Transition From Islanded to Grid-Connected.rar

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Transition From Islanded to Grid Connected Mode of Microgrids With Voltage Based Droop Control
Transition From Islanded to Grid-Connected.rar
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624469765d5dd73388904c22/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/624469765d5dd73388904c22/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _0"> </span>TRANSACTIONS<span class="_ _0"> </span>ON<span class="_ _0"> </span>POWER<span class="_ _0"> </span>SYSTEMS,<span class="_ _0"> </span>VOL.<span class="_ _0"> </span>28,<span class="_ _0"> </span>NO.<span class="_ _0"> </span>3,<span class="_ _0"> </span>AUGUST<span class="_ _0"> </span>2013<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1">2545</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">T<span class="_ _2"></span>ransition<span class="_ _3"> </span>From<span class="_ _3"> </span>Islanded<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>G<span class="_"> </span>rid-Connected<span class="_ _4"> </span>Mode</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Microgrids<span class="_ _5"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ith<span class="_ _5"> </span>V<span class="_ _6"></span>oltage-Based<span class="_ _5"> </span>Droop<span class="_ _5"> </span>Control</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">T<span class="_ _7"></span>ine<span class="_ _8"> </span>L.<span class="_ _9"> </span>V<span class="_ _a"></span>andoorn<span class="ff2 ls4">,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Student<span class="_ _8"> </span>Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1 ls5">,B<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _c"></span>M<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _d"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>m<span class="_ _d"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>n<span class="_ _b"></span><span class="ff2 ls4">,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Stu<span class="_ _e"></span>dent<span class="_ _8"> </span>Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1 ls1">,</span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">Jeroen<span class="_ _9"> </span>D.<span class="_ _f"> </span>M.<span class="_ _9"> </span>De<span class="_ _f"> </span>Kooning<span class="ff2 ls7">,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Student<span class="_ _f"> </span>Member<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1 ls8">,<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>Lieven<span class="_ _f"> </span>V<span class="_ _a"></span>andevelde<span class="ff2 ls9">,<span class="_ _f"> </span>Senior<span class="_ _9"> </span>Member<span class="_ _a"></span>,<span class="_ _f"> </span>IEEE</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">Abstract&#8212;<span class="ff4 lsb">Micr<span class="_ _7"></span>ogrids<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _0"> </span>able<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>provide<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>coordina</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y7 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsc ws0">ted<span class="_ _0"> </span>i<span class="_"> </span>ntegra-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsd ws0">tion<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _9"> </span>share<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _9"> </span>generation<span class="_ _9"> </span>(DG)<span class="_ _9"> </span>units</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y9 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">in<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>network.<span class="_ _9"> </span>The<span class="_ _f"> </span>primary<span class="_ _f"> </span>contr<span class="lsf">ol<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>DG<span class="_ _f"> </span>units<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>generally</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ya ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0">performed<span class="_ _12"> </span>by<span class="_ _12"> </span>droop-bas<span class="ls11">ed<span class="_ _11"> </span>control<span class="_ _11"> </span>algorith</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 yb ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">ms<span class="_ _12"> </span>that<span class="_ _12"> </span>avoid<span class="_ _12"> </span>commu-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yc ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws0">nication.<span class="_ _12"> </span>The<span class="_ _12"> </span>voltage-based<span class="_ _f"> </span>droop<span class="_ _11"> </span><span class="ls10">(VBD)<span class="_ _f"> </span>contr<span class="_ _7"></span>ol<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>developed<span class="_ _12"> </span>for</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yd ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">islanded<span class="_ _0"> </span>low-voltage<span class="_ _0"> </span>microgrids<span class="_ _0"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _13"> </span>high<span class="_ _0"> </span>share<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>renewable<span class="_ _13"> </span>en-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ye ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">ergy<span class="_ _9"> </span>sources.<span class="_ _9"> </span>With<span class="_ _14"> </span>VBD<span class="_ _9"> </span>control,<span class="_ _14"> </span>both<span class="_ _9"> </span>disp</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 yf ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">atchable<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _14"> </span>less-dis-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y10 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">patchable<span class="_ _13"> </span>units<span class="_ _13"> </span>will<span class="_ _13"> </span>contribute<span class="_ _13"> </span>in<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>sharing<span class="_ _13"> </span>and<span class="_ _13"> </span>balancing.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y11 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws0">The<span class="_ _12"> </span>priority<span class="_ _12"> </span>for<span class="_ _12"> </span>power<span class="_ _12"> </span>changes<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>automatically<span class="_ _11"> </span>set<span class="_ _12"> </span>dependent<span class="_ _12"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y12 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws0">the<span class="_ _15"> </span>terminal<span class="_ _15"> </span>voltages.