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BlockChain in Medical Data
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  • Hyperledger Fabric A Distributed Operating System for.pdf
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6251548a6caf5961923ea8ee/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6251548a6caf5961923ea8ee/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Hyperledger<span class="_ _0"> </span>Fabric:<span class="_ _0"> </span>A<span class="_ _1"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _0"> </span>Operating<span class="_ _1"> </span>System<span class="_ _0"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Permissioned<span class="_ _0"> </span>Blockchains</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Elli<span class="_"> </span>Androulaki</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Artem<span class="_"> </span>Barger</div><div class="t m0 x5 h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Vita<span class="_"> </span>Bortnikov</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IBM</div><div class="t m0 x7 h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Christian<span class="_"> </span>Cachin</div><div class="t m0 x8 h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Konstantinos<span class="_"> </span>Christidis</div><div class="t m0 x9 h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Angelo<span class="_"> </span>De<span class="_"> </span>Caro</div><div class="t m0 xa h3 y7 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">David<span class="_"> </span>Enyeart</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y8 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IBM</div><div class="t m0 xc h3 y3 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Christopher<span class="_"> </span>Ferris</div><div class="t m0 xd h3 y4 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Gennady<span class="_"> </span>Laventman</div><div class="t m0 xe h3 y5 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Y<span class="_ _2"></span>acov<span class="_"> </span>Manevich</div><div class="t m0 xf h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IBM</div><div class="t m0 x10 h3 y9 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Srinivasan<span class="_"> </span>Muralidharan</div><div class="t m0 x11 h5 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x12 h4 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">State<span class="_"> </span>Street<span class="_"> </span>Corp.</div><div class="t m0 x13 h3 y9 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Chet<span class="_"> </span>Murthy</div><div class="t m0 x14 h5 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x15 h3 y9 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Binh<span class="_"> </span>Nguyen</div><div class="t m0 x16 h5 ya ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x17 h4 yb ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">State<span class="_"> </span>Street<span class="_"> </span>Corp.</div><div class="t m0 x18 h3 yc ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Manish<span class="_"> </span>Sethi</div><div class="t m0 x19 h3 yd ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Gari<span class="_"> </span>Singh</div><div class="t m0 x1a h3 ye ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keith<span class="_"> </span>Smith</div><div class="t m0 x1b h3 yf ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Alessandro<span class="_"> </span>Sorniotti</div><div class="t m0 x1c h4 y10 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IBM</div><div class="t m0 x1d h3 yc ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Chrysoula<span class="_"> </span>Stathakop<span class="_ _3"></span>oulou</div><div class="t m0 x1e h3 yd ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Marko<span class="_"> </span>V<span class="_ _4"></span>ukoli&#263;</div><div class="t m0 x1f h3 ye ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Sharon<span class="_"> </span>W<span class="_ _5"></span>eed<span class="_"> </span>Co<span class="_ _3"></span>cco</div><div class="t m0 x20 h3 yf ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Jason<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _5"></span>ellick</div><div class="t m0 x21 h4 y10 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IBM</div><div class="t m0 x22 h6 y11 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ABSTRA<span class="_ _4"></span>CT</div><div class="t m1 x22 h7 y12 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fabric<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>modular<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>extensible<span class="_ _6"> </span>open-source<span class="_ _6"> </span>system<span class="_ _6"> </span>for<span class="_ _6"> </span>deploying</div><div class="t m1 x22 h7 y13 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _6"> </span>operating<span class="_ _6"> </span>permissioned<span class="_ _6"> </span>blockchains<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>one<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>Hyperledger</div><div class="t m0 x22 h7 y14 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">projects<span class="_"> </span>hosted<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>Linux<span class="_"> </span>Foundation<span class="_"> </span>(ww<span class="_ _3"></span>w<span class="_ _2"></span>.hyp<span class="_ _3"></span>erledger<span class="_ _4"></span>.org).</div><div class="t m1 x23 h7 y15 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fabric<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>&#58907;rst<span class="_"> </span>truly<span class="_"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0">e</span><span class="fc1 sc0">xtensible</span><span class="_"> </span>blockchain<span class="_"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>running</div><div class="t m2 x22 h7 y16 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distributed<span class="_"> </span>applications.