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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6260eefd090cbf2c4ef55cf2/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6260eefd090cbf2c4ef55cf2/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2169-3536 (c) 2017 IEEE. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.</div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2751620, IEEE Access</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"> </span>ne<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"> </span>Approach<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>Iterati<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"> </span>Clipping<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>Filtering</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P<span class="_ _2"></span>APR<span class="_ _0"> </span>Reduction<span class="_ _0"> </span>Scheme<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _0"> </span>Systems</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">K<span class="_ _3"></span>elvin<span class="_ _4"> </span>Anoh</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Cagri<span class="_ _4"> </span>T<span class="_ _5"></span>anriov<span class="_ _3"></span>er</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 xa h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Bamidele<span class="_ _4"> </span>Adebisi</div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 xc h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Mohammad<span class="_ _4"> </span>Hammoudeh</div><div class="t m0 xd h5 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 xe h5 y8 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y9 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">School<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Manchester<span class="_ _4"> </span>Metropolitan<span class="_ _4"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _3"></span>versity<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>UK</div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Intel<span class="_ _4"> </span>Labs,<span class="_ _4"> </span>USA</div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 yc ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">[k.anoh,<span class="_ _4"> </span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>.adebisi,<span class="_ _4"> </span>m.hammoudeh]@mmu.ac.uk,<span class="_ _4"> </span>cagri.tanriover@intel.com</div><div class="t m0 x13 h6 yd ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff5">&#8212;While<span class="_ _6"> </span>achieving<span class="_ _6"> </span>r<span class="_ _3"></span>educed/good<span class="_ _6"> </span>peak-to-a<span class="_ _3"></span>verage</span></div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 ye ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power<span class="_ _7"> </span>(P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR)<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>orthogonal<span class="_ _7"> </span>frequency<span class="_ _7"> </span>division<span class="_ _7"> </span>multiplexing</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 yf ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(OFDM)<span class="_ _9"> </span>systems<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>attractive,<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _9"> </span>must<span class="_ _9"> </span>not<span class="_ _9"> </span>be<span class="_ _9"> </span>perf<span class="_ _1"></span>ormed<span class="_ _9"> </span>at</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y10 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>expense<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>transmitted<span class="_ _a"> </span>signal<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>over<span class="_ _1"></span>-reduced<span class="_ _4"> </span>signal</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y11 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>it<span class="_ _b"> </span>leads<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>degraded<span class="_"> </span>bit<span class="_"> </span>error<span class="_"> </span>ratio<span class="_ _b"> </span>(BER).<span class="_"> </span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>introduce</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y12 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _c"> </span>uniform<span class="_ _c"> </span>distrib<span class="_ _1"></span>ution<span class="_ _c"> </span>approach<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>solving<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>APR<span class="_ _c"> </span>reduction</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y13 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">problem<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _d"> </span>signals<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>then<span class="_ _d"> </span>use<span class="_ _9"> </span>Lagrange<span class="_ _d"> </span>multiplier</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y14 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(LM)<span class="_ _b"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>minimize<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>number<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>iterations<span class="_ _b"> </span>involv<span class="_ _3"></span>ed</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y15 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _4"> </span>adaptive<span class="_ _c"> </span>fashion.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Due<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>nonlinear<span class="_ _4"> </span>attenuation<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y16 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _c"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _e"> </span>scheme,<span class="_ _f"> </span>we<span class="_ _f"> </span>compensate<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>output<span class="_ _f"> </span>signal<span class="_ _f"> </span>using</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y17 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _b"> </span>correlation<span class="_ _e"> </span>factor<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _e"> </span>minimizes<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>error<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#64258;oor<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>in-band</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y18 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distortion<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>clipped<span class="_"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>using<span class="_ _10"> </span>minimum<span class="_"> </span>mean<span class="_"> </span>squar<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>error</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y19 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(MMSE)<span class="_ _f"> </span>method<span class="_ _f"> </span>so<span class="_ _f"> </span>as<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>impro<span class="_ _3"></span>ve<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>BER<span class="_ _f"> </span>performance.