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2015_Optimization in microgrids with hybrid energy systems A review(Elsevier)
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626419ba4f8811599e3883f5/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626419ba4f8811599e3883f5/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Optimization<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"> </span>microgrids<span class="_ _0"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>hybrid<span class="_ _0"> </span>energy<span class="_ _0"> </span>syst<span class="_ _1"></span>ems<span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="ff2">&#8211;<span class="_ _0"> </span></span>A<span class="_ _0"> </span>review</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Hina<span class="_ _2"> </span>F<span class="_ _1"></span>athima</div><div class="t m1 x2 h4 y3 ff3 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div><div class="t m2 x3 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _2"> </span>K.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Palanisam<span class="_ _1"></span>y</div><div class="t m3 x1 h5 y4 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">School<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _4"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_ _4"> </span>VIT<span class="_ _4"> </span>University,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Vellore,<span class="_ _4"> </span>India</div><div class="t m4 x1 h6 y5 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">article<span class="_ _5"> </span>info</div><div class="t m3 x1 h5 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Article<span class="_ _4"> </span>history:</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y7 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received<span class="_ _4"> </span>25<span class="_ _4"> </span>April<span class="_ _4"> </span>20<span class="_ _1"></span>1<span class="_ _1"></span>4</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y8 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>revised<span class="_ _4"> </span>form</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y9 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _1"></span>2<span class="_ _4"> </span>November<span class="_ _4"> </span>201<span class="_ _6"></span>4</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Accepted<span class="_ _4"> </span>1<span class="_ _6"></span>9<span class="_ _4"> </span>January<span class="_ _4"> </span>201<span class="_ _1"></span>5</div><div class="t m3 x1 h5 yb ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords:</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 yc ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Microgrids</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 yd ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hybrid<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>systems</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 ye ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Solar<span class="_ _4"> </span>power</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Wind<span class="_ _4"> </span>power</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y10 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Energy<span class="_ _4"> </span>storage<span class="_ _4"> </span>syst<span class="_ _1"></span>ems</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y11 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Optimization</div><div class="t m4 x4 h6 y5 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">abstract</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y12 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fast<span class="_ _7"> </span>depleting<span class="_ _5"> </span>fossil<span class="_ _7"> </span>fuels<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>gro<span class="_ _1"></span>wing<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>wareness<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>environmental<span class="_ _7"> </span>protection<span class="_ _7"> </span>have<span class="_ _7"> </span>led<span class="_ _5"> </span>us<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>the</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y13 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">energy<span class="_ _7"> </span>crisis.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hence,<span class="_ _5"> </span>efforts<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _5"> </span>being<span class="_ _5"> </span>made<span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _5"> </span>researchers<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>investigate<span class="_ _7"> </span>new<span class="_ _5"> </span>w<span class="_ _1"></span>ays<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>extract<span class="_ _4"> </span>energy</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y14 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">from<span class="_ _8"> </span>renew<span class="_ _1"></span>able<span class="_ _8"> </span>sources.<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff2">&#8216;</span>Microgrids<span class="ff2">&#8217;<span class="_ _8"> </span></span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _3"> </span>Generators<span class="_ _5"> </span>(DG)<span class="_ _3"> </span>are<span class="_ _8"> </span>being<span class="_ _8"> </span>implemented<span class="_ _8"> </span>with</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y15 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">renew<span class="_ _1"></span>able<span class="_ _2"> </span>energy<span class="_ _3"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Optimization<span class="_ _2"> </span>methods<span class="_ _3"> </span>justify<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>cost<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>investment<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>a<span class="_ _2"> </span>microgrid<span class="_ _2"> </span>by</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y16 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">enabling<span class="_ _8"> </span>economic<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _2"> </span>reliable<span class="_ _8"> </span>utilization<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>resources.