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This paper discusses about the speed control technique for brushless DC motors with non-sinusoidal back electromotive force. In order to solve the problems associated with conventional PI speed controller, a new speed control based on o fuzzy inference system is proposed to eliminate overshoot in the torque and speed responses, simplify designing and reduce complexity of math formulas. The effectiveness of proposed system has been validated by simulation results.
Direct Torque Control of a Bldc Motor.rar
  • Direct Torque Control of a Bldc Motor Based on Computing Technique.pdf
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626405bf4c65f41259bc85cd/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/626405bf4c65f41259bc85cd/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IOSR Journal of Electrical<span class="_ _0"></span> and Electronics<span class="_ _0"></span> Engineering (I<span class="_ _0"></span>OSR<span class="_ _1"></span>-JEEE) </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">e-I<span class="_ _0"></span>SSN: <span class="_ _1"></span>2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331,<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="fs1 fc1"> </span>Volume 6, Issu<span class="_ _0"></span>e 6 <span class="_ _1"></span>(Jul.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>- Aug. 201<span class="_ _0"></span>3), <span class="_ _1"></span>P<span class="_ _0"></span>P 01-08 </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">www<span class="_ _0"></span>.iosrjournals.<span class="_ _1"></span>org<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y4 ff2 fs2 fc2 sc0 ls0 ws0">www<span class="_ _0"></span>.iosrjournals.o<span class="_ _0"></span>rg <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span> 1 | Page<span class="fc0"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Direct T<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="_ _1"></span>qu<span class="_ _0"></span>e Cont<span class="_ _0"></span>rol of a <span class="_ _1"></span>Bldc<span class="_ _0"></span> Moto<span class="_ _0"></span>r Based <span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>n Com<span class="_ _0"></span>puting </div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y7 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Techniqu<span class="_ _0"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y8 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y9 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sajitha P</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 ya ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 y9 ff2 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, M<span class="_ _1"></span>r. J<span class="_ _1"></span>ashper Ali<span class="_ _0"></span> M</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 ya ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2 </div><div class="t m0 xa h7 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Assistan<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _1"></span>Prof<span class="_ _0"></span>essor Depar<span class="_ _0"></span>tment O<span class="_ _0"></span>f Electrical<span class="_ _0"></span> And Electro<span class="_ _0"></span>nics Engineering<span class="_ _0"></span> Shm E<span class="_ _0"></span>ngineering <span class="_ _1"></span>Colleg<span class="_ _0"></span>e Kadakka<span class="_ _0"></span>l </div><div class="t m0 xb h7 yc ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Assistan<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _1"></span>Prof<span class="_ _0"></span>essor Depar<span class="_ _0"></span>tment <span class="ls1">of<span class="_ _1"></span></span> Electrical<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>and<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>Ele<span class="_ _0"></span>ct<span class="_ _1"></span>ron<span class="_ _0"></span>ics Engin<span class="_ _0"></span>eering Prist<span class="_ _0"></span> University<span class="_ _0"></span> Trichy </div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 yd ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 ye ff4 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ls2">: <span class="_ _2"></span></span><span class="ff1 fs2">Th<span class="_ _0"></span>is pape<span class="_ _1"></span>r discuss<span class="_ _0"></span>es about<span class="_ _1"></span> the speed control technique for brus<span class="_ _0"></span>hle<span class="_ _1"></span>ss DC motors w<span class="_ _0"></span>ith <span class="_ _1"></span>non<span class="_ _1"></span>-sinusoidal </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 yf ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">back <span class="_ _3"> </span>electrom<span class="_ _0"></span>otive<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>f<span class="_ _1"></span>orce<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _3"> </span>In <span class="_ _3"> </span>order<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>o <span class="_ _3"></span>sol<span class="_ _0"></span>ve <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>prob<span class="_ _0"></span>lems <span class="_ _3"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ssociated <span class="_ _3"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>ith <span class="_ _3"></span>conven<span class="_ _0"></span>tional <span class="_ _3"> </span>PI <span class="_ _3"> </span>sp<span class="_ _0"></span>eed <span class="_ _4"> </span>controll<span class="_ _0"></span>er, <span class="_ _3"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y10 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">new speed cont<span class="_ _1"></span>ro<span class="_ _0"></span>l based <span class="_ _1"></span>on o <span class="_ _1"></span>fuzzy infer<span class="_ _0"></span>ence syste<span class="_ _1"></span>m is propos<span class="_ _0"></span>ed <span class="_ _1"></span>to eliminate overshoo<span class="_ _0"></span>t i<span class="_ _1"></span>n the torque <span class="_ _1"></span>and speed<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y11 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">responses, s<span class="_ _0"></span>implify designin<span class="_ _0"></span>g and <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>educe complex<span class="_ _0"></span>ity of math formulas<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _1"></span>The effe<span class="_ _0"></span>ctiveness of propose<span class="_ _0"></span>d system has<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y12 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been validat<span class="_ _0"></span>ed by simulat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion resul<span class="_ _0"></span>ts.