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Three</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1a ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">different<span class="_ _e"> </span>methods<span class="_ _e"> </span>are<span class="_ _e"> </span>introduced<span class="_ _e"> </span>each<span class="_ _e"> </span>enabling<span class="_ _e"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>APR<span class="_ _e"> </span>reduction</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1b ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">by<span class="_ _e"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _f"> </span>follo<span class="_ _3"></span>wed<span class="_ _e"> </span>by<span class="_ _f"> </span>&#64257;ltering<span class="_ _e"> </span>with<span class="_ _f"> </span>no<span class="_ _e"> </span>direct<span class="_ _e"> </span>dependency<span class="_ _f"> </span>on<span class="_ _e"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1c ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">clipping<span class="_ _b"> </span>ratio<span class="_ _b"> </span>parameter<span class="_ _5"></span>.<span class="_ _e"> </span>W<span class="_ _5"></span>e<span class="_ _e"> </span>&#64257;nd<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>our<span class="_ _b"> </span>approach<span class="_ _b"> </span>signi&#64257;cantly</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1d ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reduces<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>P<span class="_ _1"></span>APR<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _d"> </span>signals<span class="_ _9"> </span>(especially<span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>LM</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1e ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">optimization)<span class="_ _8"> </span>better<span class="_ _11"> </span>than<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>con<span class="_ _1"></span>ventional<span class="_ _11"> </span>adaptive<span class="_ _8"> </span>iterative</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y1f ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">clipping<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>&#64257;ltering<span class="_ _f"> </span>operating<span class="_ _e"> </span>without<span class="_ _e"> </span>LM<span class="_ _f"> </span>optimization.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Based</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y20 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_ _9"> </span>our<span class="_ _9"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _9"> </span>methods,<span class="_ _9"> </span>we<span class="_ _9"> </span>additionally<span class="_ _9"> </span>outline<span class="_ _9"> </span>two<span class="_ _9"> </span>simple</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y21 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">steps<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>achieving<span class="_ _4"> </span>perfect<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _a"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _4"> </span>(i.e.<span class="_ _4"> </span>0dB).<span class="_ _a"> </span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>also</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y22 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">evaluate<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>performance<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>thr<span class="_ _1"></span>ee<span class="_ _d"> </span>new<span class="_ _9"> </span>models<span class="_ _d"> </span>over<span class="_ _9"> </span>high</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y23 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power<span class="_ _a"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_ _a"> </span>(HP<span class="_ _5"></span>A)<span class="_ _9"> </span>f<span class="_ _3"></span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>completeness;<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>HP<span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>found<span class="_ _a"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y24 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">induce<span class="_"> </span>negligible<span class="_"> </span>BER<span class="_"> </span>degradation<span class="_ _b"> </span>effects<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>processed<span class="_"> </span>signal</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y25 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">compared<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>unprocessed<span class="_ _f"> </span>signal.</div><div class="t m0 x13 h6 y26 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _9"> </span>T<span class="_ _5"></span>erms<span class="ff5">&#8212;OFDM,<span class="_ _9"> </span>iterative<span class="_ _9"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>&#64257;ltering<span class="_ _9"> </span>(ICF),</span></div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y27 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">adaptive<span class="_ _b"> </span>ICF<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _e"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR,<span class="_ _e"> </span>optimization,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Lagrange<span class="_ _e"> </span>Multiplier<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _e"> </span>uniform</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y28 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distribution,<span class="_ _f"> </span>high<span class="_ _f"> </span>power<span class="_ _f"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_ _c"> </span>(HP<span class="_ _1"></span>A)</div><div class="t m0 x15 h8 y29 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I<span class="_ _12"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>I<span class="_ _12"></span><span class="fs3">N<span class="_ _12"></span>T<span class="_ _12"></span>R<span class="_ _12"></span>O<span class="_ _12"></span>D<span class="_ _12"></span>U<span class="_ _12"></span>C<span class="_ _12"></span>T<span class="_ _12"></span>I<span class="_ _12"></span>O<span class="_ _12"></span>N</span></div><div class="t m0 x13 h8 y2a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Orthogonal<span class="_ _c"> </span>frequency<span class="_ _c"> </span>division<span class="_ _c"> </span>multiplexing<span class="_ _c"> </span>(OFDM)<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y2b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ef&#64257;cient<span class="_ _4"> </span>multicarrier<span class="_ _9"> </span>communication<span class="_ _a"> </span>style<span class="_ _9"> </span>ov<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _9"> </span>fading<span class="_ _a"> </span>chan-</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y2c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nels<span class="_ _c"> </span>since<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>narro<span class="_ _3"></span>w-bandwidths<span class="_ _c"> </span>subtended<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>frequency</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y2d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">domain<span class="_ _7"> </span>allow<span class="_ _7"> </span>long<span class="_ _8"> </span>symbol<span class="_ _8"> </span>period.