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3 machines 9 bus model PSCAD
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6265fb894c65f4125922a8bf/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6265fb894c65f4125922a8bf/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering </div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Website: www<span class="_ _0"></span>.ijetae.com (<span class="fc1">ISSN 225<span class="_ _0"></span>0-2459,<span class="_ _0"></span></span> <span class="fc1">ISO 9001:2008 <span class="_ _0"></span>Certified Journal,<span class="_ _0"></span></span> Volume 3, Issue 5<span class="ls1">, </span>M<span class="_ _0"></span>ay 2013)<span class="ff1 fs3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">102<span class="ls0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y5 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y6 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mitigation of <span class="_ _1"></span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>oltage Sag in Nine B<span class="_ _1"></span>us<span class="_ _0"></span> System<span class="_ _3"></span> with ST<span class="_ _4"></span>A<span class="_ _5"></span>TCOM </div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Pushp Rai Mishra</div><div class="t m0 x8 h9 y8 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Dharmendra Kum<span class="_ _1"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span> Singh</div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y8 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xb h8 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xc ha y9 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xd hb ya ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">M.Tech. Studen<span class="_ _0"></span>t, Power System, Dr. C.V.R.U. Kargi R<span class="_ _0"></span>oad Kota Bilaspur<span class="_ _6"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha yb ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xf hb yc ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> H.O.D. Electrical <span class="_ _0"></span>&amp; Electronics Department, <span class="_ _0"></span>Dr. C.V.R.U. Kargi Roa<span class="_ _0"></span>d Kota Bilaspur<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 hc yd ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract <span class="ff6">&#8212;<span class="ff2"> <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls3">In</span><span class="ff3"> </span>this <span class="_ _0"></span>paper STATCOM <span class="_ _0"></span>is used to <span class="_ _0"></span>mitigate t<span class="_ _0"></span>he </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x11 hc ye ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">voltage sag <span class="_ _6"></span>by c<span class="_ _0"></span>ontrolling the <span class="_ _0"></span>reactive <span class="_ _0"></span>pow<span class="_ _0"></span>er at <span class="_ _0"></span>bus <span class="_ _0"></span>nu<span class="_ _0"></span>mber <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls4">6 </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 hc yf ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _7"> </span>nine <span class="_ _7"> </span>bus <span class="_ _7"> </span>syste<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _7"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _7"> </span>sag <span class="_ _8"> </span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span>bus <span class="_ _7"> </span>nu<span class="_ _0"></span>mber <span class="_ _7"> </span>6 <span class="_ _7"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x11 hc y10 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">improved by STATCOM nearly 100% during the fault. <span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x10 hc y11 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff7">&#8212;<span class="ff3"> <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff2">Nine <span class="_ _9"> </span>bus <span class="_"> </span>syste<span class="_ _0"></span>m, <span class="_ _9"> </span>volta<span class="_ _3"></span>ge <span class="_ _9"> </span>sag, <span class="_ _9"> </span>STATCOM, </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x11 hc y12 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PSCAD. <span class="ff3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xe hd y13 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">I.<span class="ff8 ls0"> <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff3">I<span class="fs7">NTRODUCTI<span class="_ _1"></span>ON<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fs2"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x10 hd y14 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Static <span class="_ _b"> </span>synchronous <span class="_ _b"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mpensator <span class="_ _b"> </span>(ST<span class="_ _0"></span>ATCOM) <span class="_ _b"> </span>is <span class="_ _b"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y15 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">custom <span class="_ _c"></span>power <span class="_ _c"> </span>device <span class="_ _d"> </span>which <span class="_ _c"></span>is <span class="_ _c"></span>based <span class="_ _c"> </span>on <span class="_ _c"></span>a <span class="_ _c"> </span>volta<span class="_ _0"></span>ge <span class="_ _c"></span>source </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y16 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">converter <span class="_ _d"> </span>(<span class="_ _0"></span>VSC) <span class="_ _d"> </span>shu<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _d"> </span>conne<span class="_ _0"></span>cted <span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>the <span class="_ _e"> </span>network <span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ls5">[1</span>]<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _d"> </span>By </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y17 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">injecting <span class="_ _6"></span>a <span class="_ _f"></span>controllable <span class="_ _f"></span>current<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _6"></span>a <span class="_ _f"></span>STATCOM <span class="_ _f"></span>can <span class="_ _f"></span>mitigate </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y18 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">voltage dip at t<span class="_ _0"></span>he point of co<span class="_ _0"></span>nnected<span class="_ _0"></span> with the <span class="_ _0"></span>network<span class="ls1">. </span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>his </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y19 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">work <span class="_ _9"> </span>will <span class="_"> </span>be <span class="_ _10"> </span>focuses <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_"> </span>th<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>ST<span