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Investigation of Regulatory, Commercial, Economic and Environmental Issues in MicroGrids
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6243ea040cf57275afb61873/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6243ea040cf57275afb61873/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">Investigation of Regulatory<span class="_ _0"></span>, Commercial, </div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Economic and Environmental Issues in </div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws1">MicroGrids </div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2">D Pudjianto and G Strbac </div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y8 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4 ls4 ws3">&#8212; Concepts of MicroGrids are proposed to address </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y9 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws4">primarily vario<span class="_ _1"></span>us issues rela<span class="_ _1"></span>ted <span class="ls6 ws5">to integration of small scale </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ya ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws6">renewables and electr<span class="_ _2"></span>icity supply reliability. With an active </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yb ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws7">management control approach and ability to o<span class="_ _1"></span>perate in islanding </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yc ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws8">mode, a cluster of micro g<span class="_ _1"></span>enerators, <span class="_ _1"></span>electricity s<span class="_ _1"></span>torage and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yd ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws9">electrical loads can<span class="_ _1"></span> be operated within the MicroG<span class="_ _1"></span>rids </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ye ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb wsa">framework to provide higher suppl<span class="lsc wsb">y<span class="_ _2"></span> reliability to highly value </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yf ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsd wsc">customers. Sol<span class="_ _1"></span>utions are req<span class="_ _1"></span>uired not only to mak<span class="_ _1"></span>e these </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y10 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lse wsd">concepts technological<span class="_ _1"></span>ly feasible <span class="ls4 wse">and safe to operate but also to </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y11 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsf wsf">be commercially viable an<span class="_ _1"></span>d attractive, <span class="_ _1"></span>economically effici<span class="_ _1"></span>ent and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y12 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws10">supported by electric<span class="_ _1"></span>ity regulations<span class="_ _1"></span>. This paper summarises th<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y13 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws11">results of investigations on va<span class="ls11 ws12">rious economic, regulatory an<span class="_ _1"></span>d </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y14 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws13">commercial issues<span class="_ _1"></span> faced by the developm<span class="_ _1"></span>ent of MicroGrid<span class="_ _1"></span>s in </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y15 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws14">MICROGRIDS project. The potential economic be<span class="_ _2"></span>nefits and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y16 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsf ws15">contributions to environ<span class="_ _1"></span>ment from appli<span class="_ _1"></span>cations of Micro<span class="_ _1"></span>Grid </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y17 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws16">technologies are also presented and descr<span class="_ _2"></span>ibed in this paper. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y18 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h2 y19 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">I.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ff1">I</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h2 y1a ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">NTRODUCTION<span class="fs0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xa h2 y1b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws17">evelopment<span class="_ _1"></span> of enviro<span class="_ _1"></span>nmental<span class="_ _1"></span> friendly and hi<span class="_ _1"></span>ghly </div><div class="t m0 xa h2 y1c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws18">efficient power generation has become significan<span class="_ _2"></span>tly </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">important after increasi<span class="_ _1"></span>ng awareness of detrim<span class="_ _1"></span>ental effects </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1a">caused by em<span class="_ _1"></span>issions from<span class="_ _1"></span> hydrocarbon ba<span class="_ _1"></span>sed power stat<span class="_ _1"></span>ions </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws1b">on the sustaina<span class="_ _1"></span>ble of enviro<span class="_ _1"></span>nment. At t<span class="_ _1"></span>he same tim<span class="_ _1"></span>e, demand<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y20 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws1c">of reliable elect<span class="_ _1"></span>ricity supply<span class="_ _1"></span> grows continuo<span class="_ _1"></span>usly along the use<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y21 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws1d">of electricity equipments in most of strategic activities.