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Modeling and Control for Smart Grid Integration of Solar/Wind Energy Conversion System
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6252a6c36caf59619279068f/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6252a6c36caf59619279068f/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _0"> </span>1</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h4 y3 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff1 ls2">-- <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff4 ls3 ws1">Perform<span class="_ _2"></span>ance optimization<span class="_ _2"></span>, system reliability and </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y4 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws2">operation<span class="_ _3"></span>al efficie<span class="_ _3"></span>ncy are key<span class="_ _3"></span> characteristi<span class="_ _3"></span>cs of smart gri<span class="_ _3"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y5 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws3">syst<span class="_ _3"></span>ems. I<span class="_ _3"></span>n this pa<span class="_ _3"></span>per a no<span class="_ _3"></span>vel<span class="_ _3"></span> model of<span class="_ _3"></span> smart<span class="_ _3"></span> grid-<span class="_ _3"></span>con<span class="_ _3"></span>nect<span class="_ _3"></span>ed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y6 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws4">PV/<span class="_ _3"></span>WT hybr<span class="_ _3"></span>id s<span class="_ _3"></span>yste<span class="_ _3"></span>m is<span class="_ _3"></span> dev<span class="_ _3"></span>elop<span class="_ _3"></span>ed. I<span class="_ _3"></span>t co<span class="_ _3"></span>mpri<span class="_ _3"></span>ses<span class="_ _3"></span> phot<span class="_ _3"></span>ovolt<span class="_ _3"></span>ai<span class="_ _3"></span>c </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y7 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws5">ar<span class="_ _2"></span>ray, win<span class="_ _2"></span>d tu<span class="_ _2"></span>rbine<span class="_ _2"></span>, as<span class="_ _2"></span>ynchro<span class="_ _2"></span>nous (<span class="_ _2"></span>indu<span class="_ _2"></span>ction<span class="_ _2"></span>) gene<span class="_ _2"></span>rator<span class="_ _2"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y8 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws6">controlle<span class="_ _3"></span>r and converters.<span class="_ _3"></span> The model<span class="_ _3"></span> is imple<span class="_ _3"></span>mented using </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y9 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws4">MA<span class="_ _3"></span>TLAB<span class="_ _3"></span>/SIM<span class="_ _3"></span>ULIN<span class="_ _3"></span>K sof<span class="_ _3"></span>twa<span class="_ _3"></span>re packag<span class="_ _3"></span>e. P<span class="_ _3"></span>ert<span class="_ _3"></span>urb a<span class="_ _3"></span>nd obs<span class="_ _3"></span>er<span class="_ _3"></span>ve </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ya ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws7">(P&amp;O) alg<span class="_ _3"></span>orithm is u<span class="_ _3"></span>sed for <span class="_ _3"></span>maximizing t<span class="_ _3"></span>he generat<span class="_ _3"></span>ed <span class="_ _3"></span>power </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yb ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws8">based <span class="_ _3"></span>on max<span class="_ _3"></span>imu<span class="_ _3"></span>m pow<span class="_ _3"></span>er poi<span class="_ _3"></span>nt tr<span class="_ _3"></span>acker (<span class="_ _3"></span>MPP<span class="_ _3"></span>T) </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yc ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsa ws9">imple<span class="_ _3"></span>ment<span class="_ _3"></span>atio<span class="_ _3"></span>n. The dyn<span class="_ _3"></span>amic be<span class="_ _3"></span>havi<span class="_ _3"></span>or of the pro<span class="_ _3"></span>pose<span class="_ _3"></span>d mode<span class="_ _3"></span>l is </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yd ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 wsa">exa<span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ined <span class="_ _3"></span>under different <span class="_ _3"></span>operating<span class="_ _3"></span> conditions. Sol<span class="_ _3"></span>ar irradia<span class="_ _3"></span>nce, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ye ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsb wsb">temp<span class="_ _3"></span>eratu<span class="_ _3"></span>re a<span class="_ _3"></span>nd w<span class="_ _3"></span>ind spe<span class="_ _3"></span>ed data i<span class="_ _3"></span>s gat<span class="_ _3"></span>here<span class="_ _3"></span>d fro<span class="_ _3"></span>m a gri<span class="_ _3"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yf ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsc wsc">connected, 2<span class="_ _3"></span>8.8kW solar <span class="_ _3"></span>power sy<span class="_ _3"></span>stem located i<span class="_ _3"></span>n central </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y10 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsd">Manchester. Re<span class="_ _3"></span>al-ti<span class="_ _3"></span>me measured para<span class="_ _3"></span>meters are used as in<span class="_ _3"></span>puts </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y11 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">for th<span class="_ _3"></span>e dev<span class="_ _3"></span>elo<span class="_ _3"></span>ped s<span class="_ _3"></span>yst<span class="_ _3"></span>em. T<span class="_ _3"></span>he pr<span class="_ _3"></span>opose<span class="_ _3"></span>d mod<span class="_ _3"></span>el a<span class="_ _3"></span>nd it<span class="_ _3"></span>s co<span class="_ _3"></span>ntrol<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y12 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lse wsf">stra<span class="_ _2"></span>tegy of<span class="_ _2"></span>fer a prop<span class="_ _2"></span>er tool f<span class="_ _2"></span>or sm<span class="_ _2"></span>art grid<span class="_ _2"></span> perform<span class="_ _2"></span>ance </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y13 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 lsf ws0">optimization. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y14 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h5 y15 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws10">Index Ter<span class="_ _2"></span>ms<span class="ff4 ls11 ws11">-- Control sy<span class="_ _3"></span>stems, Hybrid pow<span class="_ _3"></span>er syste<span class="_ _3"></span>ms, </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y16 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws12">MATLAB,<span class="_ _3"></span> Modeling, Photov<span class="_ _3"></span>oltaic sy<span class="_ _3"></span>stems, Pow<span class="_ _3"></span>er electronics,<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y17 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws13">Smar<span class="_ _2"></span>t grids,<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>Wind<span class="_ _2"></span> power gen<span class="_ _2"></span>eration<span class="_ _2"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x3 h6 y18 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws14">I. I<span class="fs0 ls15 ws0">NTRODUCTION <span class="fs1 ls0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h6 y19 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws15">HE limit<span class="_ _2"></span>ations of global<span class="_ _2"></span> resources of foss<span class="_ _2"></span>il and nuclear </div><div class="t m0 x4 h6 y1a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws16">fuel, has n<span class="_ _2"></span>ecessitated an urgent search for altern<span class="_ _2"></span>ative </div><div class="t m0 x4 h6 y1b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws17">sources of<span class="_ _2"></span> energy. Therefore, a new<span class="_ _2"></span> way has to be foun<span class="_ _2"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws18">to balance the supply<span class="_ _2"></span> and demand without resorting<span class="_ _2"></span> to coal </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws19">and gas fuelled generators. Smart grid is a syste<span class="_ _3"></span>m that would </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws1a">enable the integration of<span class="_ _2"></span> rene<span class="_ _3"></span>wa<span class="_ _2"></span>ble energy sources and shift </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y1f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws1b">from reliance on fossil fuels,<span class="_ _3"></span> while maintaini<span class="_ _3"></span>ng the balance </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y20 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws1c">between supply<span class="_ _2"></span> and demand. The key ch<span class="_ _2"></span>aracteristics of smart </div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y21 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws1d">grid include [1]: </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y22 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls1f ws1e">Grid optimisation: system reliabilit<span class="_ _3"></span>y an<span class="_ _2"></span>d op<span class="_ _3"></span>erational </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y23 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws0">efficiency. </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y24 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls1c ws1b">Distributed generation: not only traditional large <span class="_ _2"></span>po<span class="_ _3"></span>wer </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y25 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws1f">stations<span class="_ _2"></span>, but also i<span class="_ _2"></span>ndividual PV <span class="_ _2"></span>panels, m<span class="_ _2"></span>icro-wind, </div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y26 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">etc. </div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y27 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls21">Advanced metering<span class="_ _2"></span> infrastructure (AMI): sm<span class="_ _2"></span>art meters. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y28 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls22 ws20">Grid-scale storage. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h7 y29 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls14 ws14"> Demand respon<span class="_ _2"></span>se. </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _4"> </span> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y2b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws21"> <span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span> <span class="_ _5"></span>This w<span class="_ _2"></span>ork w<span class="_ _2"></span>as support<span class="_ _2"></span>ed in par<span class="_ _2"></span>t by Manc<span class="_ _2"></span>hester<span class="_ _2"></span> Metro<span class="_ _2"></span>politan Un<span class="_ _2"></span>ivers<span class="_ _2"></span>ity </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws22">School of E<span class="_ _3"></span>ngineeri<span class="_ _3"></span>ng an<span class="_ _3"></span>d An-Najah<span class="_ _3"></span> Nationa<span class="_ _3"></span>l Universit<span class="_ _3"></span>y Departm<span class="_ _3"></span>ent of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws23">Compu<span class="_ _3"></span>ter<span class="_ _3"></span> Engin<span class="_ _3"></span>eeri<span class="_ _3"></span>ng. </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws24">E. M.<span class="_ _3"></span> Natsheh<span class="_ _3"></span> is with th<span class="_ _3"></span>e School of En<span class="_ _3"></span>gin<span class="_ _3"></span>eering, Ma<span class="_ _3"></span>nches<span class="_ _3"></span>ter </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws25">Metro<span class="_ _2"></span>polita<span class="_ _2"></span>n Unive<span class="_ _2"></span>rsity<span class="_ _2"></span>, Manches<span class="_ _2"></span>ter,<span class="_ _2"></span> UK (e<span class="_ _2"></span>-mail: <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="fc1 ls28 ws0">emad.nat@g<span class="_ _2"></span>mail.<span class="_ _2"></span>com<span class="fc0 ls29 ws26"> ). </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws27">A. Albarb<span class="_ _3"></span>ar is with<span class="_ _3"></span> the Sch<span class="_ _3"></span>ool of Engin<span class="_ _3"></span>eerin<span class="_ _3"></span>g, Manchest<span class="_ _3"></span>er Metr<span class="_ _3"></span>opolit<span class="_ _3"></span>an </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws28">Unive<span class="_ _2"></span>rsity, Ma<span class="_ _2"></span>ncheste<span class="_ _2"></span>r, UK<span class="_ _2"></span> (e-mail<span class="_ _2"></span>: <span class="fc1 ls2c ws0">a.albar<span class="_ _2"></span>bar@mm<span class="_ _2"></span>u.ac.uk<span class="fc0 ls29 ws26"> ). </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y33 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws29">J. Ya<span class="_ _3"></span>zdan<span class="_ _3"></span>i is<span class="_ _3"></span> with<span class="_ _3"></span> the Un<span class="_ _3"></span>iversi<span class="_ _3"></span>ty of C<span class="_ _3"></span>ent<span class="_ _3"></span>ral Lanc<span class="_ _3"></span>ashi<span class="_ _3"></span>re, Pr<span class="_ _3"></span>eston<span class="_ _3"></span>, Lan<span class="_ _3"></span>cashi<span class="_ _3"></span>re, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y34 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws2a">UK (e-mail: <span class="fc1 ls2f ws0">j<span class="_ _3"></span>yaz<span class="_ _2"></span>dani@ucla<span class="_ _2"></span>n.ac.uk<span class="fc0 ls29 ws26"> ).<span class="_ _2"></span> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y35 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y36 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y37 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y38 ff5 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#59011;<span class="ff6"> <span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1 ls31 ws2b">Plug-in hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid electric <span class="_ _3"></span>vehicles (PHEVs) and vehicle to </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y39 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws2c">grid (V2G). </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y3a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws2d">This paper focuses <span class="_ _3"></span>mainly on the smart grid integratio<span class="_ _3"></span>n of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y3b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws2e">PV/WT hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid sys<span class="_ _2"></span>tem (grid optimi<span class="_ _2"></span>sation and dis<span class="_ _2"></span>tribution </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y3c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws0">gener<span class="_ _3"></span>atio<span class="_ _3"></span>n).