<span class="_ _7"> </span>This<span class="_ _8"> </span>property<span class="_ _8"> </span>provides</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y2e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">protection<span class="_"> </span>against<span class="_ _e"> </span>channel<span class="_"> </span>impulse<span class="_ _e"> </span>response<span class="_"> </span>effects<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>makes</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y2f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">OFDM<span class="_ _8"> </span>attracti<span class="_ _3"></span>ve<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>design<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>modern<span class="_ _8"> </span>communication</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y30 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>ef&#64257;cient<span class="_ _9"> </span>management<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>scarce<span class="_ _9"> </span>radio<span class="_ _9"> </span>frequency</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y31 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bandwidths.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Further<span class="_ _d"> </span>spectral<span class="_ _d"> </span>ef&#64257;cienc<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _d"> </span>can<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>achieved<span class="_ _d"> </span>by</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y32 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">using<span class="_ _13"> </span>wa<span class="_ _3"></span>velets<span class="_ _13"> </span>which<span class="_ _13"> </span>can<span class="_ _13"> </span>operate<span class="_ _13"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _11"> </span>without<span class="_ _13"> </span>cyclic</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y33 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pre&#64257;x<span class="_"> </span>[1],<span class="_"> </span>[2].<span class="_"> </span>Unfortunately<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>high<span class="_"> </span>peak-to-average<span class="_"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>wer<span class="_"> </span>ratio</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y34 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR)<span class="_"> </span>problem<span class="_ _e"> </span>limits<span class="_ _e"> </span>its<span class="_ _b"> </span>wide<span class="_ _e"> </span>adoption<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>some<span class="_ _e"> </span>communica-</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y35 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion<span class="_"> </span>de<span class="_ _3"></span>vices.<span class="_"> </span>F<span class="_ _3"></span>or<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>xample,<span class="_"> </span>while<span class="_"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _14"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>applied<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _14"> </span>do<span class="_ _3"></span>wnlink</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y36 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transmissions<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _d"> </span>communication<span class="_ _9"> </span>standards,<span class="_ _d"> </span>it<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y37 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">preferred<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>uplink<span class="_ _c"> </span>transmissions<span class="_ _c"> </span>due<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _f"> </span>limitation<span class="_ _c"> </span>[3].</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y38 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">High<span class="_ _e"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _b"> </span>leads<span class="_ _e"> </span>power<span class="_ _b"> </span>ampli&#64257;ers<span class="_ _e"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>operate<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>saturation</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y39 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">region<span class="_ _9"> </span>expending<span class="_ _9"> </span>large<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _9"> </span>power<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>induces<span class="_ _d"> </span>bit<span class="_ _9"> </span>error</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y3a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ratio<span class="_ _c"> </span>(BER)<span class="_ _c"> </span>degradation<span class="_ _f"> </span>due<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>smearing<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>signals.</div><div class="t m0 x13 h8 y3b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>literature,<span class="_ _c"> </span>different<span class="_ _f"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _4"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _c"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _c"> </span>exist</div><div class="t m0 x14 h8 y3c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _9"> </span>may<span class="_ _9"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>applied<span class="_ _9"> </span>before<span class="_ _9"> </span>or<span class="_ _9"> </span>after<span class="_ _9"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _9"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _9"> </span>[4].</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y3d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _5"></span>wo<span class="_ _e"> </span>families<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>post-modulation<span class="_ _f"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _e"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _f"> </span>schemes<span class="_ _e"> </span>in-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y3e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">clude<span class="_ _e"> </span>companding<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _e"> </span>[4]&#8211;[7].<span class="_ _f"> </span>Companding<span class="_ _e"> </span>destroys</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y3f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>orthogonality<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _9"> </span>subcarriers<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>may<span class="_ _d"> </span>cause<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y40 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signals<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>unrecov<span class="_ _3"></span>erable<span class="_ _f"> </span>at<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _5"></span>.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Clipping<span class="_ _c"> </span>does<span class="_ _c"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y41 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">require<span class="_ _b"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _1"></span>-side<span class="_ _e"> </span>processing,<span class="_ _e"> </span>thus<span class="_ _e"> </span>reduces<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _3"></span>er-side</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y42 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _d"> </span>unlike<span class="_ _d"> </span>companding.