<span class="_ _15"> </span>In<span class="_ _15"> </span>this<span class="_ _15"> </span>way<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _15"> </span>th</div><div class="t m0 xa h5 y13 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">e<span class="_ _15"> </span>renewables<span class="_ _15"> </span>change<span class="_ _15"> </span>their</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y14 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">output<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>more<span class="_ _11"> </span>extreme<span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage<span class="_ _11"> </span>conditions<span class="_ _11"> </span>compared<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y15 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">dispatchable<span class="_ _f"> </span>units,<span class="_ _f"> </span>hence,<span class="_ _f"> </span>only<span class="_ _f"> </span>wh<span class="ls1a">en<span class="_ _9"> </span>necessary<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>reliability</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y16 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0">of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>network.<span class="_ _f"> </span>This<span class="_ _f"> </span>facilitate</div><div class="t m0 xb h5 y17 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">s<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>integration<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>r<span class="_ _7"></span>enewable<span class="_ _f"> </span>units</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y18 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">and<span class="_ _0"> </span>improves<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>reliabi<span class="_ _7"></span>lity<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="ls13">network.<span class="_ _11"> </span>This<span class="_ _0"> </span>paper<span class="_ _0"> </span>focus<span class="_"> </span>ses<span class="_ _11"> </span>on</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y19 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">modifying<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>VBD<span class="_ _12"> </span>control<span class="_ _11"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>enable<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>smooth<span class="_ _11"> </span>transition</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1a ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws0">between<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>islanded<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>g</div><div class="t m0 xc h5 y1b ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws0">rid-connected<span class="_ _f"> </span>mode<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>micro-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1c ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">grid.<span class="_ _12"> </span>The<span class="_ _f"> </span>VBD<span class="_ _f"> </span>control<span class="_ _12"> </span>can<span class="_ _f"> </span>operate<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>both<span class="_ _f"> </span>modes.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Therefor<span class="_ _7"></span>e,<span class="_ _f"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1d ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">islanding,<span class="_ _11"> </span>no<span class="_ _12"> </span>speci<span class="ff5 ls1">&#64257;</span>c<span class="_ _12"> </span>measures<span class="_ _12"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>required.<span class="_ _11"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _12"> </span>reconnect<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>mi-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1e ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">crogrid<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>u<span class="_"> </span>tility<span class="_ _12"> </span>ne</div><div class="t m0 xd h5 y1f ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">twork,<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>modi<span class="ff5 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls17">ed<span class="_ _12"> </span>VBD<span class="_ _12"> </span>c<span class="_"> </span>ontrol<span class="_ _12"> </span>synchro-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y20 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws0">nizes<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>speci<span class="ff5 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="lsf">ed<span class="_ _0"> </span>DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>unit<span class="_ _0"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>utility<span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage.<span class="_ _0"> </span>I<span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _11"> </span>is</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y21 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws0">shown<span class="_ _12"> </span>that<span class="_ _f"> </span>this<span class="_ _12"> </span>synchronization<span class="_ _12"> </span>procedure<span class="_ _12"> </span>signi<span class="ff5 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls22">cantly<span class="_ _12"> </span>limits<span class="_ _12"> </span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y22 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 lsd ws0">switching<span class="_ _11"> </span>transient<span class="_ _12"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 xe h5 y23 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws0">nd<span class="_ _11"> </span>enables<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>smooth<span class="_ _12"> </span>mode<span class="_ _12"> </span>transfer.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y24 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws0">Index<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>erms&#8212;<span class="ff4 lsd">Distributed<span class="_ _13"> </span>generation,<span class="_ _0"> </span>droop<span class="_ _0"> </span>control,<span class="_ _0"> </span>microgrid,</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y25 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">synchronization.</div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y26 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws0">I.<span class="_ _5"> </span>I<span class="_ _7"></span><span class="fs5 ls25">NTRODUCTIO<span class="_"> </span>N</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y27 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">T</div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y28 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws0">HE<span class="_ _11"> </span>environmental<span class="_ _11"> </span>goals<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>liberalization<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>ener<span class="_ _7"></span>gy<span class="_ _11"> </span>mar-</div><div class="t m0 xf h6 y29 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">kets<span class="_ _12"> </span>have<span class="_ _f"> </span>led<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>huge<span class="_ _12"> </span>increase<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _12"> </span>generation</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">(DG)<span class="_ _9"> </span>units<span class="_ _14"> </span>(often<span class="_ _14"> </span>with<span class="_ _14"> </span>renewable<span class="_ _14"> </span>energy<span class="_ _9"> </span>sources)<span class="_ _14"> </span>in<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>elec-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">trical<span class="_ _13"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>system.