<span class="_ _3"> </span>This<span class="_ _3"> </span>paper<span class="_ _3"> </span>strives<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>bring<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>light<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y17 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">concept<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hybrid<span class="_ _4"> </span>Renewable<span class="_ _4"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _5"> </span>Syst<span class="_ _1"></span>ems<span class="_ _7"> </span>(HRES)<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>state<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>art<span class="_ _5"> </span>application<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>op<span class="_ _1"></span>timization<span class="_ _7"> </span>tools</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y18 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _5"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>microgrids,<span class="_ _5"> </span>integrating<span class="_ _5"> </span>renewable<span class="_ _5"> </span>energies.<span class="_ _5"> </span>With<span class="_ _5"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>xtensive<span class="_ _5"> </span>liter<span class="_ _1"></span>ature<span class="_ _5"> </span>survey<span class="_ _7"> </span>on</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y19 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">HRES,<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>framework<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>diverse<span class="_ _5"> </span>objectives<span class="_ _5"> </span>has<span class="_ _8"> </span>been<span class="_ _8"> </span>outlined<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>which<span class="_ _8"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _8"> </span>approaches<span class="_ _5"> </span>were</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y1a ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applied<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>empower<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>microgrid.<span class="_ _9"> </span>A<span class="_ _9"> </span>review<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>modelling<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>applications<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>renew<span class="_ _1"></span>able<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy</div><div class="t m4 x4 h8 y1b ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">generation<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>storage<span class="_ _7"> </span>sources<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _7"> </span>also<span class="_ _7"> </span>presented.</div><div class="t m4 x5 h8 y1c ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&amp;<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ff1">201<span class="_ _6"></span>5<span class="_ _7"> </span>Elsevier<span class="_ _7"> </span>Ltd.<span class="_ _7"> </span>All<span class="_ _5"> </span>rights<span class="_ _4"> </span>reserved.</span></div><div class="t m5 x1 h9 y1d ff6 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Introduction</div><div class="t m5 x6 ha y1e ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Micr<span class="_ _1"></span>ogri<span class="_ _1"></span>ds<span class="_ _b"> </span>comb<span class="_ _1"></span>ine<span class="_ _b"> </span>diffe<span class="_ _1"></span>ren<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _b"> </span>energ<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _b"> </span>sour<span class="_ _1"></span>ces<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>best<span class="_ _b"> </span>possib<span class="_ _1"></span>le</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y1f ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mann<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>cater<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>loca<span class="_ _1"></span>l<span class="_ _3"> </span>loads<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>ability<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>operat<span class="_ _6"></span>e<span class="_ _2"> </span>either</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y20 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conn<span class="_ _1"></span>ect<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"> </span>or<span class="_ _b"> </span>discon<span class="_ _1"></span>nect<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>util<span class="_ _1"></span>ity<span class="_ _b"> </span>gri<span class="_ _1"></span>d.<span class="_ _b"> </span>They<span class="_ _b"> </span>ca<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _b"> </span>viewed</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y21 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>ntr<span class="_ _1"></span>olla<span class="_ _1"></span>ble<span class="_ _4"> </span>subsy<span class="_ _1"></span>ste<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _7"> </span>gene<span class="_ _1"></span>rat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _4"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _7"> </span>from<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>Distri<span class="_ _1"></span>but<span class="_ _1"></span>ed</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y22 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ener<span class="_ _1"></span>gy<span class="_ _4"> </span>Res<span class="_ _1"></span>our<span class="_ _1"></span>ces<span class="_ _b"> </span>(DER)<span class="_ _4"> </span>whic<span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>mos<span class="_ _1"></span>tly<span class="_ _b"> </span>rene<span class="_ _1"></span>wab<span class="_ _1"></span>le<span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>nat<span class="_ _1"></span>ure.