Grid_Tied_Solar_Micro-Converter_with_Opt.rar

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Grid Tied Solar Micro-Converter with Optimizer Mode Operation for Weak-Grid Operation
Grid_Tied_Solar_Micro-Converter_with_Opt.rar
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62472cc362b5053d3c7b1781/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62472cc362b5053d3c7b1781/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IJSRD - International J<span class="_ _0"></span>ournal for Scientifi<span class="_ _0"></span>c Research &amp;<span class="_ _0"></span> Development| Vol. 5<span class="_ _0"></span>, Issue <span class="ls1">10</span>, 2017<span class="_ _0"></span> | ISSN (online): 2321<span class="_ _0"></span>-<span class="ls1">0613</span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="c x3 y3 w2 h4"><div class="t m0 x0 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">All rights reserved by <span class="ff3">www.ijsrd.com</span><span class="fs0 fc2"> </span></div></div><div class="c x4 y5 w3 h5"><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y6 ff4 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">680<span class="ls0"> </span></div></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y7 ff4 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Grid Tied Solar Micro<span class="_ _0"></span>-Converter <span class="_ _0"></span>with Optimizer M<span class="_ _0"></span>ode Operation for </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y8 ff4 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Weak-Grid Operation<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y9 ff4 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">A.<span class="ls0"> Ramesh Babu </span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h9 ya ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering </div><div class="t m0 xa h9 yb ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sir CV Raman Institute of Technology and Sciences, Anantapur, India </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 yc ff3 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff5">&#8212;</span> <span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ff6">This <span class="_ _0"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>roject <span class="_ _1"></span>proposes <span class="_ _0"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>dual <span class="_ _1"></span>mode <span class="_ _0"></span>&#64258;yback <span class="_ _1"></span>based </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 yd ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">hybrid <span class="_ _1"></span>converter <span class="_ _1"></span>that <span class="_ _1"></span>can <span class="_ _1"></span>suppor<span class="_ _0"></span>t <span class="_ _1"></span>both <span class="_ _0"></span>a <span class="_ _1"></span>grid <span class="_ _1"></span>tied <span class="_ _1"></span>mode <span class="_ _1"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 ye ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">islanded mode <span class="_ _2"></span>operation to ex<span class="_ _2"></span>tract maximum power f<span class="_ _2"></span>rom the </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 yf ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">solar <span class="_ _3"></span>PV <span class="_ _3"></span>source <span class="_ _3"></span>at <span class="_ _3"></span>all <span class="_ _3"></span>tim<span class="_ _2"></span>es. <span class="_ _3"></span>It <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>also <span class="_ _3"></span>designed <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _3"></span>em<span class="_ _2"></span>plo<span class="_ _0"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y10 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">active <span class="_ _0"></span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _2"></span>er <span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>ecoupling <span class="_ _0"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>draw co<span class="_ _0"></span>nstant <span class="_ _0"></span>input <span class="_ _0"></span>current <span class="_ _1"></span>with </div><div class="t m0 x2 ha y11 ff6 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">reduced &#64257;lter <span class="_ _2"></span>size <span class="_ _2"></span>at the <span class="_ _2"></span>terminals <span class="_ _2"></span>of th<span class="_ _2"></span>e PV panel <span class="_ _2"></span>in <span class="_ _2"></span>both <span class="_ _2"></span>AC </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y12 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _4"> </span>DC <span class="_ _4"> </span>output <span class="_ _4"> </span>power <span class="_ _5"> </span>modes. <span class="_ _4"> </span>The <span class="_ _4"> </span>ability <span class="_ _4"> </span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y13 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">converter <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _6"> </span>produce <span class="_ _6"> </span>both <span class="_ _6"> </span>DC <span class="_ _6"> </span>and <span class="_ _6"> </span>AC<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>output <span class="_ _6"> </span>allows </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y14 ff6 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#64258;<span class="ff2">exibility <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _7"></span>operation <span class="_ _7"></span>in <span class="_ _1"></span>envir<span class="_ _0"></span>onments <span class="_ _1"></span>where <span class="_ _7"></span>the<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>grid<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ay </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y15 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">not <span class="_ _1"></span>be <span class="_ _1"></span>avai<span class="_ _0"></span>lable <span class="_ _1"></span>for <span class="_ _7"></span>as <span class="_ _1"></span>high <span class="_ _1"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>80% <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>sunlight <span class="_ _7"></span>hours <span class="_ _1"></span>while </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y16 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">maintaining <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>advantages <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _8"></span>micro<span class="_ _0"></span>-inverters. <span class="_ _2"></span>In <span class="_ _8"></span>advance <span class="_ _2"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y17 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">DC generated voltage <span class="_ _2"></span>is given to <span class="_ _2"></span>a CUK <span class="_ _2"></span>converter so that <span class="_ _2"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y18 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">proposed converter could <span class="_ _2"></span>be able to <span class="_ _2"></span>support both <span class="_ _2"></span>the AC grid </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y19 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls3 ws0">an<span class="ls0">d <span class="_ _1"></span>also <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>variab<span class="_ _0"></span>le <span class="_ _1"></span>DC <span class="_ _1"></span>load<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>bo<span class="_ _0"></span>th <span class="_ _1"></span>in <span class="_ _1"></span>positive <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>ne<span class="_ _0"></span>gative </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y1a ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">polarity. </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y1b ff1 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Key <span class="_ _7"></span>words:<span class="ff2"> <span class="_ _7"></span>Fl<span class="_ _0"></span>yback; <span class="_ _7"></span>Photovo<span class="_ _0"></span>ltaic; <span class="_ _7"></span>CUK <span class="_ _3"></span>Converter; <span class="_ _7"></span>P<span class="_ _0"></span>WM<span class="ls4">; </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y1c ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sunlight </div><div class="t m0 xb h3 y1d ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls5 ws0">I.<span class="ff7 ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2">I<span class="fs4">NTRODUCTI<span class="_ _2"></span>ON<span class="fs0"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y1e ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _5"> </span>objec<span class="_ _0"></span>tive <span class="_ _5"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>this <span class="_ _5"> </span>proj<span class="_ _0"></span>ect <span class="_ _4"> </span>is <span class="_ _5"> </span>fir<span class="_ _0"></span>stly <span class="_ _5"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>review <span class="_ _5"> </span>dif<span class="_ _0"></span>ferent </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y1f ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MPPT <span class="_ _9"> </span>algorithms. <span class="_ _a"> </span>Then <span class="_ _a"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _9"> </span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ost <span class="_ _a"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>opular, <span class="_ _a"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>erturb <span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y20 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">observe <span class="_ _2"></span>(P&amp;O), <span class="_ _2"></span>incremental <span class="_ _2"></span>conductance (InC<span class="_ _2"></span>ond) and <span class="_ _8"></span>fuzzy </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y21 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">logic <span class="_ _6"> </span>control <span class="_ _6"> </span>(FLC) <span class="_ _b"> </span>are <span class="_ _6"> </span>analysed <span class="_ _6"> </span>in <span class="_ _6"> </span>dep<span class="_ _0"></span>th <span class="_ _6"> </span>and <span class="_ _6"> </span>tested </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y22 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">according <span class="_ _a"> </span>to <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _a"> </span>standard <span class="_ _a"> </span>mentioned <span class="_ _9"> </span>above. <span class="_ _a"> </span>After <span class="_ _9"> </span>that, </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y23 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">improvements <span class="_ _4"> </span>to <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>P&amp;O <span class="_ _4"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>InCond <span class="_ _5"> </span>algorithms <span class="_ _4"> </span>are </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y24 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">suggested <span class="_ _0"></span>to <span class="_ _0"></span>succeed <span class="_ _0"></span>in the <span class="_ _0"></span>MPPT <span class="_ _0"></span>tr<span class="_ _0"></span>acking under<span class="_ _0"></span> co<span class="_ _0"></span>nditions </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y25 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _b"> </span>changing <span class="_ _b"> </span>irradiance. <span class="_ _b"> </span>To <span class="_ _b"> </span>test <span class="_ _b"> </span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>MP<span class="_ _0"></span>PT <span class="_ _b"> </span>algorithms </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y26 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">according to the irradiation profiles <span class="_ _2"></span>propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed in th<span class="_ _2"></span>e standard, </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y27 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a <span class="_ _3"></span>si<span class="_ _0"></span>mplified <span class="_ _3"></span>model <span class="_ _4"> </span>was <span class="_ _3"></span>de<span class="_ _0"></span>veloped<span class="_ _0"></span>, <span class="_ _3"></span>because <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>simulatio<span class="_ _0"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y28 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">time <span class="_ _2"></span>required in some <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>the cases cannot <span class="_ _2"></span>be reached w<span class="_ _2"></span>ith <span class="_ _2"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y29 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">detailed <span class="_ _7"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>witching <span class="_ _7"></span>model <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _7"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ower <span class="_ _7"></span>converter <span class="_ _7"></span>in <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _3"></span>normal </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2a ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">desktop <span class="_ _7"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mputer. <span class="_ _7"></span>The <span class="_ _7"></span>reason <span class="_ _7"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>that <span class="_ _7"></span>is <span class="_ _7"></span>that <span class="_ _7"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _7"></span>compute<span class="_ _0"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2b ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">runs out of memory after simulating onl<span class="_ _0"></span>y a few seconds with </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2c ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the co<span class="_ _0"></span>mplete model. Fi<span class="_ _0"></span>nally, the <span class="_ _0"></span>simplified <span class="_ _0"></span>model is <span class="_ _0"></span>verified </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2d ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">by <span class="_ _7"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mparing <span class="_ _7"></span>its <span class="_ _3"></span>results <span class="_ _3"></span>with <span class="_ _7"></span>those <span class="_ _3"></span>obtained <span class="_ _3"></span>from <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _3"></span>model </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2e ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">containing a detailed <span class="_ _0"></span>model of an inverter.<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xc h3 y2f ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls5 ws0">II.<span class="ff7 ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2">P<span class="fs4">OWER G<span class="_ _2"></span>ENERATION<span class="_ _2"></span> IN SOLAR PANEL<span class="fs0"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y30 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Solar <span class="_ _7"></span>Photo <span class="_ _7"></span>voltaic <span class="_ _7"></span>System <span class="_ _7"></span>uses <span class="_ _7"></span>solar <span class="_ _7"></span>cell<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _7"></span>to <span class="_ _7"></span>convert <span class="_ _7"></span>light </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y31 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">into <span class="_ _1"></span>electricity. <span class="_ _1"></span>A <span class="_ _0"></span>P<span class="_ _0"></span>V <span class="_ _1"></span>system <span class="_ _0"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nsists <span class="_ _1"></span>of <span class="_ _0"></span>P<span class="_ _0"></span>V <span class="_ _1"></span>modules. <span class="_ _1"></span>Solar </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y32 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">radiation <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _0"></span>sufficient <span class="_ _0"></span>to <span class="_ _0"></span>generate <span class="_ _0"></span>required <span class="_ _0"></span>electricity. <span class="_ _0"></span>To <span class="_ _0"></span>run </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y33 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _2"></span>elevator efficiently. The standard equivalent <span class="_ _2"></span>circuit of the </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y34 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">PV cell is shown in FIG<span class="_ _0"></span>URE 1.<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h3 y35 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xc h3 y36 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fig. 1: Standard Eq<span class="_ _0"></span>uivalent Circuit o<span class="_ _0"></span>f PV </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 yc ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _7"></span>basic <span class="_ _1"></span>eq<span class="_ _0"></span>uation <span class="_ _1"></span>that<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>descr<span class="_ _0"></span>ibes <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _7"></span>I<span class="_ _0"></span>-V <span class="_ _7"></span>Characteristics <span class="_ _7"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 yd ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the PV <span class="_ _0"></span>model is given by the follo<span class="_ _0"></span>w<span class="_ _2"></span>ing equation:<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe h3 y37 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y38 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Where: </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y39 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls5 ws0">I <span class="ls0">- Cell Current (A).<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3a ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">IL - Light Generated C<span class="_ _0"></span>urrent (A).<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3b ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Io - Diode Saturation C<span class="_ _0"></span>urrent. </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3c ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">Q <span class="ls0">- Charge of Electron = 1<span class="_ _0"></span>.6x10<span class="_ _0"></span>-19 (Coul). </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3d ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">K <span class="ls0">- Boltzmann Constant (J<span class="_ _0"></span>/K) </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3e ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">V <span class="ls0">- Cell Output Voltage (V)<span class="_ _0"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y3f ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Rs, Rsh - Cell Series a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd Shunt Resistance (<span class="_ _0"></span>Ohms).<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xf h3 y40 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls5 ws0">III.