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self-heating battery
self_heating battery.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626aa5f61e41a87e8a63412b/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626aa5f61e41a87e8a63412b/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">28 J<span class="_ _0"></span>ANU<span class="_ _0"></span>AR<span class="_ _0"></span>Y 2016 | VOL 529 | NA<span class="_ _1"></span>TUR<span class="_ _2"></span>E | 515</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls1 ws1">LETTER</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2">doi:10.1038/nature16502</div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y4 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">Lithi<span class="_ _1"></span>um-ion ba<span class="_ _1"></span>tte<span class="_ _1"></span>ry structur<span class="_ _3"></span>e tha<span class="_ _1"></span>t self-hea<span class="_ _1"></span>ts at lo<span class="_ _3"></span>w </div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y5 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws4">t<span class="_ _1"></span>emper<span class="_ _3"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>tur<span class="_ _1"></span>es</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">Chao-Y<span class="_ _4"></span>ang W<span class="_ _4"></span>ang</div><div class="t m0 x4 h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1,2</div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, Guangshe<span class="_ _0"></span>ng Zhang</div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, Shanhai Ge</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">2</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, T<span class="_ _3"></span>err<span class="_ _0"></span>ence X<span class="_ _1"></span>u</div><div class="t m0 xa h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">2</div><div class="t m0 xb h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, Y<span class="_ _4"></span>an Ji</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">2</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5">, Xiao-Gu<span class="_ _0"></span>ang Y<span class="_ _3"></span>ang</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1</div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws5"> &amp; Y<span class="_ _4"></span>ongjun Leng</div><div class="t m0 x10 h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1</div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y8 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws7">Lithium-ion batt<span class="_ _0"></span>eries suffer severe power loss at temperat<span class="_ _0"></span>ures </div><div class="t m0 x2 h8 y9 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws8">below zero degre<span class="_ _2"></span>es Celsius, limiting their use in ap<span class="_ _0"></span>plications such </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 ya ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws9">as electric c<span class="_ _2"></span>ars in cold climates and high-altit<span class="_ _0"></span>ude drones</div><div class="t m1 x11 h9 yb ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1,2</div><div class="t m1 x12 h8 ya ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws9">. The </div><div class="t m2 x2 h8 yc ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsa">practical c<span class="_ _2"></span>onsequences of such power loss are the need for larger<span class="_ _3"></span>, </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 yd ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls9 wsb">more expensiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e batt<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y packs to perform en<span class="_ _0"></span>gine cold crank<span class="_ _2"></span>ing, </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 ye ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsa wsc">slow charging in cold weather<span class="_ _3"></span>, restricted regenerative b<span class="_ _0"></span>rak<span class="_ _2"></span>ing, </div><div class="t m3 x2 h8 yf ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent</div><div class="t m3 x13 h9 y10 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">3</div><div class="t m3 x14 h8 yf ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">. </div><div class="t m4 x2 h8 y11 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">Previous att<span class="_ _0"></span>empts t<span class="_ _0"></span>o improve the low-t<span class="_ _0"></span>emperatur<span class="_ _0"></span>e performance </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y12 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsc ws7">of lithium-ion ba<span class="_ _0"></span>tteries</div><div class="t m1 x15 h9 y13 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">4</div><div class="t m1 x16 h8 y12 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsc ws7"> have f<span class="_ _0"></span>ocus<span class="_ _2"></span>ed on de<span class="_ _2"></span>veloping addit<span class="_ _0"></span>ives </div><div class="t m5 