<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y22 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws1e">However, the increased freque<span class="_ _1"></span>ncy of blackouts occurred </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y23 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws1f">across Europe and<span class="_ _1"></span> America raise dee<span class="_ _1"></span>p concer<span class="_ _1"></span>ns and need </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y24 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws20">solutions. </div><div class="t m0 xb h2 y25 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws21">Distributed Generation (DG) h<span class="_ _2"></span>as potential to b<span class="_ _2"></span>e the required </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y26 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws22">solutions fo<span class="_ _1"></span>r the two <span class="_ _1"></span>problem<span class="_ _1"></span>s above. Howeve<span class="_ _1"></span>r, appl<span class="_ _1"></span>ications </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y27 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws23">of DG in larg<span class="_ _1"></span>e scale have <span class="_ _1"></span>faced com<span class="_ _1"></span>plex challenges t<span class="_ _1"></span>hat need </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y28 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws24">to be solved before the be<span class="_ _1"></span>nefits of DG can be realised. I<span class="_ _1"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y29 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws25">addition to tech<span class="_ _2"></span>nical problems, commercial and<span class="_ _2"></span> regulatory </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws26">challenges have been significan<span class="ls22 ws27">tly slowing down the rate of </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws28">DG deploym<span class="_ _1"></span>ent in present s<span class="_ _1"></span>ystem<span class="_ _1"></span>s. Solutions are re<span class="_ _1"></span>quire<span class="_ _1"></span>d for </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws29">these problems<span class="_ _1"></span> to enable furt<span class="_ _1"></span>her signific<span class="_ _1"></span>ant progre<span class="_ _1"></span>ss on </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws0">developing<span class="_ _1"></span> reliable and <span class="_ _1"></span>sustainable <span class="_ _1"></span>power sy<span class="_ _1"></span>stems in f<span class="_ _1"></span>uture. </div><div class="t m0 xb h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws2a">Abilities of integrating the operation of small scale DG </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws2b">(micro generation) resources, maintaining the capability of<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws2c">utilising these resource capacities <span class="ls1c ws2d">to supply local load and to </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _4"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xc h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y33 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws2e">D Pudjianto, and G Strbac are with the School of Electrical and Electronic </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws2f">Engineering, the University of Manchester, Manchester,<span class="_ _1"></span> M60 1QD, UK. </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y35 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws30">This work was supported by the European Commission under<span class="_ _1"></span> EU research </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y36 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws31">project ENK5-CT-2002-0061<span class="_ _1"></span>0 &#8220;MICROGRIDS&#8221;. </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y37 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y38 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws32">isolate faults i<span class="_ _1"></span>n other system<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="ls2c ws33">are the important features of </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y39 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">MicroGrids </div><div class="t m0 xe h2 y3a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">[1]<span class="ls0">-<span class="ls2e">[2]<span class="ls2f ws34">. In order t<span class="_ _1"></span>o promot<span class="_ _1"></span>e economicall<span class="_ _1"></span>y efficient </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y3b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws35">allocation of these resources, en<span class="_ _2"></span>ergy and ancillary service </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y3c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws36">markets can be develo<span class="_ _1"></span>ped inside the Mi<span class="_ _1"></span>croGrids. Pr<span class="_ _1"></span>omising </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y3d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws37">results have <span class="_ _1"></span>been obtaine<span class="_ _1"></span>d during t<span class="_ _1"></span>he sim<span class="_ _1"></span>ulation of <span class="_ _1"></span>such </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y3e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws38">market, which will be explained in the next section. </div><div class="t m0 xf h2 y3f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws39">The results from other investigation including assessment of </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y40 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws3a">regulation i<span class="_ _1"></span>n a number <span class="_ _1"></span>of European c<span class="_ _1"></span>ountries (U<span class="_ _1"></span>K, Spain, </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y41 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws3b">Holland, and Greece), developm<span class="_ _1"></span>ent of methodologies to </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y42 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws3c">allocate losses in MicroGrids <span class="ls33 ws3d">and to quantify the economic </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y43 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws39">and environmental benefits of MicroGrids<span class="_ _2"></span> will be described in </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y44 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws3e">section III, IV and V respectively. </div><div class="t m0 x10 h2 y45 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">II.