<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xb h6 y3d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws2f">Over recent years several research an<span class="_ _2"></span>d in<span class="_ _3"></span>vestment has been </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y3e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws30">carried ou<span class="_ _2"></span>t in hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid power sy<span class="_ _2"></span>stem, su<span class="_ _2"></span>ch as Yang [2], w<span class="_ _2"></span>ho </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y3f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws31">recommended an<span class="_ _2"></span> optimal design model<span class="_ _2"></span> for hybrid solar&#8211;w<span class="_ _2"></span>ind </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y40 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws32">system, which emplo<span class="_ _3"></span>ys battery banks to calculate the system&#8217;s </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y41 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws33">optimum conf<span class="_ _2"></span>igurations in China. Dihrab [3], <span class="_ _2"></span>presented a </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y42 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws34">hybri<span class="_ _2"></span>d solar-wind sy<span class="_ _2"></span>stem as a renew<span class="_ _2"></span>able source of pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y43 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws35">generation for grid connecte<span class="_ _3"></span>d application in three cities<span class="_ _3"></span> in </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y44 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws36">Iraq. Reich<span class="_ _2"></span>ling [4], m<span class="_ _2"></span>odeled a hybri<span class="_ _2"></span>d solar wind pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er plant </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y45 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws37">in south<span class="_ _2"></span> western Minnesot<span class="_ _2"></span>a <span class="_ _3"></span>for a two y<span class="_ _2"></span>ear period, using<span class="_ _2"></span> hourly </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y46 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws38">solar irradiation and w<span class="_ _2"></span>ind speed data. Ekren [5], show<span class="_ _2"></span>ed an </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y47 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws39">optimum<span class="_ _2"></span> sizing procedure of<span class="_ _2"></span> PV/wind hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid system in </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y48 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws3a">Turkey<span class="_ _2"></span>. Several model<span class="_ _2"></span>ing studies<span class="_ _2"></span> on PV/WT power sy<span class="_ _2"></span>stem </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y49 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws3b">have been condu<span class="_ _2"></span>cted. Among them, Kim [6], dev<span class="_ _2"></span>eloped a </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws3c">grid-<span class="_ _2"></span>connected ph<span class="_ _2"></span>otovoltai<span class="_ _2"></span>c model using PS<span class="_ _2"></span>CAD/EMTDC f<span class="_ _2"></span>or </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws3d">el<span class="_ _2"></span>ectr<span class="_ _2"></span>oma<span class="_ _2"></span>gne<span class="_ _2"></span>tic<span class="_ _2"></span> tran<span class="_ _2"></span>si<span class="_ _2"></span>ent<span class="_ _2"></span> analy<span class="_ _2"></span>sis<span class="_ _2"></span>. Tsa<span class="_ _2"></span>i [7<span class="_ _2"></span>], im<span class="_ _2"></span>pl<span class="_ _2"></span>emen<span class="_ _2"></span>te<span class="_ _2"></span>d an </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws3e">insulation-oriented P<span class="_ _3"></span>V model using MAT<span class="_ _3"></span>LAB/SIMULINK </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3e ws3f">softw<span class="_ _2"></span>are package. Gow [8], developed a general PV model </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3f ws40">which can be i<span class="_ _3"></span>mplemented o<span class="_ _3"></span>n simulation plat<span class="_ _3"></span>forms such <span class="_ _3"></span>as </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y4f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws41">PSPICE or SA<span class="_ _2"></span>BER. Khan [9], pres<span class="_ _2"></span>ented the model<span class="_ _2"></span> of a small </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y50 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws42">wind-fuel cell hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid energy system and analyzed life cy<span class="_ _2"></span>cle <span class="_ _3"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y51 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws43">a wind-fuel cell inte<span class="_ _3"></span>grated system. Cha<span class="_ _3"></span>yawatto [10], </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y52 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws44">developed