x2 h8 y14 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">to imp<span class="_ _0"></span>rove the low-tem<span class="_ _0"></span>perature beha<span class="_ _0"></span>viour of electrolytes</div><div class="t m5 x17 h9 y15 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">5,6</div><div class="t m5 x18 h8 y14 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">, and </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y16 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">on exte<span class="_ _0"></span>rnally he<span class="_ _2"></span>ating a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd insulating the cells</div><div class="t m1 x19 h9 y17 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 lse wsf">7&#8211;9</div><div class="t m1 x1a h8 y16 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">. Her<span class="_ _0"></span>e we report </div><div class="t m6 x2 h8 y18 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">a lithium-ion bat<span class="_ _0"></span>tery struc<span class="_ _2"></span>ture<span class="_ _0"></span>, the &#8216;<span class="_ _0"></span>all-climate bat<span class="_ _0"></span>tery<span class="_ _2"></span>&#8217; cell, that </div><div class="t m7 x2 h8 y19 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsd">heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring </div><div class="t m8 x2 h8 y1a ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">external heat<span class="_ _0"></span>ing dev<span class="_ _2"></span>ices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h8 y1b ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws10">mechanism creates a<span class="_ _0"></span>n elec<span class="_ _2"></span>trochemical interface that is favo<span class="_ _0"></span>urable </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y1c ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws11">for high discharge/charge power<span class="_ _3"></span>. W<span class="_ _3"></span>e show that the internal<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y1d ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws12">warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occ<span class="_ _2"></span>urs within </div><div class="t m9 x2 h8 y1e ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsd">20 <span class="_ _3"></span>se<span class="_ _2"></span>conds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 <span class="_ _1"></span>se<span class="_ _2"></span>conds at </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y1f ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsa ws13">minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd 5.5 </div><div class="t ma x2 h8 y20 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsd">per cent of cell capacity<span class="_ _3"></span>, respe<span class="_ _2"></span>ctively<span class="_ _3"></span>. The s<span class="_ _2"></span>elf-heated all-climate </div><div class="t mb x2 h8 y21 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">batt<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y cell y<span class="_ _2"></span>ields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y22 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws14">wat<span class="_ _0"></span>ts per ki<span class="_ _2"></span>logr<span class="_ _2"></span>am at a 50 per cent sta<span class="_ _0"></span>te of charge a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd at minus </div><div class="t mc x2 h8 y23 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsd">30 degrees C<span class="_ _2"></span>elsius, delivering 6.4&#8211;12.3 times the power o<span class="_ _0"></span>f state-<span class="ls5 ws6"> </span></div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y24 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">of-the-art lithium-ion cells. W<span class="_ _4"></span>e exp<span class="_ _2"></span>ect the a<span class="_ _2"></span>ll-climate bat<span class="_ _0"></span>tery to </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y25 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls9 wsb">enable engine st<span class="_ _0"></span>op&#8211;start technolog<span class="_ _2"></span>y capable of saving 5&#8211;10 per </div><div class="t m1 x2 h8 y26 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls13 wsb">cent of the fuel f<span class="_ _0"></span>or 80 million ne<span class="_ _2"></span>w vehicles manufactured ever<span class="_ _2"></span>y </div><div class="t md x2 h8 y27 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws15">year</div><div class="t md x1b h9 y28 ff4 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws16">10</div><div class="t md x1c h8 y27 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws17">. Given tha<span class="_ _0"></span>t only a small frac<span class="_ _2"></span>tion of the bat<span class="_ _1"></span>ter<span class="_ _2"></span>y energy is us<span class="_ _2"></span>ed </div><div class="t me x2 h8 y29 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">for self-heat<span class="_ _0"></span>ing, we envisage that the all-climat<span class="_ _0"></span>e batte<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>y cell may </div><div class="t mf x2 h8 y2a ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">also prove useful for pl<span class="_ _0"></span>ug-in elec<span class="_ _2"></span>tric vehicles, robotics and space </div><div class="t m0 x2 h8 y2b ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws18">exploration applica<span class="ls5 ws6">tions.