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Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Schemes in Wireless Powered Communication Networks
AbdElaziz_ICC_17_NOMAWPCN.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62550ee8b744eb386fd87d8e/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62550ee8b744eb386fd87d8e/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Non-Orthogonal<span class="_ _0"> </span>Multiple<span class="_ _0"> </span>Access<span class="_ _0"> </span>Schemes<span class="_ _0"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _1"></span>ireless<span class="_ _0"> </span>Po<span class="_ _2"></span>wered<span class="_ _0"> </span>Communication<span class="_ _0"> </span>Networks</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mohamed<span class="_ _3"> </span>A.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Abd-Elmagid</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Alessandro<span class="_ _3"> </span>Biason</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 x7 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>amer<span class="_ _3"> </span>ElBatt</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">&#8727;&#8225;</div><div class="t m0 x9 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Karim<span class="_ _3"> </span>G.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Seddik</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#167;</div><div class="t m0 xb h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _3"> </span>Michele<span class="_ _3"> </span>Zorzi</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y4 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 xd h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 xe h5 y6 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless<span class="_ _4"> </span>Intelligent<span class="_ _4"> </span>Netw<span class="_ _5"></span>orks<span class="_ _4"> </span>Center<span class="_ _6"> </span>(WINC),<span class="_ _6"> </span>Nile<span class="_ _4"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Giza,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Egypt</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y7 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 y8 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Information<span class="_ _6"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>Padova<span class="_ _6"> </span>-<span class="_ _6"> </span>via<span class="_ _4"> </span>Gradenigo<span class="_ _6"> </span>6b,<span class="_ _4"> </span>35131<span class="_ _6"> </span>Padov<span class="_ _5"></span>a,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Italy</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y9 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8225;</div><div class="t m0 x12 h5 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Dept.<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>EECE,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Faculty<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Cairo<span class="_ _6"> </span>University<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Giza,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Egypt</div><div class="t m0 x13 h4 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#167;</div><div class="t m0 x14 h5 yc ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Electronics<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Communications<span class="_ _6"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _4"> </span>Department,<span class="_ _6"> </span>American<span class="_ _4"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _2"></span>ersity<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>Cairo,<span class="_ _4"> </span>A<span class="_ _2"></span>UC<span class="_ _4"> </span>A<span class="_ _1"></span>venue,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Ne<span class="_ _2"></span>w<span class="_ _4"> </span>Cairo<span class="_ _6"> </span>11835,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Egypt</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 yd ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">email:<span class="_ _6"> </span>m.abdelaziz@nu.edu.eg,<span class="_ _4"> </span>biasonal@dei.unipd.it,<span class="_ _6"> </span>telbatt@ieee.org,<span class="_ _6"> </span>kseddik@aucegypt.edu,<span class="_ _4"> </span>zorzi@dei.unipd.it</div><div class="t m0 x16 h6 ye ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4">&#8212;W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>characterize<span class="_ _7"> </span>time<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>power<span class="_ _7"> </span>allocations<span class="_ _8"> </span>to</span></div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 yf ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">optimize<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>sum-thr<span class="_ _5"></span>oughput<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>Wireless<span class="_ _4"> </span>Po<span class="_ _5"></span>wered<span class="_ _4"> </span>Communi-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y10 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cation<span class="_ _3"> </span>Network<span class="_ _4"> </span>(WPCN)<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>Non-Orthogonal<span class="_ _3"> </span>Multiple<span class="_ _3"> </span>Access</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y11 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(NOMA).<span class="_ _4"> </span>In<span class="_ _4"> </span>our<span class="_ _4"> </span>setup,<span class="_ _4"> </span>an<span class="_ _4"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>Rich<span class="_ _4"> </span>(ER)<span class="_ _4"> </span>sour<span class="_ _5"></span>ce<span class="_ _4"> </span>broadcasts</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y12 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">wireless<span class="_ _6"> </span>ener<span class="_ _5"></span>gy<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>several<span class="_ _9"> </span>devices,<span class="_ _9"> </span>which<span class="_ _6"> </span>use<span class="_ _6"> </span>it<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>simultaneously</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y13 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transmit<span class="_ _6"> </span>data<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>an<span class="_ _4"> </span>Access<span class="_ _6"> </span>Point<span class="_ _6"> </span>(AP)<span class="_ _6"> </span>on<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>uplink.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Differently</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y14 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">from<span class="_ _a"> </span>most<span class="_ _a"> </span>prior<span class="_ _b"> </span>works,<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>paper<span class="_ _a"> </span>we<span class="_ _b"> </span>consider<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>generic</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y15 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scenario,<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>ER<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>AP<span class="_ _a"> </span>do<span class="_ _a"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>coincide,<span class="_ _b"> </span>i.e.,<span class="_ _a"> </span>two</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y16 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">separate<span class="_ _c"> </span>entities.