span>Side <span class="_"> </span>U<span class="_ _3"></span>nits <span class="_"> </span>(RSUs) <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_ _c"> </span>cover <span class="_"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y29 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">road <span class="_ _9"></span>or <span class="_ _12"></span>to <span class="_ _12"></span>manage <span class="_ _12"></span>t<span class="_ _3"></span>he <span class="_ _12"></span>ex<span class="_ _3"></span>isting <span class="_ _12"></span>RSU <span class="_ _9"></span>work <span class="_ _12"></span>in <span class="_ _12"></span>s<span class="_ _3"></span>uch <span class="_ _12"></span>a </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y2a ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">way <span class="_ _8"> </span>t<span class="_ _3"></span>hat <span class="_ _5"> </span>their <span class="_ _5"> </span>interactions <span class="_"> </span>with <span class="_ _8"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>v<span class="_ _0"></span>ehicles <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y2b ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">range are proper<span class="_ _3"></span>ly polled. </div><div class="t m0 x5 ha y2c ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Rural <span class="_ _12"></span>Netw<span class="_ _3"></span>ork:-<span class="ff2">A <span class="_ _12"></span>number <span class="_ _12"></span>of <span class="_ _12"></span>technologies, <span class="_ _9"></span>such <span class="_ _12"></span>as </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y2d ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">satellites, <span class="_ _e"> </span>vehicular <span class="_ _13"> </span>networks <span class="_ _e"> </span>can <span class="_ _e"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _e"> </span>utilized <span class="_ _13"> </span>for </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y2e ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">linking <span class="_ _d"> </span>rural <span class="_ _d"> </span>ar<span class="_ _3"></span>eas. <span class="_ _d"> </span>Ho<span class="_ _3"></span>wever, <span class="_ _f"> </span>802.11 <span class="_ _c"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>ased <span class="_ _d"> </span>me<span class="_ _3"></span>sh </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y2f ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks <span class="_ _4"></span>stand <span class="_ _3"></span>out <span class="_ _4"></span>as <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>cheapest, <span class="_ _4"></span>both <span class="_ _3"></span>to<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>dep<span class="_ _3"></span>loy <span class="_ _3"></span>as </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y30 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">well <span class="_ _d"> </span>as <span class="_ _d"> </span>to <span class="_ _d"> </span>use, <span class="_ _14"> </span>and <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _d"> </span>ea<span class="_ _3"></span>siest <span class="_ _d"> </span>to <span class="_ _d"> </span>i<span class="_ _3"></span>mplement. <span class="_ _d"> </span>In </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y31 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">addition, <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>spectrum <span class="_ _4"></span>used <span class="_ _3"></span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>y <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>802.11 <span class="_ _4"></span>protocol <span class="_ _4"></span>is<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y32 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unlicensed <span class="_ _4"></span>in <span class="_ _4"></span>most <span class="_ _4"></span>of <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>world, <span class="_ _4"></span>so <span class="_ _4"></span>cumbersome <span class="_ _4"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y33 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">expensive bureaucratic p<span class="_ _3"></span>rocesses of obtaining<span class="_ _3"></span> the </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y34 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y35 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">license <span class="_ _5"> </span>can <span class="_ _5"> </span>be <span class="_ _5"> </span>avoided. <span class="_"> </span>Several <span class="_ _8"> </span>universit<span class="_ _3"></span>y <span class="_ _8"> </span>r<span class="_ _3"></span>esearch </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y36 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">groups <span class="_ _c"> </span>are <span class="_ _d"> </span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>xperimenting <span class="_ _d"> </span>with <span class="_ _c"> </span>d<span class="_ _3"></span>eploying <span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y37 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>rural <span class="_"> </span>areas <span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>Africa <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>Asia. <span class="_"> </span>These </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y38 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">attempts <span class="_ _14"> </span>usually <span class="_ _14"> </span>ai<span class="_ _3"></span>m <span class="_ _d"> </span>to <span class="_ _14"> </span>co<span class="_ _3"></span>nnect <span class="_ _14"> </span>those <span class="_ _14"> </span>who <span class="_ _14"> </span>have<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y39 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">information <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _8"> </span>those <span class="_ _8"> </span>who <span class="_ _8"> </span>need <span class="_ _8"> </span>it. <span class="_ _8"> </span>Therefore, <span class="_ _8"> </span>long </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y3a ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distances <span class="_ _4"></span>that <span class="_ _4"></span>p<span class="_ _3"></span>revent <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>poor <span class="_ _12"></span>rural <span class="_ _4"></span>population <span class="_ _4"></span>from<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y3b ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reaching <span class="_ _15"> </span>medical <span class="_ _15"> </span>governmental <span class="_ _15"> </span>and <span class="_ _15"> </span>other </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y3c ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">professional <span class="_ _8"> </span>services <span class="_ _9"></span>are <span class="_ _8"> </span>being <span class="_ _8"> </span>bridged <span class="_ _9"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>y <span class="_ _9"></span>carefull<span class="_ _3"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y3d ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">designed <span class="_ _9"></span>wireless <span class="_ _12"></span>li<span class="_ _3"></span>nks. <span class="_ _12"></span>I<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _12"></span>a <span class="_ _9"></span>typical <span class="_ _9"></span>deployment <span class="_ _9"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y3e ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">links <span class="_ _8"> </span>spa<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _5"> </span>from <span class="_ _5"> </span>a <span class="_ _5"> </span>nearby <span class="_ _8"> </span>cit<span class="_ _3"></span>y <span class="_ _5"> </span>to <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_"> </span>so <span class="_ _8"> </span>called <span class="_"> </span>k<span class="_ _0"></span>iosk </div><div class="t m0 xf ha y3f ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">located in a re<span class="_ _3"></span>mote village.<span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xf ha y40 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Urban <span class="_ _9"></span>Network:-<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ff2">VANET <span class="_ _9"></span>deplo<span class="_ _3"></span>yment <span class="_ _12"></span>i<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _9"></span>an <span class="_ _9"></span>urban </span></div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y41 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">setting <span class="_ _c"> </span>in <span class="_ _d"> </span>which <span class="_ _d"> </span>a <span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless <span class="_ _d"> </span>multi-hop <span class="_ _d"> </span>networ<span class="_ _3"></span>k <span class="_ _c"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y42 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">stationary <span class="_ _14"> </span>mesh <span class="_ _14"> </span>nodes <span class="_ _d"> </span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>nable <span class="_ _d"> </span>or<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>supplements <span class="_ _14"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y43 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">network <span class="_ _14"> </span>co<span class="_ _3"></span>nnectivity <span class="_ _14"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"></span>mong <span class="_ _14"> </span>mobile <span class="_ _f"> </span>nodes. <span class="_ _f"> </span>Mesh </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y44 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nodes <span class="_ _8"> </span>can <span class="_ _8"> </span>be <span class="_ _8"> </span>strategically <span class="_ _8"> </span>positioned <span class="_ _8"> </span>at <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_ _8"> </span>s<span class="_ _3"></span>ubset <span class="_ _8"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y45 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">street <span class="_ _c"> </span>intersections. <span class="_ _c"> </span>We <span class="_ _c"> </span>evaluated <span class="_ _c"> </span>two <span class="_ _c"> </span>deplo<span class="_ _3"></span>yment </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y46 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scenarios: <span class="_ _14"> </span>(1) <span class="_ _f"> </span>mesh-e<span class="_ _3"></span>nhanced <span class="_ _14"> </span>p<span class="_ _3"></span>eer-<span class="ls4">to</span>-peer <span class="_ _f"> </span>routing </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y47 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(MEPPR) <span class="_ _c"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>here <span class="_"> </span>both <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_ _c"> </span>mobile <span class="_"> </span>nodes <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _c"> </span>static </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y48 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mesh <span class="_ _d"> </span>nodes <span class="_ _c"> </span>par<span class="_ _3"></span>ticipate <span class="_ _d"> </span>in <span class="_ _c"> </span>ro<span class="_ _3"></span>uting, <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_ _d"> </span>(2) <span class="_ _d"> </span>mesh<span class="_ _3"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y49 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">enhanced <span class="_ _12"></span>i<span class="_ _3"></span>nfrastructural <span class="_ _9"></span>routing <span class="_ _9"></span>(MEIR) <span class="_ _9"></span>where <span class="_ _12"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>nly </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y4a ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _f"> </span>static <span class="_ _e"> </span>mesh <span class="_ _e"> </span>nodes <span class="_ _e"> </span>participate <span class="_ _e"> </span>in <span class="_ _f"> </span>ro<span class="_ _3"></span>uting <span class="_ _f"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 xf ha y4b ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">forwarding packets generated<span class="_ _3"></span> by mobile nodes [<span class="_ _3"></span>9].<span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y4c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2.<span class="ff7"> <span class="_ _7"> </span></span>VANET CHARACTERISTICS </div><div class="t m0 x10 h6 y4d ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">VANETs, <span class="_ _11"> </span>W<span class="_ _3"></span>ireless <span class="_ _11"> </span>Sensor <span class="_ _11"> </span>Networks <span class="_ _11"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y4e ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Wireless <span class="_ _c"> </span>Mesh <span class="_ _c"> </span>Networ<span class="_ _3"></span>ks <span class="_ _c"> </span>are <span class="_ _c"> </span>special <span class="_ _d"> </span>cases <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _c"> </span>the </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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