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ff1">M</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x11 h2 y46 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws3f">ARKET SIMULATION<span class="fs0 ls0 ws0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xf h2 y47 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws40">Traditionally, the System Operator (SO) desp<span class="_ _2"></span>atches all </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y48 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws41">generating units by instruct<span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="ls2c ws42">ng each unit to <span class="_ _1"></span>operate at a </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y49 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws43">particular state. As an alternativ<span class="_ _2"></span>e to that operation ph<span class="_ _2"></span>ilosophy, </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws44">SO could inform<span class="_ _1"></span> the generators about the prices associ<span class="_ _1"></span>ated </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws45">with the level of energ<span class="_ _2"></span>y and ancillary services that the SO, on </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws46">the behalf of the customers, is <span class="ls22 ws47">willing to pay. Instead of being </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws48">determined by SO, the generators have the autonomy to </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws49">determine the optimal level of<span class="_ _2"></span> energy and ancillary services </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y4f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws4a">they are willing to produce at <span class="ls17 ws4b">the give<span class="_ _1"></span>n price. Assuming each </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y50 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws4c">generator wa<span class="_ _1"></span>nts to maxim<span class="_ _1"></span>ise their pr<span class="_ _1"></span>ofit, the ge<span class="_ _1"></span>nerators wil<span class="_ _1"></span>l </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y51 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws4d">produce up to the poi<span class="_ _1"></span>nt where t<span class="_ _1"></span>heir marginal operat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion costs </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y52 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws4e">are equal to the price offered by the SO. </div><div class="t m0 xf h2 y53 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws4f">The main advantage of this <span class="_ _1"></span>ap<span class="ls25 ws50">proach is to <span class="ls3a ws51">decentralise the </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y54 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws52">despatch decision<span class="_ _2"></span> to each unit; although, th<span class="_ _2"></span>e system </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y55 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws53">coordination is still vitally <span class="_ _2"></span>required and cou<span class="_ _2"></span>ld be achieved </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y56 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws54">through the price si<span class="_ _1"></span>gnal give<span class="_ _1"></span>n by the SO. <span class="_ _1"></span>With the </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y57 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws32">decentralised control approach, <span class="ls1c ws55">the c<span class="_ _1"></span>ontrol independency of </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y58 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3e ws56">each unit is preserved. T<span class="_ _1"></span>his f<span class="ls3f ws57">eature is extremely valuable </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y59 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws58">especially if the unit needs to be operated in isolated<span class="_ _2"></span> mode. </div><div class="t m0 xf h2 y5a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws59">However, this alternative app<span class="_ _2"></span>roach requires micro </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y5b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws5a">generation and electrical storag<span class="_ _2"></span>e facilities to response firstly </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y5c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws5b">against the di<span class="_ _1"></span>sturbances bef<span class="_ _1"></span>ore SO send<span class="_ _1"></span>s new pri<span class="_ _1"></span>ces </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y5d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws5c">information to re-dispatch<span class="_ _2"></span> generation. The respon<span class="_ _2"></span>se will be </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y5e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws5d">determined by droop characteristic<span class="ls41 ws5e">s of kW output to frequenc<span class="_ _2"></span>y </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y5f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws5f">and kVAr out<span class="_ _1"></span>put to v<span class="_ _1"></span>oltage. Due t<span class="_ _1"></span>o the new ope<span class="_ _1"></span>rating p<span class="_ _1"></span>oint, </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y60 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws60">new bids are submitted to SO to be considered for the next </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y61 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws61">dispatch decisions<span class="_ _1"></span>. With the pri<span class="_ _1"></span>cing feedba<span class="_ _1"></span>ck given by cont<span class="_ _1"></span>rol </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y62 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls42 ws62">units (micro generat<span class="_ _1"></span>ors, storage a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd responsive loa<span class="_ _1"></span>ds) to SO, </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y63 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws63">this control a<span class="_ _1"></span>pproach can be <span class="_ _1"></span>cla<span class="ls3a ws64">ssified as a closed loop price </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y64 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws0">signal </div><div class="t m0 x12 h2 y65 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">[3]<span class="ls33 ws65">. It is important to bear in mind that if it is required, </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y66 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws66">there will be no techn<span class="_ _2"></span>ical difficulty to implement the </div><div class="t m0 xd h2 y67 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws67">traditional approach in the MicroGrids. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y68 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls43 ws0">D </div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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