<span class="_ _c"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _c"> </span>study<span class="_ _c"> </span>two<span class="_ _c"> </span>NOMA<span class="_ _c"> </span>decoding<span class="_ _c"> </span>schemes,<span class="_ _c"> </span>namely</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y17 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Low<span class="_ _a"> </span>Complexity<span class="_ _d"> </span>Decoding<span class="_ _d"> </span>(LCD)<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>Successive<span class="_ _d"> </span>Interference</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y18 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Cancellation<span class="_ _3"> </span>Decoding<span class="_ _e"> </span>(SICD).<span class="_ _3"> </span>For<span class="_ _3"> </span>each<span class="_ _3"> </span>scheme,<span class="_ _e"> </span>we<span class="_ _3"> </span>formulate</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y19 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _d"> </span>sum-throughput<span class="_ _e"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _d"> </span>problem<span class="_ _d"> </span>over<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>&#64257;nite<span class="_ _d"> </span>horizon.</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1a ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Despite<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>complexity<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>LCD<span class="_ _a"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _a"> </span>problem,<span class="_ _d"> </span>at-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1b ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tributed<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>its<span class="_ _f"> </span>non-convexity<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>we<span class="_ _c"> </span>recast<span class="_ _f"> </span>it<span class="_ _c"> </span>into<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>series<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>geometric</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1c ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">programs.<span class="_ _a"> </span>On<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>other<span class="_ _b"> </span>hand,<span class="_ _b"> </span>we<span class="_ _b"> </span>establish<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>con<span class="_ _5"></span>vexity<span class="_ _b"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1d ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>SICD<span class="_ _d"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _a"> </span>problem<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>propose<span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _d"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1e ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#64257;nd<span class="_ _b"> </span>its<span class="_ _10"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _10"> </span>solution.<span class="_ _10"> </span>Our<span class="_ _b"> </span>numerical<span class="_ _10"> </span>results<span class="_ _b"> </span>demonstrate</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y1f ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _e"> </span>importance<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>using<span class="_ _e"> </span>successive<span class="_ _e"> </span>interference<span class="_ _e"> </span>cancellation<span class="_ _e"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y20 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">WPCNs<span class="_ _11"> </span>with<span class="_ _11"> </span>NOMA,<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>show<span class="_ _11"> </span>how<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>energy<span class="_ _10"> </span>should<span class="_ _11"> </span>be</div><div class="t m0 x17 h7 y21 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distributed<span class="_ _4"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>function<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>system<span class="_ _4"> </span>parameters.</div><div class="t m0 x18 h8 y22 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">I.<span class="_ _a"> </span>I<span class="fs2 ls3">NTRODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y23 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>past<span class="_ _8"> </span>fe<span class="_ _5"></span>w<span class="_ _11"> </span>years,<span class="_ _8"> </span>there<span class="_ _8"> </span>has<span class="_ _11"> </span>been<span class="_ _8"> </span>rapidly<span class="_ _11"> </span>growing</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y24 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">interest<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>dev<span class="_ _5"></span>eloping<span class="_ _11"> </span>new<span class="_ _10"> </span>strategies<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>technologies<span class="_ _11"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y25 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">prolonging<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>lifetime<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _e"> </span>devices.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Among<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _e"> </span>variety</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y26 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _e"> </span>technologies,<span class="_ _e"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _e"> </span>Transfer<span class="_ _3"> </span>(ET)<span class="_ _e"> </span>has<span class="_ _d"> </span>recently<span class="_ _e"> </span>emerged</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y27 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>promising<span class="_ _e"> </span>solution.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Although<span class="_ _d"> </span>ET<span class="_ _e"> </span>can<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _e"> </span>considered<span class="_ _d"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y28 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _3"> </span>new<span class="_ _3"> </span>resource<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _3"> </span>nodes,<span class="_ _3"> </span>it<span class="_ _e"> </span>also<span class="_ _3"> </span>adds<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>layer<span class="_ _e"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y29 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _6"> </span>design<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>optimization.