<span class="_"> </span>It<span class="_"> </span>supports<span class="_"> </span>modular<span class="_"> </span>consensus<span class="_"> </span>protocols,</div><div class="t m3 x22 h7 y17 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">which<span class="_"> </span>allows<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>t<span class="fc1 sc0">ailor</span><span class="fc1 sc0">e</span><span class="fc1 sc0">d</span><span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>particular<span class="_"> </span>use<span class="_"> </span>cases<span class="_"> </span>and</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y18 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">trust<span class="_"> </span>mo<span class="_ _3"></span>dels.<span class="_"> </span>Fabric<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>also<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>&#58907;rst<span class="_ _7"> </span>blockchain<span class="_ _7"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>runs</div><div class="t m5 x22 h7 y19 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distributed<span class="_"> </span>applications<span class="_"> </span>written<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>standard,<span class="_"> </span>g<span class="fc1 sc0">eneral-purp</span><span class="fc1 sc0">ose</span><span class="_"> </span>pro-</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y1a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">gramming<span class="_ _7"> </span>languages,<span class="_ _7"> </span>without<span class="_"> </span>systemic<span class="_ _7"> </span>dependency<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>native</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y1b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cryptocurrency<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>This<span class="_ _8"> </span>stands<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>sharp<span class="_ _8"> </span>contrast<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>existing<span class="_ _8"> </span>block-</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y1c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">chain<span class="_ _8"> </span>platforms<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _8"> </span>require<span class="_ _8"> </span>&#8220;smart-contracts&#8221;<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>e<span class="_ _8"> </span>written<span class="_ _9"> </span>in</div><div class="t m6 x22 h7 y1d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">domain-speci&#58907;c<span class="_"> </span>languages<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_ _7"> </span>r<span class="_ _4"></span>ely<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>cr<span class="_ _3"></span>yptocurrency<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Fabric<span class="_"> </span>real-</div><div class="t m1 x22 h7 y1e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">izes<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>permissioned<span class="_ _6"> </span>model<span class="_"> </span>using<span class="_ _6"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>p<span class="_ _3"></span>ortable<span class="_ _a"> </span>notion<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>membership,</div><div class="t m7 x22 h7 y1f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">which<span class="_"> </span>may<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>integrated<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>industr<span class="_ _3"></span>y-standard<span class="_"> </span>identity<span class="_"> </span>manage-</div><div class="t m1 x22 h7 y20 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ment.<span class="_ _6"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>o<span class="_ _6"> </span>support<span class="_ _6"> </span>such<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#58910;exibility<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Fabric<span class="_ _6"> </span>introduces<span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _6"> </span>entirely<span class="_ _6"> </span>novel</div><div class="t m1 x22 h7 y21 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">blockchain<span class="_ _a"> </span>design<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>revamps<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>way<span class="_"> </span>blockchains<span class="_ _6"> </span>cope<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _6"> </span>non-</div><div class="t m0 x22 h7 y22 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">determinism,<span class="_"> </span>resource<span class="_"> </span>exhaustion,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>performance<span class="_"> </span>attacks.</div><div class="t m4 x23 h7 y23 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _7"> </span>paper<span class="_ _7"> </span>describes<span class="_ _8"> </span>Fabric,<span class="_ _7"> </span>its<span class="_ _7"> </span>architecture,<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>rationale<span class="_ _7"> </span>be-</div><div class="t m8 x22 h7 y24 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hind<span class="_"> </span>various<span class="_"> </span>design<span class="_"> </span>decisions,<span class="_"> </span>its<span class="_"> </span>most<span class="_ _7"> </span>prominent<span class="_"> </span>implementation</div><div class="t m2 x22 h7 y25 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">aspects,<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>well<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>its<span class="_"> </span>distributed<span class="_"> </span>application<span class="_"> </span>programming<span class="_"> </span>model.