class="_ _0"></span>ATCOM <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_ _10"> </span>mitigating </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">voltage. <span class="_ _e"> </span>Firstl<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_ _d"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _e"> </span>characteristics <span class="_"> </span>of <span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>STATCOM <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _3"></span>or </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mitigation <span class="_ _d"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _d"> </span>dips <span class="_ _d"> </span>will <span class="_ _d"> </span>studied, <span class="_ _d"> </span>such <span class="_ _c"> </span>as <span class="_ _d"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _c"> </span>required<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">shunt <span class="_"> </span>compensation <span class="_"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>urrent, <span class="_"> </span>injected<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>active <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>reactive </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power <span class="_ _d"> </span>for <span class="_ _d"> </span>give<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _d"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _d"> </span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>ip <span class="_ _d"> </span>magnitude. <span class="_ _e"> </span>The <span class="_ _d"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ulse <span class="_ _d"> </span>width </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">modulation <span class="_ _11"> </span>(PWM) <span class="_ _11"> </span>strategy <span class="_ _11"> </span>will <span class="_ _11"> </span>be <span class="_ _11"> </span>im<span class="_ _3"></span>plementing <span class="_ _11"> </span>in </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y1f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">model. <span class="_ _11"> </span>I<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _11"> </span>order <span class="_ _b"> </span>to <span class="_ _11"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>btain <span class="_ _11"> </span>the <span class="_ _11"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>hase <span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _11"> </span>freque<span class="_ _0"></span>ncy </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y20 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">information <span class="_ _0"></span>of <span class="_ _0"></span>grid <span class="_ _0"></span>voltage, <span class="_ _0"></span>phase<span class="_ _0"></span>-locked <span class="_ _0"></span>loop<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span>will b<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _0"></span>used </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y21 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>ntroller <span class="_ _f"></span>system. <span class="_ _6"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _6"></span>si<span class="_ _0"></span>mulation <span class="_ _6"></span>model <span class="_ _f"></span>will <span class="_ _f"></span>design </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y22 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for <span class="_ _0"></span>mitigation of voltage <span class="_ _0"></span>sag in <span class="_ _0"></span>9 bus s<span class="_ _0"></span>ystem. All result <span class="_ _0"></span>will </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y23 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">be <span class="_ _6"></span>simulated <span class="_ _6"></span>in <span class="_ _6"></span>PSCAD/EMT<span class="_ _0"></span>DC. <span class="_ _6"></span>Vo<span class="_ _0"></span>ltage <span class="_ _0"></span>sa<span class="_ _0"></span>gs <span class="_ _6"></span>for<span class="ls6"> </span>0.5<span class="_ _0"></span>-30 </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y24 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cycles <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>0.1<span class="_ _0"></span>-0.9 <span class="_"> </span>pu <span class="_ _9"> </span>are <span class="_ _9"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>hort <span class="_"> </span>duratio<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_"> </span>reductio<span class="_ _0"></span>ns <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>ms </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y25 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">voltage, <span class="_"> </span>mainly <span class="_"> </span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>used <span class="_"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_"> </span>short <span class="_"> </span>circuits <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_"> </span>starting <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y26 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">large <span class="_ _0"></span>motors, tr<span class="_ _0"></span>ansformers <span class="_ _0"></span>energ<span class="_ _0"></span>y sing, <span class="_ _6"></span>overloads <span class="_ _0"></span>and <span class="_ _0"></span>short </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y27 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">circuit <span class="_ _c"></span>faults <span class="_ _f"></span>[2]<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _12"></span>The <span class="_ _12"></span>interest<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _12"></span>in <span class="_ _12"></span>voltage <span class="_ _12"></span>sag <span class="_ _12"></span>is <span class="_ _12"></span>due <span class="_ _c"></span>to <span class="_ _12"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y28 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">problems <span class="_ _11"> </span>they <span class="_ _a"> </span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>use <span class="_ _11"> </span>on <span class="_ _11"> </span>several <span class="_ _a"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>ypes <span class="_ _a"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _11"> </span>equipment. </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y29 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Adjustable-speed <span class="_ _7"> </span>drives, <span class="_ _10"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>rocess-control <span class="_ _7"> </span>equipment, <span class="_ _7"> </span>and </div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y2a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">computers <span class="_ _6"></span>are <span class="_ _f"></span>esp<span class="_ _0"></span>ecially <span class="_ _6"></span>noto<span class="_ _0"></span>rious <span class="_ _6"></span>for <span class="_ _f"></span>their <span class="_ _f"></span>sensitivit<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_ _6"></span>[3]<span class="ls1">. </span></div><div class="t m0 x11 hd y2b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The typical unbala<span class="_ _0"></span>nced voltage dip<span class="_ _0"></span> is shown in figure 1.