</span></div><div class="t m10 x1d ha y2c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws19">Figure 1a schema<span class="_ _0"></span>tically shows a generic li<span class="_ _0"></span>thium (Li)-ion all-climat<span class="_ _0"></span>e </div><div class="t m11 x2 ha y2d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf ws1a">batt<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y (ACB) ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll. In additio<span class="_ _0"></span>n to the three essen<span class="_ _0"></span>tial battery compo<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m12 x2 ha y2e ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws19">nents&#8212;a<span class="_ _0"></span>node, cathode and electrolyt<span class="_ _0"></span>e&#8212;we add here a fo<span class="_ _0"></span>urth compo<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m13 x2 hb y2f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">nent: a nic<span class="_ _0"></span>kel (Ni) f<span class="_ _0"></span>oil 50 <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#956;<span class="ff5 ls18 ws19">m in thickness having two tabs, o<span class="_ _0"></span>ne at each </span></span></div><div class="t m14 x2 hb y30 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1b">end. Electrical resistance between the two tabs is designed to be 56 <span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#937;<span class="ff5"> </span></span></div><div class="t m15 x2 ha y31 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf ws1a">at r<span class="_ _0"></span>oom tempera<span class="_ _0"></span>ture (25 <span class="_ _4"></span>&#176;C) to keep the cell voltage a<span class="_ _0"></span>round 2 <span class="_ _4"></span>V and </div><div class="t m16 x2 ha y32 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf ws1a">to av<span class="_ _0"></span>oid solid&#8211;electrolyt<span class="_ _0"></span>e interphase decom<span class="_ _0"></span>position and co<span class="_ _0"></span>pper foil </div><div class="t m17 x2 ha y33 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 wsd">oxida<span class="_ _0"></span>tion. One tab is electrical<span class="_ _2"></span>ly connected to the nega<span class="_ _0"></span>tive terminal, </div><div class="t m18 x2 ha y34 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">welded together wi<span class="_ _0"></span>th the tabs of all anode layers. Th<span class="_ _0"></span>e second tab of the </div><div class="t m19 x2 ha y35 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">Ni f<span class="_ _0"></span>oil extends ou<span class="_ _0"></span>tside the cell to form a third terminal, the activa<span class="_ _0"></span>tion </div><div class="t m1a x2 ha y36 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">terminal, used to activate ba<span class="_ _0"></span>ttery internal heating a<span class="_ _0"></span>t low tem<span class="_ _0"></span>peratur<span class="_ _0"></span>es. </div><div class="t m1b x2 ha y37 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws19">A switch co<span class="_ _0"></span>nnects the activation terminal with the nega<span class="_ _0"></span>tive terminal. </div><div class="t m1c x2 ha y38 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws1a">When the swit<span class="_ _0"></span>ch is left open during cell activa<span class="_ _0"></span>tion for self-hea<span class="_ _0"></span>ting, </div><div class="t m1d x2 ha y39 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws19">electrons m<span class="_ _0"></span>ust flow thro<span class="_ _0"></span>ugh the Ni fo<span class="_ _0"></span>il, generatin<span class="_ _0"></span>g substan<span class="_ _0"></span>tial ohmic </div><div class="t m1e x2 ha y3a ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws1a">heat, which ra<span class="_ _0"></span>pidly warm<span class="_ _0"></span>s up the core o<span class="_ _0"></span>f the batt<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y<span class="_ _1"></span>. Once the bat<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m1f x2 ha y3b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsd">tery internal temperat<span class="_ _0"></span>ure reaches o<span class="_ _0"></span>r exceeds 0 <span class="_ _3"></span>&#176;C, thereby enab<span class="_ _0"></span>ling </div><div class="t m1 x2 ha y3c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls9 wsb">the electrochemical interface to gen<span class="_ _0"></span>erate high power f<span class="_ _0"></span>or both dis<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m20 x2 ha y3d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws19">char<span