<span class="_ _6"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span>goal<span class="_ _6"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y2a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">this<span class="_ _9"> </span>paper<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>study<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>particular<span class="_ _6"> </span>application<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>ET<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>derive</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y2b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _4"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _4"> </span>strate<span class="_ _5"></span>gies<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>maximize<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>network<span class="_ _4"> </span>throughput.</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y2c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _c"> </span>concept<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>energy<span class="_ _c"> </span>transfer<span class="_ _c"> </span>has<span class="_ _c"> </span>been<span class="_ _c"> </span>analyzed<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>dif<span class="_ _5"></span>ferent</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y2d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#64257;elds.<span class="_ _4"> </span>For<span class="_ _4"> </span>example,<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ff5">ener<span class="_ _2"></span>gy<span class="_ _3"> </span>cooperation<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff1">paradigm<span class="_ _4"> </span>[1]&#8211;</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y2e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">[3],<span class="_ _b"> </span>different<span class="_ _b"> </span>devices<span class="_ _b"> </span>transfer<span class="_ _b"> </span>energy<span class="_ _b"> </span>among<span class="_ _10"> </span>themselves<span class="_ _b"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y2f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equalize<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>lev<span class="_ _2"></span>el<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>network<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>improve<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>ov<span class="_ _5"></span>er-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y30 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">all<span class="_ _3"> </span>performance.<span class="_ _3"> </span>In<span class="_ _4"> </span>addition,<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>Simultaneous<span class="_ _3"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y31 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Information<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Po<span class="_ _5"></span>wer<span class="_ _6"> </span>Transfer<span class="_ _6"> </span>(SWIPT)<span class="_ _4"> </span>schemes,<span class="_ _6"> </span>it<span class="_ _6"> </span>became</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y32 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">possible<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>send<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>signal<span class="_ _9"> </span>carrying<span class="_ _6"> </span>both<span class="_ _9"> </span>information<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y33 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">simultaneously<span class="_ _8"> </span>[4]&#8211;[7].<span class="_ _11"> </span>SWIPT<span class="_ _8"> </span>was<span class="_ _8"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _11"> </span>studied<span class="_ _8"> </span>from<span class="_ _8"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y34 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">information-theoretic<span class="_ _4"> </span>perspecti<span class="_ _2"></span>ve<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>[4],<span class="_ _6"> </span>[5].<span class="_ _4"> </span>The<span class="_ _4"> </span>fundamental</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y35 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">trade-off<span class="_ _c"> </span>between<span class="_ _6"> </span>simultaneously<span class="_ _9"> </span>transmitting<span class="_ _9"> </span>information<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y36 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">harvesting<span class="_ _d"> </span>energy<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>studied<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>narro<span class="_ _5"></span>wband<span class="_ _d"> </span>noisy<span class="_ _a"> </span>channels</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y37 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _6"> </span>[4]<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>frequenc<span class="_ _5"></span>y-selectiv<span class="_ _5"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>channels<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>[5].<span class="_ _4"> </span>Afterwards,</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y38 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">from<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>communication-theoretic<span class="_ _11"> </span>perspectiv<span class="_ _5"></span>e,<span class="_ _11"> </span>[6]<span class="_ _11"> </span>character-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y39 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ized<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>fundamental<span class="_ _a"> </span>trade-off<span class="_ _a"> </span>between<span class="_ _a"> </span>transmitting<span class="_ _b"> </span>energy</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y3a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _4"> </span>transmitting<span class="_ _3"> </span>information<span class="_ _4"> </span>ov<span class="_ _5"></span>er<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>point-to-point<span class="_ _4"> </span>noisy<span class="_ _4"> </span>link.</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y3b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Since<span class="_ _4"> </span>modern<span class="_ _6"> </span>energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>harv<span class="_ _5"></span>esting<span class="_ _4"> </span>circuits<span class="_ _6"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>unable<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>harvest</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y3c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">energy<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>decode<span class="_ _e"> </span>information<span class="_ _e"> </span>simultaneously<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>[7]<span class="_ _e"> </span>proposed</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y3d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">two<span class="_ _a"> </span>practical<span class="_ _10"> </span>recei<span class="_ _5"></span>ver<span class="_ _b"> </span>designs,<span class="_ _b"> </span>namely<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _10"> </span>time<span class="_ _b"> </span>switching<span class="_ _b"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y3e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power<span class="_ _c"> </span>splitting.