<span class="ff4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y13 ff4 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords: <span class="ff1 fs2">Brus<span class="_ _0"></span>hle<span class="_ _1"></span>ss<span class="_ _0"></span> DC Motor<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _1"></span>Fuzz<span class="_ _0"></span>y Logic <span class="_ _0"></span>Controller,<span class="_ _0"></span> PI Controller. </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y14 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xc ha y15 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">I.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">Intr<span class="_ _0"></span>oduction<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y16 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span>Perma<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ent <span class="_ _4"> </span>M<span class="_ _0"></span>ag<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>et <span class="_ _4"> </span>B<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>us<span class="_ _0"></span>hless <span class="_ _3"> </span>Dir<span class="_ _1"></span>ect <span class="_ _3"> </span>Current <span class="_ _3"> </span>(PMB<span class="_ _0"></span>LDC) <span class="_ _3"> </span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _3"> </span>becoming <span class="_ _4"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>omi<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>t <span class="_ _3"> </span>as <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>demand <span class="_ _4"> </span>f<span class="_ _0"></span>or </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y17 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">eff<span class="_ _0"></span>iciency<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _4"> </span>precis<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _4"> </span>spe<span class="_ _0"></span>ed <span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd <span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"></span>rque <span class="_ _3"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>ntr<span class="_ _1"></span>ol, <span class="_ _3"></span>reliab<span class="_ _0"></span>ilit<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _3"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>uggedness<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>crease<span class="_ _0"></span>s. <span class="_ _4"> </span>B<span class="_ _0"></span>rushles<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _3"> </span>(BLDC) <span class="_ _3"> </span>prov<span class="_ _0"></span>ide </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y18 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">high <span class="_ _4"> </span>eff<span class="_ _0"></span>icien<span class="_ _1"></span>cy<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _4"> </span>exempla<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>precision <span class="_ _4"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>control <span class="_ _4"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>en <span class="_ _4"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mpar<span class="_ _1"></span>ed <span class="_ _4"> </span>to <span class="_ _4"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nventional <span class="_ _4"> </span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>tors. <span class="_ _4"> </span>It <span class="_ _4"> </span>has <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>be<span class="_ _0"></span>st<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y19 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">torque <span class="_ _7"> </span>Vs. <span class="_ _7"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>eight <span class="_ _7"> </span>or <span class="_ _8"> </span>ef<span class="_ _0"></span>fic<span class="_ _0"></span>ien<span class="_ _1"></span>cy<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>characteristics<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _7"> </span>They<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>ar<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>military<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _7"> </span>grinding, <span class="_"> </span>air<span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>aft, <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"></span>uto<span class="_ _0"></span>motiv<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls4">e </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applicat<span class="_ _0"></span>ions, <span class="_ _3"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>ommu<span class="_ _0"></span>nications <span class="_ _2"></span>equipment <span class="_ _2"></span>etc <span class="_ _2"></span>[1]. <span class="_ _3"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _2"></span>theory<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>rushless <span class="_ _2"></span>dc <span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>tors <span class="_ _3"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>as <span class="_ _9"></span>presented <span class="_ _2"></span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>1<span class="_ _0"></span>962 <span class="_ _9"></span>by </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T.G. Wilso<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _1"></span>and P.<span class="_ _0"></span> H. Trickey<span class="_ _0"></span>. But the limitatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>s i<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> mag<span class="_ _0"></span>net and pow<span class="_ _0"></span>er <span class="_ _1"></span>sw<span class="_ _0"></span>itching have<span class="_ _0"></span> pr<span class="_ _1"></span>ev<span class="_ _0"></span>ented th<span class="_ _1"></span>em<span class="_ _0"></span> to bring </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">into <span class="_ _9"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ea<span class="_ _0"></span>l <span class="_ _3"> </span>lif<span class="_ _0"></span>e. <span class="_ _3"> </span>In <span class="_ _3"> </span>1980, <span class="_ _9"></span>Pow<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>tec<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _3"> </span>In<span class="_ _1"></span>dust<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ial <span class="_ _9"></span>Corpo<span