class="_ _0"></span>ge and cha<span class="_ _0"></span>rge, the activa<span class="_ _0"></span>tion pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ocess is com<span class="_ _0"></span>pleted and the swi<span class="_ _0"></span>tch </div><div class="t m21 x2 ha y3e ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws19">is closed. When the A<span class="_ _0"></span>CB cell operat<span class="_ _0"></span>es at ar<span class="_ _0"></span>ound room tem<span class="_ _1"></span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>eratur<span class="_ _0"></span>e, the </div><div class="t m22 x2 ha y3f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws19">switch between the activatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n terminal and nega<span class="_ _0"></span>tive terminal remain<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m23 x1e ha y40 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">closed, making electron<span class="_ _0"></span>s bypass the N<span class="_ _0"></span>i foil and r<span class="_ _0"></span>everting the ACB ce<span class="_ _0"></span>ll </div><div class="t m24 x1e ha y41 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">to a con<span class="_ _0"></span>ven<span class="_ _0"></span>tional Li-ion cell with very low internal r<span class="_ _0"></span>esistance and high </div><div class="t m25 x1e ha y42 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">power<span class="_ _3"></span>. The switch between activation terminal and n<span class="_ _0"></span>egative terminal </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y43 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws10">may be con<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _2"></span>rolled by the cell surface tem<span class="_ _0"></span>peratur<span class="_ _0"></span>e.</div><div class="t m26 x1f ha y44 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws1b">Figure 1b<span class="ls19 ws19"> sho<span class="_ _0"></span>ws cell voltag<span class="_ _0"></span>e and surface tem<span class="_ _0"></span>perature evol<span class="_ _0"></span>utions d<span class="_ _0"></span>ur<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y45 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws1c">ing cell activatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n followed b<span class="_ _0"></span>y a 1C discharg<span class="_ _0"></span>e of a 7.5 am<span class="_ _0"></span>p-hour (Ah) </div><div class="t m27 x1e hb y46 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">A<span class="_ _0"></span>CB cell at <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span>20 <span class="_ _3"></span>&#176;C, and similar resul<span class="_ _0"></span>ts are sho<span class="_ _0"></span>wn in Extended Data </div><div class="t m28 x1e hb y47 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls12 wsd">Fig. 1a and b<span class="ls1b ws1d"> for <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span></span><span class="ws1e">30 &#176;C <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _5"></span><span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span><span class="wsd">40 <span class="_ _3"></span>&#176;C, respectively<span class="_ _3"></span>. The cell exhibits </span></span></div><div class="t m29 x1e ha y48 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">sufficiently high voltag<span class="_ _0"></span>e to stay &#8216;health<span class="_ _0"></span>y&#8217; (that is, the bat<span class="_ _0"></span>ter<span class="_ _2"></span>y materials </div><div class="t m1 x1e ha y49 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsd wsa">do not suffer poten<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _2"></span>ial degradation) througho<span class="_ _0"></span>ut activatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n and 1C </div><div class="t m1 x1e hb y4a ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsa">discharg<span class="_ _0"></span>e processes even fro<span class="_ _0"></span>m as low as <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span>40 <span class="_ _4"></span>&#176;C. Mor<span class="_ _0"></span>e notewo<span class="_ _0"></span>rthy </div><div class="t m2a x1e ha y4b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsd">is that the cell surface tem<span class="_ _0"></span>peratur<span class="_ _0"></span>e rises rapidly<span class="_ _3"></span>, in se<span class="_ _2"></span>conds, fro<span class="_ _0"></span>m an </div><div class="t m2b x1e ha y4c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">extremely co<span class="_ _0"></span>ld enviro<span class="_ _0"></span>nment t<span class="_ _0"></span>o 0 <span class="_ _1"></span>&#176;C within the activation pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ocess (bet<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m2c x1e ha y4d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb ws1a">ter seen in the insets to Fig. 1b<span class="ls1c wsb"> and </span>Extended Data Fig. 1, where the </div><div class="t m2d x1e ha y4e ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">cell