<span class="ff7 ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2">C<span class="fs4">UK CON<span class="_ _2"></span>VERTER <span class="fs0"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 xd hb y41 ff3 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls7 ws0">A.<span class="ff8 ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff3">Analysis <span class="ls1">of</span> CUK Con<span class="_ _0"></span>verter </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y42 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">CUK <span class="_ _7"></span>converter <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _7"></span>a <span class="_ _7"></span>type <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _7"></span>DC/DC <span class="_ _7"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nverter <span class="_ _7"></span>allo<span class="_ _0"></span>wing <span class="_ _7"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y43 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">electrical <span class="_ _1"></span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>tential <span class="_ _1"></span>(voltage) <span class="_ _1"></span>at <span class="_ _7"></span>its <span class="_ _1"></span>output <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _7"></span>be <span class="_ _1"></span>greater <span class="_ _1"></span>than, </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y44 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">less than, o<span class="_ _0"></span>r equal <span class="_ _0"></span>to that <span class="_ _0"></span>at its input. <span class="_ _0"></span>The o<span class="_ _0"></span>utput <span class="_ _0"></span>of the CUK<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y45 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is controlled by the duty c<span class="_ _0"></span>ycle of the control transistor.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 h3 y46 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x11 h3 y47 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fig. 2: Equivalent Circ<span class="_ _0"></span>uit of CUK<span class="_ _0"></span> Converter with R <span class="_ _0"></span>Load </div><div class="t m0 xd hb y48 ff3 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls7 ws0">B.<span class="ff8 ls0"> <span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff3">Operation <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1">of</span> CUK Converter </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y49 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">All <span class="_ _0"></span>dc<span class="_ _0"></span>-dc <span class="_ _0"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nverters <span class="_ _0"></span>operate <span class="_ _1"></span>by <span class="_ _0"></span>rap<span class="_ _0"></span>idly <span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>urning <span class="_ _0"></span>on <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>off <span class="_ _0"></span>a </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4a ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MOSFET, <span class="_ _7"></span>generally <span class="_ _7"></span>with <span class="_ _1"></span>a <span class="_ _7"></span>high <span class="_ _7"></span>freque<span class="_ _0"></span>ncy <span class="_ _1"></span>pul<span class="_ _0"></span>se. <span class="_ _1"></span>W<span class="_ _0"></span>hat <span class="_ _7"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4b ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">converter <span class="_ _3"> </span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>oes <span class="_ _3"></span>as <span class="_ _4"> </span>a <span class="_ _3"> </span>resu<span class="_ _0"></span>lt <span class="_ _3"></span>of <span class="_ _4"> </span>this <span class="_ _3"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _3"> </span>what <span class="_ _4"> </span>makes <span class="_ _4"> </span>the <span class="_ _4"> </span>CUK </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4c ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">converter <span class="_ _0"></span>superio<span class="_ _0"></span>r. <span class="_ _0"></span>Fo<span class="_ _0"></span>r <span class="_ _0"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>CUK, <span class="_ _1"></span>when <span class="_ _0"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ulse <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _0"></span>hi<span class="_ _0"></span>gh/the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4d ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MOSFET <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>on, <span class="_ _8"></span>inductor <span class="_ _2"></span>1 <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _8"></span>charged <span class="_ _2"></span>by <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>input <span class="_ _2"></span>voltage <span class="_ _8"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4e ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">inductor 2 is charged b<span class="_ _0"></span>y capacitor 1. T<span class="_ _0"></span>he diode is off and<span class="_ _0"></span> the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4f ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">output <span class="_ _8"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>maintained <span class="_ _8"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_ _8"></span>capacitor <span class="_ _2"></span>2. <span class="_ _8"></span>When <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>pulse <span class="_ _8"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>low/the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y50 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MOSFET is <span class="_ _2"></span>off, the <span class="_ _2"></span>inductors output through <span class="_ _2"></span>the diode to <span class="_ _2"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y51 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">load and the capacito<span class="_ _0"></span>rs are charged.is shown belo<span class="_ _0"></span>w. <span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x12 h3 y52 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x13 h3 y53 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fig. 3: CUK Converter<span class="_ _0"></span> Operation </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.611792,0.000000,0.000000,1.611792,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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