class="_ _0"></span>ration <span class="_ _3"> </span>st<span class="_ _0"></span>art<span class="_ _1"></span>ed <span class="_ _9"></span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ufactu<span class="_ _0"></span>ring <span class="_ _3"></span>them <span class="_ _2"></span>[2&amp;3]. <span class="_ _3"> </span>B<span class="_ _0"></span>rushless, <span class="_ _9"></span>as <span class="_ _3"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">name <span class="_ _3"> </span>imp<span class="_ _0"></span>li<span class="_ _1"></span>es <span class="_ _9"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>re <span class="_ _3"> </span>are <span class="_ _3"> </span>no <span class="_ _3"> </span>brus<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>es <span class="_ _9"></span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _9"></span>commutato<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>In <span class="_ _3"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>on<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>tio<span class="_ _0"></span>nal<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>motors, <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>sw<span class="_ _0"></span>itching <span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>current <span class="_ _3"> </span>in <span class="_ _3"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">armature <span class="_"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>oils <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>do<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>using <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mbination <span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ushes <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mmutators <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>eas <span class="_"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>us<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>less, <span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y1f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">co<span class="_ _0"></span>mmuta<span class="_ _1"></span>tio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>perfo<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>med <span class="_ _1"></span>with <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>elp <span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _1"></span>electr<span class="_ _1"></span>onic<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>cir<span class="_ _1"></span>cu<span class="_ _0"></span>it, <span class="_ _2"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>hich<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>educ<span class="_ _0"></span>es <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>mecha<span class="_ _0"></span>nic <span class="_ _2"></span>loss<span class="_ _0"></span>es <span class="_ _1"></span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _2"></span>improv<span class="_ _0"></span>es </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y20 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the eff<span class="_ _0"></span>iciency<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _1"></span>The<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>e are<span class="_ _0"></span> many<span class="_ _0"></span> oth<span class="_ _1"></span>er me<span class="_ _0"></span>rits of<span class="_ _0"></span> brushless mot<span class="_ _0"></span>ors ov<span class="_ _0"></span>er th<span class="_ _1"></span>e co<span class="_ _0"></span>nventio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>al mo<span class="_ _0"></span>tors.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y21 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226; The b<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ushle<span class="_ _0"></span>ss machi<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>es<span class="_ _0"></span> r<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff2">equire <span class="_ _0"></span>less mainte<span class="_ _0"></span>nance. </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y22 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226; Speed/to<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>que characte<span class="_ _0"></span>ristics are f<span class="_ _0"></span>la<span class="_ _1"></span>t which <span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ables<span class="_ _0"></span> operation at all speeds w<span class="_ _0"></span>ith<span class="_ _1"></span> rated load. Whereas brus<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>ed dc </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y23 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">moto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s hav<span class="_ _0"></span>e mode<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ately<span class="_ _0"></span> flat characte<span class="_ _0"></span>ristics. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y24 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226; The ele<span class="_ _0"></span>ctric noise<span class="_ _0"></span> gen<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>ration is low<span class="_ _0"></span> for brus<span class="_ _0"></span>hless dc mo<span class="_ _0"></span>tor.<span class="ff2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y25 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226; B<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ushle<span class="ff2">ss mo<span class="_ _0"></span>tors have<span class="_ _0"></span> low<span class="_ _0"></span> r<span class="_ _1"></span>oto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> in<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>rtia w<span class="_ _0"></span>hich improv<span class="_ _0"></span>es dynamic<span class="_ _0"></span> respo<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>se. </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y26 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226; They<span class="_ _0"></span> have hig<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> speed <span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ange<span class="_ _0"></span> and outpu<span class="_ _0"></span>t powe<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> to frame<span class="_ _0"></span> size <span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>atio<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y27 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span>Direct Torque Control (DTC) metho<span class="_ _0"></span>d <span class="_ _1"></span>propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed <span class="_ _1"></span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>[1],<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>[2] <span class="_ _1"></span>h<span class="_ _0"></span>as <span class="_ _1"></span>bee<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>utilized to <span class="_ _1"></span>driv<span class="_ _0"></span>e t<span class="_ _1"></span>he <span class="_ _1"></span>BL<span class="_ _0"></span>DC <span class="_ _1"></span>motors<span class="_ _0"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y28 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DTC <span class="_ _2"></span>which <span class="_ _9"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>lso <span class="_ _2"></span>kn<span class="_ _1"></span>ow<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _9"></span>as <span class="_ _9"></span>conve<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>tio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>al <span class="_ _9"></span>DTC <span class="_ _2"></span>ha<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _2"></span>fe<span class="_ _0"></span>at<span class="_ _1"></span>ure<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _2"></span>su<span class="_ _1"></span>ch <span class="_ _9"></span>as <span class="_ _9"></span>fast <span class="_ _2"></span>torque <span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>espo<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>se, <span class="_ _2"></span>simple <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ob<span class="_ _0"></span>ust<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y29 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">design. <span class="_ _2"></span>Th<span class="_ _1"></span>es<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _2"></span>features <span class="_ _2"></span>ha<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>ade <span class="_ _2"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>t <span class="_ _9"></span>popula<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>in <span class="_ _9"></span>indust<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ial <span class="_ _2"></span>applica<span class="_ _0"></span>tions. <span class="_ _2"></span>This <span class="_ _9"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>trol <span class="_ _2"></span>method <span class="_ _2"></span>ope<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ates <span class="_ _2"></span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">phase <span class="_ _1"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>duction <span class="_ _2"></span>mode <span class="_ _1"></span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>ich <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>simplif<span class="_ _0"></span>ied <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>just <span class="_ _2"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>torque<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nt<span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>ll<span class="_ _1"></span>ed <span class="_ _1"></span>driv<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _2"></span>by <span class="_ _2"></span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>te<span class="_ _0"></span>ntionally<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>k<span class="_ _1"></span>eeping <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>stato<span class="_ _0"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">flux l<span class="_ _1"></span>inkage<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>amplitude<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>almost constant <span class="_ _1"></span>by<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>eliminating <span class="_ _1"></span>the flux control <span class="_ _1"></span>in th<span class="_ _1"></span>e consta<span class="_ _0"></span>nt<span class="_ _1"></span> torque r<span class="_ _1"></span>egio<span class="_ _0"></span>n. <span class="_ _1"></span>Be<span class="_ _0"></span>cause <span class="_ _1"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sharp <span class="_ _3"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>ange<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _3"> </span>in <span class="_ _4"> </span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>ommu<span class="_ _0"></span>tatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>regio<span class="_ _0"></span>n, <span class="_ _3"> </span>amplitude <span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>stator <span class="_ _9"></span>flux <span class="_ _3"> </span>linkage <span class="_ _3"> </span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>nn<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _4"> </span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>asily<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>be <span class="_ _3"> </span>con<span class="_ _1"></span>tr<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>ll<span class="_ _1"></span>ed.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _3"> </span>Rec<span class="_ _0"></span>entl<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fuzzy<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>ference <span class="_ _4"> </span>sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stem <span class="_ _4"> </span>(FIS) <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _a"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>idel<span class="_ _1"></span>y <span class="_ _4"> </span>used <span class="_ _4"> </span>bec<span class="_ _0"></span>ause <span class="_ _a"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>its <span class="_ _4"> </span>good <span class="_ _4"> </span>perform<span class="_ _1"></span>ance<span class="_ _0"></span>,<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>spec<span class="_ _0"></span>ially <span class="_ _4"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>cases<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>when <span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2e ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stem <span class="_ _1"></span>or <span class="_ _1"></span>proc<span class="_ _0"></span>ess is <span class="_ _1"></span>c<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>mpl<span class="_ _1"></span>icated<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>classica<span class="_ _0"></span>l m<span class="_ _1"></span>et<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>od canno<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _1"></span>work <span class="_ _1"></span>we<span class="_ _0"></span>ll.