<span class="_ _b"> </span>The</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y23 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">micr<span class="_ _1"></span>ogri<span class="_ _1"></span>ds<span class="_ _9"> </span>were<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64257;</span>rst<span class="_ _9"> </span>devel<span class="_ _1"></span>oped<span class="_ _9"> </span>by<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>Cons<span class="_ _1"></span>orti<span class="_ _1"></span>um<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>Elec<span class="_ _1"></span>tric</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y24 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _1"></span>eliabi<span class="_ _1"></span>lity<span class="_ _5"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>echnolo<span class="_ _1"></span>gy<span class="_ _5"> </span>Solutio<span class="_ _1"></span>ns<span class="_ _5"> </span>(CERTS<span class="_ _1"></span>).<span class="_ _5"> </span>They<span class="_ _5"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e,<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>recent</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y25 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">past<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>enhanc<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64258;</span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>xibili<span class="_ _1"></span>ty<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _5"> </span>syst<span class="_ _1"></span>ems<span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _8"> </span>impr<span class="_ _1"></span>ovi<span class="_ _1"></span>ng</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y26 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _7"> </span>relia<span class="_ _1"></span>bili<span class="_ _1"></span>ty<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _7"> </span>deli<span class="_ _1"></span>very<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Microgri<span class="_ _1"></span>d,<span class="_ _7"> </span>thoug<span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _5"> </span>it<span class="_ _7"> </span>has<span class="_ _7"> </span>been</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y27 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _c"> </span>discus<span class="_ _1"></span>si<span class="_ _1"></span>on<span class="_ _c"> </span>latel<span class="_ _6"></span>y,<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _c"> </span>old<span class="_ _c"> </span>concep<span class="_ _1"></span>t.<span class="_ _c"> </span>If<span class="_ _c"> </span>we<span class="_ _c"> </span>no<span class="_ _1"></span>tice<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>earl<span class="_ _1"></span>y</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y28 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dev<span class="_ _1"></span>elop<span class="_ _1"></span>ments<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>elec<span class="_ _1"></span>tric<span class="_ _1"></span>al<span class="_ _2"> </span>indust<span class="_ _1"></span>ry<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>all<span class="_ _2"> </span>powe<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _9"> </span>sy<span class="_ _1"></span>ste<span class="_ _1"></span>ms<span class="_ _2"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y29 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been<span class="_ _7"> </span>isolat<span class="_ _1"></span>ed.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>wor<span class="_ _1"></span>ld's<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64257;</span>rst<span class="_ _5"> </span>publ<span class="_ _1"></span>ic<span class="_ _5"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>wer<span class="_ _7"> </span>station<span class="_ _7"> </span>was<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>steam-</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2a ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>electr<span class="_ _1"></span>icit<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _5"> </span>gen<span class="_ _1"></span>erat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _5"> </span>stat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _5"> </span>initi<span class="_ _1"></span>at<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _5"> </span>Thomas<span class="_ _5"> </span>Ed<span class="_ _1"></span>ison</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2b ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _b"> </span>London<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>years<span class="_ _b"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _4"> </span>lat<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _b"> </span>at<span class="_ _b"> </span>Manhat<span class="_ _1"></span>tan<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _4"> </span>1<span class="_ _6"></span>882.<span class="_ _b"> </span>He<span class="_ _b"> </span>propos<span class="_ _1"></span>ed</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2c ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>gener<span class="_ _6"></span>ation<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>power<span class="_ _b"> </span>loca<span class="_ _1"></span>ll<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _b"> </span>using<span class="_ _b"> </span>DC<span class="_ _b"> </span>gener<span class="_ _1"></span>ator<span class="_ _1"></span>s,<span class="_ _b"> </span>but<span class="_ _b"> </span>there<span class="_ _b"> </span>w<span class="_ _1"></span>ere</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2d ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">no<span class="_ _5"> </span>me<span class="_ _1"></span>ans<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>aila<span class="_ _1"></span>ble<span class="_ _5"> </span>f<span class="_ _1"></span>or<span class="_ _5"> </span>co<span class="_ _1"></span>nv<span class="_ _1"></span>ersio<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>olta<span class="_ _1"></span>ge<span class="_ _5"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _5"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>he<span class="_ _5"> </span>desi<span class="_ _1"></span>re<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _5"> </span>lev<span class="_ _1"></span>els.