<span class="_ _d"> </span>In<span class="_ _d"> </span>this<span class="_ _d"> </span>study<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>focus<span class="_ _7"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y43 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">iterativ<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _9"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>&#64257;ltering<span class="_ _9"> </span>(ICF)<span class="_ _9"> </span>technique<span class="_ _9"> </span>although<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y44 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">con<span class="_ _1"></span>ventional<span class="_ _c"> </span>ICF<span class="_ _c"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _c"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _c"> </span>technique<span class="_ _c"> </span>has<span class="_ _c"> </span>been<span class="_ _c"> </span>around</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y45 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _9"> </span>some<span class="_ _9"> </span>time<span class="_ _9"> </span>[6].<span class="_ _9"> </span>ICF<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>attractive<span class="_ _a"> </span>because<span class="_ _9"> </span>it<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>simple<span class="_ _9"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y46 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">implement,<span class="_ _a"> </span>achieves<span class="_ _a"> </span>better<span class="_ _9"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>wer<span class="_ _9"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_ _a"> </span>ef&#64257;ciency<span class="_ _a"> </span>at<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y19 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cost<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _8"> </span>in-band<span class="_ _7"> </span>distortion<span class="_ _8"> </span>while<span class="_ _8"> </span>restricting<span class="_ _7"> </span>out-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y47 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of-band<span class="_ _a"> </span>power<span class="_ _a"> </span>radiation<span class="_ _9"> </span>due<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>wer<span class="_ _9"> </span>ampli&#64257;cation<span class="_ _a"> </span>[8]<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y48 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">can<span class="_ _8"> </span>be<span class="_ _7"> </span>designed<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>achiev<span class="_ _3"></span>e<span class="_ _8"> </span>good<span class="_ _7"> </span>BER<span class="_ _8"> </span>performances<span class="_ _8"> </span>[9]&#8211;</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y49 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">[11].<span class="_ _a"> </span>After<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>introduction<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64257;ltering<span class="_ _9"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>[6],</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y4a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">many<span class="_ _c"> </span>studies<span class="_ _4"> </span>[3],<span class="_ _4"> </span>[4],<span class="_ _c"> </span>[8]&#8211;[10],<span class="_ _4"> </span>[12],<span class="_ _4"> </span>[13]<span class="_ _4"> </span>ha<span class="_ _3"></span>ve<span class="_ _c"> </span>been<span class="_ _4"> </span>done<span class="_ _4"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y1f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">perfect<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>technique<span class="_ _f"> </span>as<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _f"> </span>ideal<span class="_ _f"> </span>post-multicarrier<span class="_ _c"> </span>modulation</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y4b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _d"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _7"> </span>method<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _d"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Howe<span class="_ _3"></span>ver<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _7"> </span>all</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y4c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">these<span class="_ _c"> </span>schemes<span class="_ _c"> </span>are<span class="_ _c"> </span>based<span class="_ _c"> </span>on<span class="_ _c"> </span>specifying<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _c"> </span>ratio.</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y4d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _d"> </span>this<span class="_ _d"> </span>study<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>different<span class="_ _d"> </span>approach<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>does<span class="_ _d"> </span>not<span class="_ _7"> </span>require</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y4e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _9"> </span>prede&#64257;ned<span class="_ _a"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _9"> </span>ratio<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>taken.<span class="_ _a"> </span>This<span class="_ _9"> </span>approach<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>based</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y25 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>fact<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>transforming<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _4"> </span>distribution<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y4f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">uniform<span class="_ _f"> </span>distribution<span class="_ _f"> </span>can<span class="_ _f"> </span>lead<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>perfect<span class="_ _c"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _f"> </span>reduction;<span class="_ _f"> </span>thus</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y50 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">we<span class="_ _f"> </span>establish<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>steps<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>achieving<span class="_ _f"> </span>such<span class="_ _f"> </span>distribution<span class="_ _f"> </span>through</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y51 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">clipping.<span class="_ _9"> </span>At<span class="_ _9"> </span>this<span class="_ _9"> </span>stage,<span class="_ _9"> </span>let<span class="_ _9"> </span>us<span class="_ _9"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _9"> </span>recapitulate<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>conv<span class="_ _3"></span>en-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y52 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tional<span class="_ _4"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _a"> </span>signal<span class="_ _4"> </span>has<span class="_ _4"> </span>characteristic<span class="_ _a"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _4"> </span>distribution</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y53 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that<span class="_ _f"> </span>follows<span class="_ _f"> </span>Rayleigh<span class="_ _c"> </span>distribution.