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Under<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>time<span class="_ _c"> </span>switching<span class="_ _9"> </span>setting,<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>receiving</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y3f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">antenna<span class="_ _d"> </span>periodically<span class="_ _d"> </span>switches<span class="_ _d"> </span>between<span class="_ _d"> </span>energy<span class="_ _e"> </span>reception<span class="_ _d"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y40 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">information<span class="_ _3"> </span>decoding<span class="_ _4"> </span>phases.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Instead,<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>power<span class="_ _3"> </span>splitting</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y41 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scheme,<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>received<span class="_ _b"> </span>signal<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>split<span class="_ _10"> </span>into<span class="_ _b"> </span>two<span class="_ _b"> </span>streams<span class="_ _10"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y42 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">different<span class="_ _e"> </span>power<span class="_ _d"> </span>levels;<span class="_ _e"> </span>one<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>sent<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>energy<span class="_ _d"> </span>harvesting</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y43 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">circuitry<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>other<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>information<span class="_ _4"> </span>decoder<span class="_ _2"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x1a h8 y44 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless<span class="_ _a"> </span>Powered<span class="_ _e"> </span>Communication<span class="_ _a"> </span>Networks<span class="_ _d"> </span>(WPCNs),<span class="_ _a"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y45 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">newly<span class="_ _e"> </span>emerging<span class="_ _d"> </span>type<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _a"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _d"> </span>has<span class="_ _d"> </span>recently<span class="_ _a"> </span>at-</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y46 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tracted<span class="_ _10"> </span>considerable<span class="_ _11"> </span>attention<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>literature<span class="_ _10"> </span>[8]&#8211;[14].<span class="_ _11"> </span>In</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y47 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _b"> </span>WPCN,<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>devices<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _b"> </span>harvest<span class="_ _b"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _b"> </span>energy<span class="_ _a"> </span>from<span class="_ _b"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y48 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dedicated<span class="_ _4"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>Rich<span class="_ _4"> </span>(ER)<span class="_ _4"> </span>source,<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>then<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _4"> </span>it<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>uplink</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y49 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">data<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>Access<span class="_ _11"> </span>Point<span class="_ _10"> </span>(AP).<span class="_ _11"> </span>[8]<span class="_ _11"> </span>assumed<span class="_ _10"> </span>that<span class="_ _11"> </span>ER<span class="_ _10"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">AP<span class="_ _a"> </span>coincide<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>characterized<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _a"> </span>time<span class="_ _a"> </span>allocations</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _a"> </span>achieve<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>maximum<span class="_ _a"> </span>sum-throughput<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>max-min</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">throughput.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Although<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>large<span class="_ _4"> </span>body<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>literature<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>ER</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _3"> </span>AP<span class="_ _4"> </span>coincide,<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"> </span>we<span class="_ _3"> </span>consider<span class="_ _3"> </span>them<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>separate</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">entities<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>accommodate<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>more<span class="_ _4"> </span>general<span class="_ _3"> </span>setting.<span class="_ _4"> </span>[9]<span class="_ _4"> </span>e<span class="_ _5"></span>xploited</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y4f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _10"> </span>data-cooperation<span class="_ _10"> </span>technique<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _10"> </span>tackle<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>doubly<span class="_ _10"> </span>near-far</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y50 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">phenomenon<span class="_ _c"> </span>that<span class="_ _f"> </span>leads<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>unfair<span class="_ _c"> </span>rate<span class="_ _c"> </span>allocation<span class="_ _c"> </span>among<span class="_ _f"> </span>different</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y51 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">users,<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _4"> </span>observed<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>[8].<span class="_ _4"> </span>Howe<span class="_ _2"></span>ver<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _3"> </span>this<span class="_ _4"> </span>technique<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>suitable</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y52 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">only<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>smaller<span class="_ _c"> </span>set<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>scenarios<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>which<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>terminal<span class="_ _c"> </span>devices</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y53 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _c"> </span>closely<span class="_ _c"> </span>placed.