</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2e ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Micr<span class="_ _1"></span>ogri<span class="_ _1"></span>ds<span class="_ _8"> </span>share<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>lot<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>simi<span class="_ _1"></span>larit<span class="_ _1"></span>ies<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>these<span class="_ _8"> </span>early<span class="_ _5"> </span>system<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _8"> </span>as</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y2f ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _4"> </span>too<span class="_ _b"> </span>are<span class="_ _4"> </span>gen<span class="_ _1"></span>erat<span class="_ _6"></span>ed<span class="_ _4"> </span>locall<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _4"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>dedica<span class="_ _1"></span>ted<span class="_ _b"> </span>loads.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Hence<span class="_ _b"> </span>we<span class="_ _4"> </span>stat<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y30 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that<span class="_ _5"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>ear<span class="_ _1"></span>ly<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"></span>olat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _5"> </span>str<span class="_ _1"></span>at<span class="_ _1"></span>egie<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>are<span class="_ _5"> </span>no<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _5"> </span>rev<span class="_ _1"></span>isit<span class="_ _6"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>form<span class="_ _5"> </span>of</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y31 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">micr<span class="_ _1"></span>ogri<span class="_ _1"></span>ds<span class="_ _7"> </span>which<span class="_ _7"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>di<span class="_ _1"></span>stin<span class="_ _1"></span>ct<span class="_ _7"> </span>capabi<span class="_ _1"></span>lity<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>incorp<span class="_ _1"></span>orat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _7"> </span>grid</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y32 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conn<span class="_ _1"></span>ecti<span class="_ _1"></span>ons<span class="_ _7"> </span>as<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>wh<span class="_ _1"></span>en<span class="_ _7"> </span>necess<span class="_ _1"></span>ary<span class="_ _6"></span>.</div><div class="t m5 x6 ha y33 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Extr<span class="_ _1"></span>em<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _2"> </span>centr<span class="_ _1"></span>aliz<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _2"> </span>has<span class="_ _2"> </span>led<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>lo<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>drawb<span class="_ _1"></span>ac<span class="_ _1"></span>ks<span class="_ _2"> </span>such<span class="_ _3"> </span>as</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y34 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">limi<span class="_ _1"></span>tati<span class="_ _1"></span>ons<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>non-r<span class="_ _1"></span>ene<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _1"></span>able<span class="_ _b"> </span>fuels<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>expan<span class="_ _1"></span>sion<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>exi<span class="_ _1"></span>stin<span class="_ _1"></span>g</div><div class="t m5 x1 ha y35 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">netw<span class="_ _1"></span>or<span class="_ _1"></span>ks,<span class="_ _8"> </span>redu<span class="_ _1"></span>cing<span class="_ _5"> </span>cong<span class="_ _1"></span>esti<span class="_ _1"></span>on<span class="_ _8"> </span>on<span class="_ _8"> </span>exist<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _5"> </span>lines<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>thr<span class="_ _1"></span>eats<span class="_ _5"> </span>from</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y36 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">malic<span class="_ _1"></span>ious<span class="_ _7"> </span>enti<span class="_ _1"></span>ties.<span class="_ _7"> </span>An<span class="_ _5"> </span>en<span class="_ _1"></span>tir<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>na<span class="_ _1"></span>tion<span class="_ _1"></span>'s<span class="_ _7"> </span>communi<span class="_ _1"></span>cati<span class="_ _1"></span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>fr<span class="_ _1"></span>astr<span class="_ _1"></span>uc-</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y37 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tur<span class="_ _1"></span>e;<span class="_ _7"> </span>utilit<span class="_ _1"></span>ies<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>even<span class="_ _4"> </span>defence<span class="_ _7"> </span>depe<span class="_ _1"></span>nd<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>it<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _7"> </span>electr<span class="_ _1"></span>ic<span class="_ _7"> </span>powe<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hen<span class="_ _1"></span>ce,</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y38 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pool<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>entir<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>contr<span class="_ _1"></span>ol<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>one<span class="_ _3"> </span>place<span class="_ _3"> </span>make<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _3"> </span>it<span class="_ _2"> </span>an</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y39 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">attr<span class="_ _1"></span>ac<span class="_ _1"></span>tiv<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>target<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>malici<span class="_ _1"></span>ous<span class="_ _4"> </span>atta<span class="_ _1"></span>cks.