<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>Add<span class="_ _0"></span>itionally<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _1"></span>fuzzy<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>system fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>mulates </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2f ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">human <span class="_"> </span>k<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ow<span class="_ _0"></span>ledge<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stematic <span class="_"> </span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>nn<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _b"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>pu<span class="_ _0"></span>ts <span class="_ _b"> </span>them <span class="_"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>nto <span class="_ _a"> </span>engin<span class="_ _1"></span>ee<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ing <span class="_ _a"> </span>s<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>stems. <span class="_ _a"> </span>But <span class="_"> </span>there <span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_ _b"> </span>proble<span class="_ _0"></span>m </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y30 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">asso<span class="_ _0"></span>ciated <span class="_ _4"> </span>with <span class="_ _4"> </span>FIS, <span class="_ _4"> </span>w<span class="_ _0"></span>hich <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _3"> </span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _3"> </span>ti<span class="_ _1"></span>me <span class="_ _3"> </span>consuming <span class="_ _3"> </span>pr<span class="_ _1"></span>oce<span class="_ _0"></span>ss <span class="_ _4"> </span>to <span class="_ _3"> </span>tun<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>pa<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>amete<span class="_ _0"></span>rs <span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _4"> </span>FIS <span class="_ _4"> </span>rel<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>ing <span class="_ _4"> </span>on <span class="_ _3"> </span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>uman </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y31 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">know<span class="_ _0"></span>ledge <span class="_ _1"></span>by <span class="_ _1"></span>tr<span class="_ _1"></span>ial and <span class="_ _1"></span>error. <span class="_ _1"></span>So<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _1"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>re <span class="_ _1"></span>has <span class="_ _1"></span>bee<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ec<span class="_ _0"></span>ent<span class="_ _1"></span>ly<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>sur<span class="_ _1"></span>ge of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>nt<span class="_ _1"></span>erest <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mbine <span class="_ _1"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>eu<span class="_ _0"></span>ra<span class="_ _1"></span>l n<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>two<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>k <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>FIS </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y32 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bec<span class="_ _0"></span>ause <span class="_ _a"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>its <span class="_ _a"> </span>both<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>adva<span class="_ _0"></span>nta<span class="_ _1"></span>ges<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>fuzz<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>fe<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ence <span class="_ _4"> </span>s<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>stems<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"></span>d <span class="_ _4"> </span>artificial <span class="_ _4"> </span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>eu<span class="_ _0"></span>ral <span class="_ _a"> </span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>etw<span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ks, <span class="_ _a"> </span>[3]. <span class="_ _a"> </span>An <span class="_ _4"> </span>adaptiv<span class="_ _0"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y33 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Neuro-F<span class="_ _0"></span>uzz<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> Infere<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>Sy<span class="_ _0"></span>stem (ANFIS<span class="_ _0"></span>),<span class="_ _1"></span> dev<span class="_ _0"></span>elope<span class="_ _0"></span>d in <span class="_ _1"></span>1993 <span class="_ _0"></span>by<span class="_ _0"></span> J<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>-S Roge<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> Jang, [4]. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y34 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span> In <span class="_ _2"></span>this <span class="_ _1"></span>pa<span class="_ _1"></span>pe<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>an <span class="_ _2"></span>Fuzzy<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>rolle<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>, <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed <span class="_ _2"></span>for <span class="_ _2"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>BLDC <span class="_ _1"></span>moto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>. <span class="_ _2"></span>A <span class="_ _2"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mpar<span class="_ _1"></span>iso<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>study<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>done <span class="_ _2"></span>with <span class="_ _1"></span>a<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y35 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">PI co<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>trolle<span class="_ _0"></span>r, fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> which t<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e propo<span class="_ _0"></span>rtional<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _0"></span>integral c<span class="_ _0"></span>onstants are tu<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _0"></span>.