activation p<span class="_ _0"></span>rocess is magnified). I<span class="_ _0"></span>t is clear that cell activa<span class="_ _0"></span>tion takes </div><div class="t m1 x1e hb y4f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws1f">only 19.5 <span class="_ _4"></span>s, 29.6 <span class="_ _3"></span>s and 42.5 <span class="_ _3"></span>s from en<span class="_ _0"></span>vironm<span class="_ _0"></span>ents a<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span><span class="ws1e">20 &#176;C, <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;</span>30 &#176;C </span></div><div class="t m2e x1e hb y50 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws20">and <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#8722;<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff5 ls16 ws1b">40 <span class="_ _1"></span>&#176;C, respectively<span class="_ _3"></span>. After activation, the cell surface t<span class="_ _0"></span>emperat<span class="_ _0"></span>ure </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y51 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws21">drops s<span class="_ _0"></span>lightly below the freezing poin<span class="_ _0"></span>t owing to la<span class="_ _0"></span>rge heat los<span class="_ _0"></span>s to the </div><div class="t m2f x1e ha y52 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws19">cold surro<span class="_ _0"></span>undings in these envir<span class="_ _0"></span>onmen<span class="_ _0"></span>tal-chamber tests; ho<span class="_ _0"></span>wever<span class="_ _1"></span>, in </div><div class="t m30 x1e ha y53 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf ws1a">reality it w<span class="_ _0"></span>ould remain a<span class="_ _0"></span>round the fr<span class="_ _0"></span>eezing point owin<span class="_ _0"></span>g to the ther<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m31 x1e ha y54 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws1b">mal insulatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n usually ap<span class="_ _0"></span>plied aro<span class="_ _0"></span>und cells. The 1C discha<span class="_ _0"></span>rge energy<span class="_ _3"></span>, </div><div class="t m32 x1e ha y55 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">calculated by in<span class="_ _0"></span>tegrating the ar<span class="_ _0"></span>ea underneath each discharge curve, </div><div class="t m33 x1e ha y56 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws19">is 102 <span class="_ _3"></span>watt-hours per kilogram (Wh kg</div><div class="t m34 x20 hc y57 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#8722;<span class="ff5">1</span></div><div class="t m33 x21 hb y56 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws19">) for the A<span class="_ _1"></span>CB cell at <span class="ff6 ws6">&#8722;</span><span class="ws1e">40 &#176;C, </span></div><div class="t m35 x1e ha y58 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19">com<span class="_ _0"></span>pared to only 0.3 <span class="_ _3"></span>Wh <span class="_ _3"></span>kg</div><div class="t m36 x22 hc y59 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#8722;<span class="ff5">1</span></div><div class="t m35 x23 ha y58 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws19"> for the baseline cell witho<span class="_ _0"></span>ut Ni f<span class="_ _0"></span>oil. The </div><div class="t m37 x1e ha y5a ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsf wsd">A<span class="_ _0"></span>CB cell thus pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ovides muc<span class="_ _0"></span>h more usab<span class="_ _0"></span>le energy<span class="_ _1"></span>, enabling a lon<span class="_ _0"></span>ger </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y5b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws10">cruising range f<span class="_ _0"></span>or an electric car<span class="_ _1"></span>, especially in extreme cold.</div><div class="t m1 x1f ha y5c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws14">The ultrafas<span class="_ _0"></span>t cell activation disco<span class="_ _0"></span>vered in this wo<span class="_ _0"></span>rk makes A<span class="_ _0"></span>CB </div><div class="t m38 x1e ha y5d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1b">cells technologically viab<span class="_ _0"></span>le for boosting bat<span class="_ _0"></span>tery p<span class="_ _2"></span>ower<span class="_ _3"></span>. Fundamen<span class="_ _0"></span>tally<span class="_ _1"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y5e ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws22">the activation time ma<span class="_ _0"></span>y be estimated as f<span class="_ _0"></span>ollows. As<span class="_ _0"></span>suming negligible </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y5f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws23">heat loss fro<span class="_ _0"></span>m cell surfaces to the surroun<span class="_ _0"></span>dings owing to a s<span class="_ _0"></span>hort time </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y60 