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Thes<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>factor<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _4"> </span>combined<span class="_ _b"> </span>with</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3a ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">an<span class="_ _4"> </span>incl<span class="_ _1"></span>inat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>promo<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>use<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>rene<span class="_ _6"></span>wable<span class="_ _b"> </span>energy<span class="_ _b"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>led<span class="_ _4"> </span>the</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3b ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dev<span class="_ _1"></span>elop<span class="_ _1"></span>ment<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>distri<span class="_ _1"></span>but<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _0"> </span>gener<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _1"></span>n.<span class="_ _0"> </span>The<span class="_ _0"> </span>concep<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>ha<span class="_ _1"></span>ving</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3c ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _5"> </span>DER<span class="_ _8"> </span>allo<span class="_ _1"></span>ws<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>decent<span class="_ _1"></span>ral<span class="_ _1"></span>izat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>power<span class="_ _5"> </span>gene<span class="_ _1"></span>rat<span class="_ _1"></span>ion<span class="_ _5"> </span>and</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3d ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _c"> </span>stor<span class="_ _1"></span>ag<span class="_ _1"></span>e.<span class="_ _c"> </span>In<span class="_ _d"> </span>fact<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _d"> </span>de<span class="ff7">&#64257;<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff1">niti<span class="_ _1"></span>on<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>DER<span class="_ _c"> </span>incl<span class="_ _1"></span>udes<span class="_ _c"> </span>both<span class="_ _c"> </span>the</span></span></div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3e ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gen<span class="_ _1"></span>erat<span class="_ _6"></span>ors<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>st<span class="_ _1"></span>or<span class="_ _1"></span>age<span class="_ _9"> </span>tec<span class="_ _1"></span>hn<span class="_ _1"></span>ologie<span class="_ _1"></span>s.<span class="_ _9"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span>gen<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _1"></span>ation</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y3f ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">facil<span class="_ _1"></span>itie<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span>called<span class="_ _7"> </span>Distri<span class="_ _1"></span>but<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _7"> </span>Gener<span class="_ _1"></span>ator<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>(D<span class="_ _1"></span>G)<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>they<span class="_ _7"> </span>include<span class="_ _7"> </span>a</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y40 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">smal<span class="_ _1"></span>l<span class="_ _5"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _5"> </span>gene<span class="_ _1"></span>rat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _5"> </span>unit<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>which<span class="_ _5"> </span>ma<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _5"> </span>be<span class="_ _5"> </span>placed<span class="_ _5"> </span>at<span class="_ _5"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>isolat<span class="_ _1"></span>ed</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y41 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sit<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _4"> </span>not<span class="_ _b"> </span>connec<span class="_ _1"></span>ted<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>pow<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _b"> </span>grid<span class="_ _4"> </span>or<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>site<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>custo<span class="_ _1"></span>mer<span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="fc1">[1]</span>.</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y42 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _8"> </span>micr<span class="_ _1"></span>ogri<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>conn<span class="_ _1"></span>ect<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>utilit<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _8"> </span>grid<span class="_ _8"> </span>throug<span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>Point<span class="_ _8"> </span>of</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y43 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Com<span class="_ _1"></span>mon<span class="_ _3"> </span>Coupli<span class="_ _1"></span>ng<span class="_ _2"> </span>(PCC)<span class="_ _1"></span>.