<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y2c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _13"> </span> </div><div class="t m0 x13 he y2d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Figure-<span class="ls7">1 </span>Typ<span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>cal unbalanc<span class="_ _3"></span>ed voltag<span class="_ _3"></span>e dip [<span class="ls7">2]</span> </div><div class="t m0 x14 hd y2e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">II.<span class="ff8 ls0"> <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff3">N<span class="fs7">INE </span>B<span class="fs7">US </span>S<span class="fs7">YST<span class="_ _3"></span>EM<span class="fs2"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y2f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A <span class="_ _0"></span>Ni<span class="_ _0"></span>ne-bus <span class="_ _6"></span>three<span class="_ _0"></span>-machine <span class="_ _6"></span>system <span class="_ _6"></span>is <span class="_ _6"></span>descr<span class="_ _0"></span>ibed <span class="_ _6"></span>in <span class="_ _6"></span>Po<span class="_ _0"></span>wer </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y30 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">System <span class="_ _f"></span>Con<span class="_ _0"></span>trol <span class="_ _f"></span>an<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _f"></span>Stabili<span class="_ _0"></span>ty <span class="_ _f"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_ _f"></span>Anderso<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _f"></span>and <span class="_ _12"></span>Foua<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _f"></span>[<span class="_ _0"></span>4]. </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y31 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">Th<span class="ls0">is<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>ystem <span class="_ _7"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nsist<span class="ls9"> </span>three <span class="_ _8"> </span>generator <span class="_ _8"> </span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>and <span class="_ _7"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>hree <span class="_ _7"> </span>large<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y32 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equivalent <span class="_ _14"> </span>loads <span class="_ _14"> </span>whic<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_ _14"> </span>are <span class="_ _14"> </span>connected <span class="_ _14"> </span>in <span class="_ _14"> </span>a <span class="_ _14"> </span>meshed<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y33 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transmission <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>net<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>ork <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _e"> </span>through <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>tran<span class="_ _3"></span>smission <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>lines <span class="_ _e"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>as </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y34 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">shown <span class="_ _10"> </span> <span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"> </span> <span class="_ _10"> </span>fi<span class="_ _0"></span>gure2. <span class="_ _10"> </span>In <span class="_ _10"> </span>This <span class="_ _10"> </span>system <span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _10"> </span>generators <span class="_ _10"> </span>are </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y35 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">dynamically <span class="_ _f"></span>modelled <span class="_ _f"></span>with <span class="_ _f"></span>the <span class="_ _f"></span>classical <span class="_ _f"></span>equivale<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _f"></span>model<span class="ls1">. </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y36 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">A <span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ls0">case<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>study <span class="_ _d"> </span>will <span class="_ _d"> </span>be <span class="_ _d"> </span>presen<span class="_ _0"></span>ted <span class="_ _d"> </span>here <span class="_ _d"> </span>on <span class="_ _e"> </span>a <span class="_ _d"> </span>small <span class="_ _d"> </span>nine<span class="_ _0"></span>-bus </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y37 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power system [4<span class="_ _0"></span>] that has three <span class="_ _0"></span>generators a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd three loads <span class="_ _0"></span>a </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y38 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">single-line <span class="_ _f"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>mpedance <span class="_ _12"></span>diagram <span class="_ _c"></span>for <span class="_ _f"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _12"></span>system <span class="_ _f"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _12"></span>shown <span class="_ _f"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y39 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">figure 2.<span class="ls1"> </span>Generato<span class="_ _0"></span>r data for the thr<span class="_ _0"></span>ee machine<span class="_ _0"></span>s are given in<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 hd y3a ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">table 1.1.<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y3b ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y3c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y3d ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y3e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y3f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y40 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y41 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y42 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y43 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y44 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y45 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y46 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x15 hd y47 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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