</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y26 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _7"> </span>further<span class="_ _7"> </span>evaluate<span class="_ _7"> </span>Fabric<span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _7"> </span>implementing<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>benchmarking</div><div class="t m9 x22 h7 y27 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_"> </span>Bitcoin-inspired<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_"> </span>currency<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>show<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>Fabric<span class="_"> </span>achieves</div><div class="t ma x22 h7 y28 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">end-to-end<span class="_"> </span>throughput<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>more<span class="_"> </span>than<span class="_"> </span>3500<span class="_"> </span>transactions<span class="_"> </span>per<span class="_"> </span>second</div><div class="t m4 x22 h7 y29 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _8"> </span>certain<span class="_ _8"> </span>popular<span class="_ _8"> </span>deployment<span class="_ _8"> </span>con&#58907;gurations,<span class="_ _9"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>sub-second</div><div class="t m0 x22 h7 y2a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">latency<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>scaling<span class="_"> </span>well<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>over<span class="_"> </span>100<span class="_"> </span>peers.</div><div class="t m0 x24 h8 y2b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8727;</div><div class="t m0 x25 h9 y2c ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _2"></span>ork<span class="_"> </span>done<span class="_"> </span>at<span class="_"> </span>IBM.</div><div class="t m4 x22 h9 y2d ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Permission<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>make<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>hard<span class="_"> </span>copies<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>part<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>all<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_"> </span>work<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>personal<span class="_"> </span>or</div><div class="t mb x22 h9 y2e ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">classroom<span class="_"> </span>use<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>granted<span class="_"> </span>without<span class="_"> </span>fee<span class="_ _a"> </span>provided<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>copies<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>not<span class="_"> </span>made<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>distribute<span class="_ _3"></span>d</div><div class="t m1 x22 h9 y2f ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_"> </span>pro&#58907;t<span class="_ _6"> </span>or<span class="_ _6"> </span>commer<span class="_ _4"></span>cial<span class="_"> </span>advantage<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>that<span class="_ _6"> </span>copies<span class="_ _6"> </span>bear<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>notice<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>full<span class="_ _6"> </span>citation</div><div class="t m1 x22 h9 y30 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>&#58907;rst<span class="_ _6"> </span>page<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>Cop<span class="_ _4"></span>yrights<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_ _6"> </span>thir<span class="_ _4"></span>d-party<span class="_"> </span>components<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>work<span class="_ _6"> </span>must<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>honored.</div><div class="t m0 x22 h9 y31 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">For<span class="_"> </span>all<span class="_"> </span>other<span class="_"> </span>uses,<span class="_"> </span>contact<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>owner<span class="_ _3"></span>/author(s).</div><div class="t m0 x22 ha y32 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">EuroSys<span class="_ _6"> </span>&#8217;18,<span class="_ _a"> </span>A<span class="_ _4"></span>pril<span class="_ _6"> </span>23&#8211;26,<span class="_ _a"> </span>2018,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Porto,<span class="_ _6"> </span>Portugal</div><div class="t m0 x22 h9 y33 ff3 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#169;<span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2">2018<span class="_"> </span>Copyright<span class="_"> </span>held<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>owner/author(s).</span></div><div class="t m0 x22 h9 y34 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ACM<span class="_"> </span>ISBN<span class="_"> </span>978-1-4503-5584-1/18/04.</div><div class="t m0 x22 h9 y35 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">https://doi.org/10.1145/3190508.3190538</div><div class="t m0 x26 hb y11 ff4 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _4"></span>CM<span class="_ _a"> </span>Reference<span class="_ _c"> </span>Format:</div><div class="t m1 x26 hc y36 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Elli<span class="_"> </span>Androulaki,<span class="_"> </span>Artem<span class="_"> </span>Barger,<span class="_"> </span>Vita<span class="_"> </span>Bortnikov<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>Christian<span class="_"> </span>Cachin,<span class="_"> </span>Konstanti-</div><div class="t m4 x26 hc y37 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nos<span class="_"> </span>Christidis,<span class="_ _d"> </span>Angelo<span class="_"> </span>De<span class="_ _d"> </span>Caro,<span class="_"> </span>David<span class="_ _c"> </span>Enyeart,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Christopher<span class="_ _d"> </span>Ferris,<span class="_"> </span>Gen-</div><div class="t mc x26 hc y38 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nady<span class="_"> </span>Laventman,<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>acov<span class="_"> </span>Manevich,<span class="_"> </span>Srinivasan<span class="_"> </span>Muralidharan,<span class="_"> </span>Chet<span class="_"> </span>Murthy,</div><div class="t md x26 hc y39 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Binh<span class="_"> </span>Nguyen,<span class="_"> </span>Manish<span class="_"> </span>Sethi,<span class="_"> </span>Gari<span class="_"> </span>Singh,<span class="_"> </span>Keith<span class="_"> </span>Smith,<span class="_"> </span>Alessandro<span class="_"> </span>Sorniotti,</div><div class="t m4 x26 hc y3a ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Chrysoula<span class="_ _c"> </span>Stathakop<span class="_ _3"></span>oulou,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Marko<span class="_ _d"> </span>Vukoli&#263;,<span class="_"> </span>Sharon<span class="_"> </span>W<span class="_ _4"></span>eed<span class="_"> </span>Co<span class="_ _3"></span>cco,<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>Ja-</div><div class="t me x26 hc y3b ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">son<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>ellick.