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Microg<span class="_ _1"></span>rids<span class="_ _3"> </span>pro<span class="_ _1"></span>vide<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _2"> </span>good<span class="_ _3"> </span>platfo<span class="_ _1"></span>rm<span class="_ _3"> </span>to</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y44 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rea<span class="_ _1"></span>lize<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>DGs<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>harnes<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>gr<span class="_ _1"></span>een<span class="_ _2"> </span>energ<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _1"></span>.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Since<span class="_ _2"> </span>they<span class="_ _3"> </span>can<span class="_ _2"> </span>be</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y45 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vie<span class="_ _1"></span>we<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _5"> </span>as<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>subsyst<span class="_ _6"></span>em<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>power<span class="_ _5"> </span>g<span class="_ _1"></span>ener<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>associ<span class="_ _1"></span>ated<span class="_ _5"> </span>load<span class="_ _6"></span>s,</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y46 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">thei<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _b"> </span>loca<span class="_ _1"></span>l<span class="_ _b"> </span>contr<span class="_ _1"></span>ol<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>easi<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>thus<span class="_ _b"> </span>elim<span class="_ _1"></span>inat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>xpe<span class="_ _1"></span>nsi<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _b"> </span>cost<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _b"> </span>and</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y47 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">haza<span class="_ _1"></span>rds<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>cent<span class="_ _1"></span>ral<span class="_ _8"> </span>dispat<span class="_ _1"></span>ch<span class="_ _8"> </span>centr<span class="_ _1"></span>es.<span class="_ _8"> </span>DGs<span class="_ _3"> </span>incl<span class="_ _1"></span>ude<span class="_ _8"> </span>much<span class="_ _8"> </span>electric<span class="_ _1"></span>ity</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y48 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gen<span class="_ _1"></span>erat<span class="_ _1"></span>ing<span class="_ _7"> </span>tec<span class="_ _1"></span>hno<span class="_ _1"></span>logi<span class="_ _1"></span>es<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>wh<span class="_ _1"></span>ich<span class="_ _7"> </span>some<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>conv<span class="_ _1"></span>ention<span class="_ _1"></span>al<span class="_ _7"> </span>inte<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _6"></span>-</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y49 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nal<span class="_ _5"> </span>comb<span class="_ _1"></span>usti<span class="_ _1"></span>on<span class="_ _5"> </span>(IC)<span class="_ _5"> </span>eng<span class="_ _1"></span>ines<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>gas<span class="_ _5"> </span>turb<span class="_ _1"></span>ines<span class="_ _1"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Wher<span class="_ _1"></span>eas,<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>oth<span class="_ _1"></span>er</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4a ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ren<span class="_ _1"></span>ew<span class="_ _6"></span>able<span class="_ _5"> </span>sy<span class="_ _1"></span>stem<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _5"> </span>li<span class="_ _1"></span>ke<span class="_ _5"> </span>ph<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>tov<span class="_ _1"></span>ol<span class="_ _1"></span>taic<span class="_ _1"></span>s,<span class="_ _5"> </span>wi<span class="_ _1"></span>nd<span class="_ _5"> </span>tu<span class="_ _1"></span>rbin<span class="_ _1"></span>es<span class="_ _5"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d<span class="_ _5"> </span>fu<span class="_ _1"></span>el-c<span class="_ _1"></span>ells</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4b ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ar<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>al<span class="_ _1"></span>so<span class="_ _7"> </span>included<span class="_ _1"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Some<span class="_ _7"> </span>renew<span class="_ _6"></span>able<span class="_ _5"> </span>so<span class="_ _1"></span>ur<span class="_ _1"></span>ces<span class="_ _7"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span>capabl<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>gen<span class="_ _1"></span>erat<span class="_ _1"></span>-</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4c ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ing<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>DC<span class="_ _4"> </span>volta<span class="_ _1"></span>ge<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>hence<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _7"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>be<span class="_ _7"> </span>inte<span class="_ _1"></span>rfac<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _7"> </span>with<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>AC</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4d ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dist<span class="_ _1"></span>ribu<span class="_ _1"></span>tion<span class="_ _b"> </span>sy<span class="_ _6"></span>stem<span class="_ _b"> </span>usin<span class="_ _1"></span>g<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _b"> </span>ele<span class="_ _1"></span>ctr<span class="_ _1"></span>onic<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>ter<span class="_ _1"></span>face<span class="_ _1"></span>s.