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws24">dura<span class="_ _0"></span>tion (this assum<span class="_ _0"></span>ption is realistic as ba<span class="_ _0"></span>tteries ar<span class="_ _0"></span>e well insulat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed in </div><div class="t m0 x1e ha y61 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws10">vehicles), the ener<span class="_ _0"></span>g<span class="_ _2"></span>y balance during cell activatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n is:</div><div class="t m0 x24 hd y62 ff6 fs8 fc2 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#8747;</div><div class="t m0 x25 he y63 ff6 fs9 fc2 sc0 ls1e ws25">(&#8722;<span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ls1f ws26">)=<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls5 ws6">&#916;</span></span></div><div class="c x1e y64 w2 hf"><div class="t m0 x26 he y65 ff6 fs9 fc2 sc0 ls20 ws27">()</div><div class="t m0 x27 h10 y66 ff7 fsa fc2 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#964;</div></div><div class="t m0 x28 h11 y63 ff8 fs9 fc2 sc0 ls21 ws28">IU<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ls22 ws29">Vt<span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls23 ws2a">mc<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls5 ws6">T<span class="_ _b"></span><span class="ff9">d</span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x29 h11 y67 ff9 fs9 fc2 sc0 ls5 ws6">1</div><div class="c x1e y64 w2 hf"><div class="t m0 x27 h12 y68 ff9 fsa fc2 sc0 ls5 ws6">0</div></div><div class="t m0 x2a h12 y69 ff9 fsa fc2 sc0 ls24 ws2b">ac<span class="ls25 ws2c">t0<span class="_ _c"> </span></span>ac<span class="ls26 ws2d">tp</span></div><div class="t m0 x2b h13 y6a ff9 fsb fc2 sc0 ls27 ws2e">ac<span class="ls5 ws6">t</span></div><div class="t m39 x1e ha y6b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1d">where <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">I</span></div><div class="t m39 x2c h14 y6c ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws2f">act</div><div class="t m39 x2d ha y6b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls29 wsb"> and <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">V</span></div><div class="t m39 x2e h14 y6c ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws2f">act</div><div class="t m39 x2f ha y6b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1a"> are curren<span class="_ _0"></span>t and o<span class="_ _0"></span>utpu<span class="_ _0"></span>t voltag<span class="_ _0"></span>e during cell activa<span class="ls5 ws6">-</span></div><div class="t m3a x1e ha y6d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1d">tion, <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">U</span></div><div class="t m3b x30 h14 y6e ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">0</div><div class="t m3a x31 hb y6d ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1a"> is the thermal equilibrium po<span class="_ _0"></span>tential of a Li-io<span class="_ _0"></span>n cell (<span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">~</span><span class="ws1e">4.2 V </span></div><div class="t m3c x1e ha y6f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1a">for the cells u<span class="_ _0"></span>sed in t<span class="_ _2"></span>his study), <span class="ff7 ls5 ws6">&#964;</span></div><div class="t m3c x32 h14 y70 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws30">act</div><div class="t m3c x33 ha y6f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1a"> is activation time<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">m</span> is cell mass, </div><div class="t m1 x1e h15 y71 ffa fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">c</div><div class="t m1 x34 h14 y72 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">p</div><div class="t m1 xa hb y71 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsc"> is the specific heat of the cell, and <span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">&#916;<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ffa">T<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff5 ls7 wsc"> is the rise in temperatur<span class="_ _0"></span>e </span></span></span></div><div class="t m3d x1e ha y73 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1a wsd">from the initial am<span class="_ _0"></span>bient t<span class="_ _0"></span>emperat<span class="_ _0"></span>ure to<span class="_ _0"></span>, for exa<span class="_ _0"></span>mple, 0 <span class="_ _4"></span>&#176;C. Assuming </div><div class="t m1 x1e h15 y74 ffa fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">c</div><div class="t m1 x34 h14 y75 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">p</div><div class="t m1 xa hb y74 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6"> <span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ff6">=<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ff5 lsb ws1e"> 1,000 J kg</span></span></div><div class="t m1 x35 hc y76 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#8722;<span