<span class="_"> </span>2018.<span class="_"> </span>Hyperle<span class="_ _3"></span>dger<span class="_"> </span>Fabric:<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>Distributed<span class="_"> </span>Operating<span class="_"> </span>System<span class="_"> </span>for</div><div class="t mf x26 hc y3c ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Permissioned<span class="_"> </span>Blockchains<span class="_"> </span>.<span class="_"> </span>In<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">EuroSys<span class="_ _6"> </span>&#8217;18:<span class="_ _c"> </span>Thirteenth<span class="_ _c"> </span>EuroSys<span class="_ _a"> </span>Conference</span></div><div class="t m10 x26 hc y3d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2018,<span class="_ _a"> </span>April<span class="_ _a"> </span>23&#8211;26,<span class="_ _a"> </span>2018,<span class="_ _c"> </span>Porto,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Portugal<span class="_ _e"></span>.<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff2">ACM,<span class="_"> </span>New<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>ork,<span class="_"> </span>N<span class="_ _3"></span>Y<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>USA,<span class="_"> </span>15<span class="_"> </span>pages.</span></div><div class="t m0 x26 hc y3e ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">https://doi.org/10.1145/3190508.3190538</div><div class="t m0 x26 h6 y3f ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _f"> </span>IN<span class="_ _3"></span>TRODUCTION</div><div class="t m0 x26 h7 y40 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_"> </span>blockchain<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>de&#58907;ned<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_"> </span>immutable<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff5">ledger<span class="_ _8"> </span></span>for<span class="_"> </span>recording</div><div class="t m11 x26 h7 y41 ff5 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">transactions<span class="ff2">,<span class="_"> </span>maintained<span class="_"> </span>within<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>distributed<span class="_"> </span>network<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>mutually</span></div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y42 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">untrusting<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">pe<span class="_ _3"></span>ers</span>.<span class="_"> </span>Every<span class="_ _7"> </span>peer<span class="_"> </span>maintains<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>copy<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>le<span class="_ _3"></span>dger<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _7"> </span>The</div><div class="t m12 x26 h7 y43 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">peers<span class="_"> </span>execute<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">consensus<span class="_ _c"> </span>protocol<span class="_ _7"> </span></span>to<span class="_"> </span>validate<span class="_"> </span>transactions,<span class="_"> </span>group</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y44 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">them<span class="_ _8"> </span>into<span class="_ _9"> </span>blocks,<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>build<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>hash<span class="_ _8"> </span>chain<span class="_ _9"> </span>over<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>blocks.<span class="_ _9"> </span>This</div><div class="t m13 x26 h7 y45 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">process<span class="_"> </span>forms<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>ledger<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>ordering<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>transactions,<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>neces-</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y46 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sary<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>consistency<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>Blockchains<span class="_"> </span>have<span class="_"> </span>emerged<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _d"> </span>Bitcoin<span class="_ _d"> </span>[</div><div class="t m0 x27 h7 y46 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div><div class="t m4 x28 h7 y46 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">]</div><div class="t m0 x26 h7 y47 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>widely<span class="_"> </span>regarded<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>promising<span class="_"> </span>technology<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>run<span class="_"> </span>trusted</div><div class="t m0 x26 h7 y48 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">exchanges<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_"> </span>world.