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Moreover<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>it<span class="_ _c"> </span>leads<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>higher<span class="_ _c"> </span>computational</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y54 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>derive<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>scheduling<span class="_ _10"> </span>policy<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _b"> </span>[10]<span class="_ _10"> </span>studied<span class="_ _b"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y55 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">WPCN<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>heterogeneous<span class="_ _a"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _b"> </span>(nodes<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>without</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y56 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">RF<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>harvesting<span class="_ _4"> </span>capabilities)<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>it<span class="_ _4"> </span>was<span class="_ _4"> </span>shown<span class="_ _4"> </span>how<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y57 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">presence<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>non-harvesting<span class="_ _c"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _c"> </span>can<span class="_ _f"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>utilized<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>enhance<span class="_ _c"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y58 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">network<span class="_ _3"> </span>performance,<span class="_ _3"> </span>compared<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>pure<span class="_ _3"> </span>WPCNs<span class="_ _3"> </span>[8].<span class="_ _3"> </span>Unlike</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y59 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">prior<span class="_ _9"> </span>slot-oriented<span class="_ _9"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _9"> </span>frameworks<span class="_ _c"> </span>[8]&#8211;[10],<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>which</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">all<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>harv<span class="_ _5"></span>ested<span class="_ _6"> </span>energy<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>used<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>same<span class="_ _6"> </span>slot<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>which<span class="_ _6"> </span>it<span class="_ _4"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">harvested,<span class="_ _3"> </span>[11]<span class="_ _3"> </span>focused<span class="_ _3"> </span>on<span class="_ _3"> </span>long-term<span class="_ _3"> </span>optimization.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Although</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">this<span class="_ _3"> </span>incurs<span class="_ _e"> </span>high<span class="_ _3"> </span>computational<span class="_ _e"> </span>overhead,<span class="_ _3"> </span>it<span class="_ _3"> </span>also<span class="_ _e"> </span>signi&#64257;cantly</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">improv<span class="_ _5"></span>es<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>network<span class="_ _a"> </span>while<span class="_ _b"> </span>maintaining</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">fairness.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Se<span class="_ _5"></span>veral<span class="_ _d"> </span>papers<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"></span>vestigated<span class="_ _d"> </span>solutions<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>contrast<span class="_ _d"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y5f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _e"> </span>limited<span class="_ _e"> </span>harvested<span class="_ _3"> </span>energy<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>WPCNs<span class="_ _e"> </span>by<span class="_ _e"> </span>introducing<span class="_ _e"> </span>new</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y60 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">paradigms<span class="_ _3"> </span>[12]&#8211;[14].<span class="_ _4"> </span>[12]<span class="_ _3"> </span>extended<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>long-term<span class="_ _3"> </span>maximiza-</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y61 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>half-duplex<span class="_ _3"> </span>case<span class="_ _e"> </span>[11]<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>full-duplex<span class="_ _3"> </span>scenario,</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y62 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _3"> </span>which<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>ER<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>AP<span class="_ _3"> </span>coincide<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>are<span class="_ _e"> </span>able<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>broadcast</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y63 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">wireless<span class="_ _d"> </span>energy<span class="_ _a"> </span>signals<span class="_ _d"> </span>over<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>downlink<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>data</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y64 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signals<span class="_ _b"> </span>over<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>uplink,<span class="_ _b"> </span>simultaneously<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _b"> </span>It<span class="_ _b"> </span>was<span class="_ _b"> </span>shown<span class="_ _b"> </span>that</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y65 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _e"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _d"> </span>region<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>full-duplex<span class="_ _e"> </span>scenario<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>notably</div><div class="t m0 x19 h8 y66 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">larger<span class="_ _4"> </span>than<span class="_ _4"> </span>that<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>half-duplex<span class="_ _4"> </span>case<span class="_ _4"> </span>[11].<span class="_ _4"> </span>[13]<span class="_ _4"> </span>generalized</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611639,0.000000,0.000000,1.611639,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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