a m<span class="_ _2"></span>athematical m<span class="_ _2"></span>odel of a dc/ac fu<span class="_ _2"></span>ll-bridge </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y53 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws45">switching<span class="_ _2"></span> converter with current con<span class="_ _2"></span>trol for PV grid-</div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y54 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws46">connected system under islanding pheno<span class="_ _3"></span>mena; this </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y55 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws47">phenomena occu<span class="_ _2"></span>r when the grid system is disconnected for </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y56 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3f ws48">any reason and the distributed generation sti<span class="_ _3"></span>ll supplies to an<span class="_ _3"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y57 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws49">section of local load<span class="_ _3"></span>s. Onar [11], modeled a hybrid <span class="_ _3"></span>wind/FC/ </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y58 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws42">ultra-capacitor (UC<span class="_ _2"></span>) po<span class="_ _3"></span>wer sys<span class="_ _2"></span>tem for a grid-independent user </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y59 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls42 ws4a">with appropri<span class="_ _2"></span>ate pow<span class="_ _2"></span>er flow controllers<span class="_ _2"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls43 ws4b"> <span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span>In this study, a detailed dynamic model, control and </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws4c">simulation of a smart grid-c<span class="_ _3"></span>onnected PV/WT<span class="_ _3"></span> hy<span class="_ _2"></span>brid<span class="_ _3"></span> power </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws4d">gene<span class="_ _2"></span>ration system is propos<span class="_ _2"></span>ed. Modeling<span class="_ _2"></span> and simulat<span class="_ _2"></span>ion are </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws4e">implemen<span class="_ _2"></span>ted using MATLAB/S<span class="_ _2"></span>IMULINK and </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls44 ws4f">SimPowerSys<span class="_ _2"></span>tems software packag<span class="_ _2"></span>es to <span class="_ _3"></span>verify the </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y5f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws50">eff<span class="_ _2"></span>ectiveness of<span class="_ _2"></span> the proposed sys<span class="_ _2"></span>tem. </div><div class="t m0 xc h6 y60 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws51">II. S</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y61 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls45 ws0">YSTEM <span class="fs1 ls0">D</span><span class="ls46">ESCRIPTI<span class="_ _2"></span>ON <span class="fs1 ls0">A</span><span class="ls47">ND <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="fs1 ls0">M<span class="fs0 ls15">ODE<span class="_ _3"></span>LING</span> </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y62 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws52"> <span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span> Sm<span class="_ _2"></span>art grid is a system consists of three layers: the physi<span class="_ _3"></span>cal </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y63 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls48 ws53">power layer, the control layer and the application layer. And </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y64 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls48 ws54">according to, Katherine Hamilton [1], smart grid has to b<span class="_ _3"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x8 h6 y65 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws55">dyna<span class="_ _3"></span>mic and<span class="_ _3"></span> have<span class="_ _3"></span> const<span class="_ _3"></span>ant<span class="_ _3"></span> two-<span class="_ _3"></span>way co<span class="_ _3"></span>mmun<span class="_ _3"></span>ica<span class="_ _3"></span>tion,<span class="_ _3"></span> as </div><div class="t m0 xe h8 y66 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls49 ws56">Modeling and Control for Smart Grid Integration </div><div class="t m0 xf h8 y67 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls4a ws57">of Solar/Wind Energy Conversion System<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h9 y68 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4b ws58">E. M. Natsheh, <span class="ff7 ls4c ws59">Member, IEEE</span><span class="ls4d ws5a">, A. Albarbar<span class="ff7 ls4e ws5b">, Member, IEE, </span><span class="ls4f ws5c">and J. Yazdani</span></span><span class="ff7 ws5d">, Member, IEEE </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 ha y69 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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