<span class="_ _f"> </span>The<span class="_ _c"> </span>amplitudes<span class="_ _c"> </span>distributed</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y54 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">abov<span class="_ _3"></span>e<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>mean<span class="_ _f"> </span>are<span class="_ _f"> </span>fundamentally<span class="_ _f"> </span>responsible<span class="_ _f"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>high<span class="_ _e"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y55 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">problem<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>dri<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>high<span class="_ _9"> </span>po<span class="_ _3"></span>wer<span class="_ _9"> </span>ampli&#64257;er<span class="_ _9"> </span>(HP<span class="_ _5"></span>A)<span class="_ _a"> </span>towards</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y56 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">saturation<span class="_ _a"> </span>region<span class="_ _9"> </span>where<span class="_ _a"> </span>it<span class="_ _9"> </span>consumes<span class="_ _a"> </span>large<span class="_ _a"> </span>amount<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>power</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y57 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_"> </span>smears<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>signals<span class="_"> </span>thereby<span class="_"> </span>degrading<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>BER.<span class="_"> </span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>explore</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y58 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _f"> </span>realization<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>uniform<span class="_ _f"> </span>distribution<span class="_ _f"> </span>by<span class="_ _e"> </span>ICF<span class="_ _f"> </span>without<span class="_ _f"> </span>using</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y59 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _c"> </span>con<span class="_ _1"></span>ventional<span class="_ _c"> </span>predetermined<span class="_ _c"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _c"> </span>ratio.</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y5a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Companding<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>foremost<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _a"> </span>reduction<span class="_ _a"> </span>scheme<span class="_ _a"> </span>that</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y5b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">explicitly<span class="_ _11"> </span>imposes<span class="_ _11"> </span>uniform<span class="_ _13"> </span>distrib<span class="_ _3"></span>ution<span class="_ _11"> </span>probability<span class="_ _13"> </span>density</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y5c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">function<span class="_ _c"> </span>(PDF)<span class="_ _c"> </span>constraint<span class="_ _c"> </span>unto<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>Rayleigh<span class="_ _c"> </span>PDF<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y5d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ventional<span class="_"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _e"> </span>signal<span class="_"> </span>amplitudes<span class="_ _e"> </span>(e.g.<span class="_ _e"> </span>[7],<span class="_"> </span>[14],<span class="_ _e"> </span>[15]).<span class="_ _b"> </span>How-</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y5e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ev<span class="_ _1"></span>er,<span class="_"> </span>companding<span class="_"> </span>destro<span class="_ _3"></span>ys<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>orthogonality<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>subcarriers,</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y5f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unfairly<span class="_ _f"> </span>expands<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>low<span class="_ _e"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _f"> </span>signals<span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _f"> </span>compresses<span class="_ _f"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y60 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">larger<span class="_ _4"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _9"> </span>signals<span class="_ _a"> </span>-<span class="_ _a"> </span>due<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _a"> </span>distortion,<span class="_ _a"> </span>these</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y61 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">increase<span class="_ _c"> </span>noise<span class="_ _c"> </span>ov<span class="_ _3"></span>erhead<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>lead<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>poor<span class="_ _c"> </span>BER<span class="_ _c"> </span>performance.</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y62 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _5"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>propose<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>possibility<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>addressing<span class="_ _d"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _d"> </span>problem</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y63 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">by<span class="_ _d"> </span>clipping<span class="_ _d"> </span>without<span class="_ _d"> </span>setting<span class="_ _d"> </span>thresholds.<span class="_ _d"> </span>F<span class="_ _3"></span>or<span class="_ _d"> </span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>xample,<span class="_ _d"> </span>if<span class="_ _d"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y64 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signal<span class="_ _a"> </span>amplitude<span class="_ _9"> </span>peaks<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _9"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>made<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>approach<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>uniform</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y3b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distribution,<span class="_ _4"> </span>then<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>P<span class="_ _5"></span>APR<span class="_ _a"> </span>problem<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _4"> </span>also<span class="_ _a"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>eliminated.</div><div class="t m0 x16 h8 y3c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Unlike<span class="_ _9"> </span>con<span class="_ _1"></span>verting<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>PDFs<span class="_ _9"> </span>by<span class="_ _9"> </span>using<span class="_ _9"> </span>different<span class="_ _9"> </span>companding</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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