</div><div class="t m14 x29 h7 y49 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">public<span class="_ _d"> </span></span>or<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">permissionless<span class="_ _d"> </span></span>blo<span class="_ _3"></span>ckchain<span class="_"> </span>anyone<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>participate</div><div class="t m15 x26 h7 y4a ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">without<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>speci&#58907;c<span class="_"> </span>identity<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>Public<span class="_"> </span>blo<span class="_ _3"></span>ckchains<span class="_"> </span>typically<span class="_"> </span>involve<span class="_"> </span>a</div><div class="t md x26 h7 y4b ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">native<span class="_"> </span>cryptocurrency<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>often<span class="_"> </span>use<span class="_"> </span>consensus<span class="_"> </span>based<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>&#8220;proof<span class="_"> </span>of</div><div class="t m12 x26 h7 y4c ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">work&#8221;<span class="_"> </span>(Po<span class="_ _2"></span>W)<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>economic<span class="_"> </span>incentives.<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff5">Permissioned<span class="_ _7"> </span></span>blockchains,</div><div class="t m16 x26 h7 y4d ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>other<span class="_"> </span>hand,<span class="_"> </span>run<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>blockchain<span class="_"> </span>among<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>set<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>known,<span class="_"> </span>iden-</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y4e ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ti&#58907;ed<span class="_"> </span>participants.<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>permissioned<span class="_"> </span>blockchain<span class="_"> </span>provides<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>way<span class="_"> </span>to</div><div class="t ma x26 h7 y4f ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">secure<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>interactions<span class="_"> </span>among<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>group<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>entities<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>have<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m1 x26 h7 y50 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mon<span class="_ _a"> </span>goal<span class="_ _a"> </span>but<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_"> </span>do<span class="_ _6"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>fully<span class="_"> </span>trust<span class="_ _6"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>other<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>such<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_ _6"> </span>businesses</div><div class="t m1 x26 h7 y51 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that<span class="_"> </span>exchange<span class="_"> </span>funds,<span class="_"> </span>goods,<span class="_"> </span>or<span class="_"> </span>information.<span class="_"> </span>By<span class="_"> </span>relying<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>iden-</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y52 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tities<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>pe<span class="_ _3"></span>ers,<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>permissioned<span class="_ _d"> </span>blockchain<span class="_ _d"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>use<span class="_"> </span>traditional</div><div class="t m0 x26 h7 y53 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Byzantine-fault<span class="_"> </span>tolerant<span class="_"> </span>(BFT)<span class="_"> </span>consensus.</div><div class="t m17 x29 h7 y54 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Blockchains<span class="_"> </span>may<span class="_"> </span>execute<span class="_"> </span>arbitrary<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>pr<span class="_ _4"></span>ogrammable<span class="_"> </span>transaction</div><div class="t m1 x26 h7 y55 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">logic<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>form<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff5">smart<span class="_ _c"> </span>contracts</span>,<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>exempli&#58907;ed<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>Ethereum<span class="_"> </span>[</div><div class="t m0 x27 h7 y55 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">5</div><div class="t m1 x28 h7 y55 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">].</div><div class="t m18 x26 h7 y56 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_"> </span>scripts<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>Bitcoin<span class="_"> </span>wer<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>predecessor<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>concept.<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>smart</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y57 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">contract<span class="_ _8"> </span>functions<span class="_ _8"> </span>as<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff5">trusted<span class="_ _8"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _8"> </span>application<span class="_ _9"> </span></span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>gains</div><div class="t m4 x26 h7 y58 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">its<span class="_ _8"> </span>se<span class="_ _3"></span>curity<span class="_ _8"> </span>from<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>blockchain<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>underlying<span class="_ _9"> </span>consensus</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m19"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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