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Th<span class="_ _1"></span>ey<span class="_ _b"> </span>ha<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4e ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">man<span class="_ _6"></span>y<span class="_ _c"> </span>signi<span class="ff7">&#64257;<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff1">cant<span class="_ _0"> </span>advan<span class="_ _1"></span>tag<span class="_ _1"></span>es<span class="_ _c"> </span>such<span class="_ _0"> </span>as<span class="_ _c"> </span>lowe<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _c"> </span>maint<span class="_ _1"></span>enan<span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _c"> </span>cost<span class="_ _1"></span>s,</span></span></div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y4f ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">emiss<span class="_ _1"></span>ions<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>high<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _0"> </span>re<span class="_ _1"></span>liab<span class="_ _1"></span>ility<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64258;</span>exi<span class="_ _1"></span>bili<span class="_ _1"></span>ty<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Hence<span class="_ _0"> </span>DGs<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64257;</span>nd</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y50 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">man<span class="_ _6"></span>y<span class="_ _5"> </span>applic<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _1"></span>ns<span class="_ _5"> </span>oth<span class="_ _1"></span>er<span class="_ _5"> </span>than<span class="_ _7"> </span>powe<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _5"> </span>gener<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _1"></span>n,<span class="_ _5"> </span>such<span class="_ _5"> </span>as<span class="_ _5"> </span>ac<span class="_ _1"></span>ting<span class="_ _5"> </span>as</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y51 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bac<span class="_ _1"></span>kup<span class="_ _9"> </span>sour<span class="_ _1"></span>ces<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>defe<span class="_ _1"></span>rr<span class="_ _1"></span>als<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>upgr<span class="_ _6"></span>ades<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>transm<span class="_ _1"></span>is<span class="_ _1"></span>sion<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y52 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dist<span class="_ _1"></span>ribu<span class="_ _1"></span>tion<span class="_ _4"> </span>syste<span class="_ _1"></span>ms<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="fc1">[2]</span>.</div><div class="t m5 x8 ha y53 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Y<span class="_ _6"></span>et,<span class="_ _3"> </span>without<span class="_ _8"> </span>optimal<span class="_ _8"> </span>utilization<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>sources<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>cost<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>invest-</div><div class="t m5 x7 ha y54 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ment<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>microgrid<span class="_ _4"> </span>shall<span class="_ _5"> </span>not<span class="_ _4"> </span>be<span class="_ _5"> </span>justi<span class="ff7">&#64257;</span>ed.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Optimization<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff7">&#64257;</span>nd</div><div class="t m5 x9 ha y55 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Contents<span class="_ _7"> </span>lists<span class="_ _5"> </span>available<span class="_ _7"> </span>at<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="fc1">ScienceDirect</span></div><div class="t m5 xa hb y56 ff8 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">journal<span class="_ _7"> </span>homepage:<span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="fc1 ls4">w<span class="_"> </span>ww.elsevier<span class="_"> </span>.com/locate/rs<span class="_"> </span>er</span></div><div class="t m6 xb hc y57 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _1"></span>enew<span class="_ _1"></span>able<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>Sustainable<span class="_ _c"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _c"> </span>Revie<span class="_ _1"></span>ws</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y58 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">http://dx.doi.org/10.<span class="_ _6"></span>1<span class="_ _1"></span>0<span class="_ _1"></span>1<span class="_ _1"></span>6/j.rser<span class="_ _1"></span>.20<span class="_ _1"></span>1<span class="_ _1"></span>5.01<span class="_ _6"></span>.059</div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y59 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _1"></span>364-0321/<span class="ff3">&amp;<span class="_ _b"> </span></span>201<span class="_ _6"></span>5<span class="_ _4"> </span>Elsevier<span class="_ _7"> </span>Ltd.<span class="_ _4"> </span>All<span class="_ _4"> </span>rights<span class="_ _4"> </span>reserved.</div><div class="t m7 xc hd y5a ff3 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">n</div><div class="t m3 xd h7 y5b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Corresponding<span class="_ _4"> </span>author<span class="_ _1"></span>.</div><div class="t m3 x6 h7 y5c ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">E-mail<span class="_ _4"> </span>addresses:<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff1 fc1">ahina.fathima201<span class="_ _6"></span>3@vit.ac.in<span class="fc0">,</span></span></div><div class="t m3 x1 h7 y5d ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">hina.fathima49@gmail.com<span 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