class="ff5">1</span></div><div class="t m1 x36 ha y74 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6"> K</div><div class="t m1 x37 hc y76 ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#8722;<span class="ff5">1</span></div><div class="t m1 x38 ha y74 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb wsb"> and using a<span class="_ _0"></span>n averag<span class="_ _0"></span>e activation curren<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">I</span></div><div class="t m1 x39 h14 y75 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws31">act</div><div class="t m1 x3a ha y74 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws32"> of <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls5 ws6"> </span></div><div class="t m1 x1e hb y77 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 wsd">47.4 A in the <span class="ff6 ws6">&#8722;</span>30 <span class="_ _3"></span>&#176;C activation case (see Extended Data Fig. 2), the </div><div class="t m3e x1e ha y78 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws19">theoretical activation time <span class="ff7 ls5 ws6">&#964;</span></div><div class="t m3f x3b h14 y79 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws33">act</div><div class="t m3e x3c ha y78 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws19"> is estimat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed to be 26.7 <span class="_ _1"></span>s, ver<span class="_ _2"></span>y close to the </div><div class="t m40 x1e ha y7a ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 wsd">measured 29.6 <span class="_ _4"></span>s. This a<span class="_ _2"></span>lso indicates tha<span class="_ _0"></span>t the self-heating mechanism </div><div class="t m41 x1e hb y7b ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws1b">devised in the ACB cell structure is v<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y energy-ef<span class="_ _2"></span>ficient (<span class="ff6 ls5 ws6">~</span>90% in this </div><div class="t m42 x1e ha y7c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws1b">case). If <span class="ffa ls5 ws6">V</span></div><div class="t m42 x3d h14 y7d ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws34">act</div><div class="t m42 xd hb y7c ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6"> <span class="_ _4"></span><span class="ff6">=<span class="ff5 ls2c ws1b"> <span class="_ _1"></span>0 <span class="_ _1"></span>V activation is im<span class="_ _0"></span>plemen<span class="_ _0"></span>ted, one can co<span class="_ _0"></span>nv<span class="_ _0"></span>ert 10% more </span></span></div><div class="t m43 x1e ha y7e ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 wsd">electric energ<span class="_ _2"></span>y into in<span class="_ _0"></span>ternal heat fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r battery warm-up from v<span class="_ _0"></span>er<span class="_ _2"></span>y low </div><div class="t m44 x1e ha y7f ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 wsd">tempera<span class="_ _0"></span>tures, ther<span class="_ _0"></span>eby further shortening activatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n time. This is the </div><div class="t m45 x1e ha y80 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws19">greates<span class="_ _0"></span>t advantag<span class="_ _0"></span>e of A<span class="_ _0"></span>CB cells over exis<span class="_ _0"></span>ting battery heating methods, </div><div class="t m46 x1e ha y81 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1a">which are m<span class="_ _0"></span>uch mor<span class="_ _0"></span>e energy- and time-cons<span class="_ _0"></span>uming</div><div class="t m46 x3e h14 y82 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws30">7&#8211;9</div><div class="t m46 x3f ha y81 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1a">. Fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r examp<span class="_ _0"></span>le, <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls5 ws6"> </span></div><div class="t m47 x2 h16 y83 ffb fsc fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">1</div><div class="t m47 x40 h17 y84 ffb fs0 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws35">Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering and Electrochemical Engine Center (ECE<span class="_ _0"></span>C), The Pennsylvania State University<span class="_ _0"></span>, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. </div><div class="t m47 x41 h16 y83 ffb fsc fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">2</div><div class="t m47 x42 h17 y84 ffb fs0 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws35">EC Power<span class="_ _1"></span>, <span class="ws6"> </span></div><div class="t m47 x2 h17 y85 ffb fs0 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws35">341 Science Park Road, State College, Pennsylvania 16803, USA.</div><div class="t m0 x43 h18 y86 ffc fs2 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws6">&#169; 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. 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