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y36 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xd ha y37 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">II.<span class="ff5 ls0"> <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">Bru<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _1"></span>hless Dc Mot<span class="_ _0"></span>or<span class="ff2"> </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y38 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span>Brushles<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _9"></span>DC <span class="_ _2"></span>Moto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>driven <span class="_ _2"></span>by<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>DC <span class="_ _9"></span>voltage, <span class="_ _9"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>ut <span class="_ _2"></span>curr<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>nt <span class="_ _2"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mm<span class="_ _1"></span>utatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n, <span class="_ _9"></span>is <span class="_ _9"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>ntrolled <span class="_ _2"></span>b<span class="_ _1"></span>y <span class="_ _2"></span>so<span class="_ _0"></span>lid <span class="_ _9"></span>stat<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y39 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sw<span class="_ _0"></span>itches. <span class="_ _9"></span>The <span class="_ _2"></span>commutatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _9"></span>instants <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _2"></span>dete<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>mined <span class="_ _2"></span>by<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>he <span class="_ _2"></span>roto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>position[1]. <span class="_ _2"></span>Senso<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>less <span class="_ _2"></span>technique<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _9"></span>need <span class="_ _2"></span>extra </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3a ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">co<span class="_ _0"></span>mputat<span class="_ _1"></span>io<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _3"> </span>time <span class="_ _9"></span>and <span class="_ _3"> </span>exte<span class="_ _0"></span>rnal <span class="_ _3"> </span>ci<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>cuit<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>o <span class="_ _9"></span>estima<span class="_ _1"></span>te <span class="_ _9"></span>the <span class="_ _9"></span>back-E<span class="_ _1"></span>MF, <span class="_ _9"></span>than <span class="_ _9"></span>the <span class="_ _9"></span>sensor-based <span class="_ _9"></span>systems. <span class="_ _9"></span>Moreov<span class="_ _0"></span>er, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">senso<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>less <span class="_ _1"></span>techniques<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>demand <span class="_ _1"></span>hi<span class="_ _1"></span>gh <span class="_ _1"></span>perfo<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>ma<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>ce<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>pr<span class="_ _1"></span>oc<span class="_ _0"></span>essors, <span class="_ _1"></span>lar<span class="_ _1"></span>ge <span class="_ _1"></span>prog<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>am <span class="_ _1"></span>code<span class="_ _0"></span>s, <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>large <span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>emo<span class="_ _0"></span>ry<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _2"></span>In<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>sensor </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3c ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">bas<span class="_ _0"></span>ed <span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_ _1"></span>yste<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_ _9"></span>th<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _2"></span>Hall <span class="_ _9"></span>se<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>so<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>s <span class="_ _2"></span>are <span class="_ _9"></span>used <span class="_ _2"></span>to <span class="_ _2"></span>determine <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _9"></span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>siti<span class="_ _1"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>of<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>t<span class="_ _1"></span>he <span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>oto<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>at <span class="_ _2"></span>any<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _9"></span>in<span class="_ _1"></span>stant <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>time <span class="_ _9"></span>[2][3].The<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3d ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rotor <span class="_"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>haft <span class="_"> </span>pos<span class="_ _0"></span>it<span class="_ _1"></span>io<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>se<span class="_ _0"></span>n<span class="_ _1"></span>sed <span class="_"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_"> </span>H<span class="_ _0"></span>all <span class="_"> </span>Effe<span class="_ _0"></span>ct <span class="_"> </span>senso<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>, <span class="_"> </span>whic<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_ _7"> </span>prov<span class="_ _0"></span>ides <span class="_"> </span>signals<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>h<span class="_ _1"></span>e <span class="_ _a"> </span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>espec<span class="_ _0"></span>tive <span class="_"> </span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>witches. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.612252,0.000000,0.000000,1.612252,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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