<span class="_ _13"> </span>This<span class="_ _0"> </span>has<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _13"> </span>large<span class="_ _13"> </span>impact<span class="_ _0"> </span>on<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">planning<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>operation<span class="_ _f"> </span>[1]&#8211;[4].<span class="_ _12"> </span>W<span class="_ _7"></span>ith<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>high<span class="_ _12"> </span>penetration<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>DG,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">the<span class="_ _15"> </span>voltage<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _15"> </span>congestion<span class="_ _15"> </span>problems<span class="_ _15"> </span>can<span class="_ _15"> </span>signi<span class="ff6 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls26">cantly<span class="_ _15"> </span>reduce</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">the<span class="_ _14"> </span>hosting<span class="_ _15"> </span>capacity<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>network<span class="_"> </span>s<span class="_ _15"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>DG<span class="_ _15"> </span>[5].<span class="_ _14"> </span>Also,<span class="_ _14"> </span>as<span class="_ _15"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y2f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">ratio<span class="_ _11"> </span>DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _11"> </span>versus<span class="_ _12"> </span>centrally-g<span class="ls28">enerated<span class="_ _11"> </span>power<span class="_ _11"> </span>increases,<span class="_ _11"> </span>the</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y30 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>units<span class="_ _11"> </span>will<span class="_ _11"> </span>need<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>assist<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>ancillary<span class="_ _11"> </span>services<span class="_ _11"> </span>such<span class="_ _11"> </span>as<span class="_ _12"> </span>reserve</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y31 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">provision.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Therefore,<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff6 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls2f">t-and-forget<span class="_ _9"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _9"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>integratin<span class="_ _e"></span>g</span></div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y32 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">Manuscript<span class="_ _12"> </span>received<span class="_ _f"> </span>April<span class="_ _f"> </span>23,<span class="_ _f"> </span>2012;<span class="_ _12"> </span>revised<span class="_ _f"> </span>July<span class="_ _f"> </span>13,<span class="_ _12"> </span>2012<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>September</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y33 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws0">26,<span class="_ _13"> </span>2<span class="_"> </span>012;<span class="_ _0"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _0"> </span>October<span class="_ _0"> </span>18,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2012.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Date<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>publication<span class="_ _13"> </span>March<span class="_ _0"> </span>07,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2013;<span class="_ _0"> </span>date</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws0">of<span class="_ _0"> </span>current<span class="_ _0"> </span>version<span class="_ _0"> </span>July<span class="_ _0"> </span>18,<span class="_ _11"> </span>2013.<span class="_ _13"> </span>This<span class="_ _0"> </span>w<span class="_"> </span>ork<span class="_ _11"> </span>was<span class="_ _0"> </span>supported<span class="_ _0"> </span>by<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>FWO-Vlaan-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y35 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws0">deren<span class="_ _0"> </span>(Research<span class="_ _0"> </span>Foundation<span class="_ _0"> </span>-<span class="_ _0"> </span>Flanders,<span class="_ _0"> </span>Belgium).<span class="_ _0"> </span>The<span class="_ _0"> </span>work<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>T.<span class="_ _0"> </span>L.<span class="_ _0"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>andoorn</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y36 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws0">was<span class="_ _0"> </span>supported<span class="_ _0"> </span>by<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>FWO<span class="_ _0"> </span>by<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"> </span>Fellowship.<span class="_ _0"> </span>The<span class="_ _0"> </span>work<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>J.<span class="_ _0"> </span>D.<span class="_ _0"> </span>M.<span class="_ _0"> </span>De<span class="_ _0"> </span>K<span class="_"> </span>ooning</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y37 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws0">was<span class="_ _11"> </span>supported<span class="_ _0"> </span>by<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>Special<span class="_ _11"> </span>Research<span class="_ _11"> </span>Fund<span class="_ _11"> </span>(BOF)<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>Ghent<span class="_ _11"> </span>University<span class="_ _11"> </span>(Bel-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y38 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws0">gium).<span class="_ _0"> </span>The<span class="_ _11"> </span>research<span class="_ _0"> </span>was<span class="_ _11"> </span>carried<span class="_ _0"> </span>out<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span><span class="ls35">frame<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>th<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _11"> </span>Inter-univ<span class="_ _e"></span>ersity<span class="_ _11"> </span>Attrac-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y39 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">tion<span class="_ _11"> </span>Poles<span class="_ _12"> </span>programme<span class="_ _11"> </span>IAP-VII-43,<span class="_ _11"> </span>funded<span class="_ _12"> </span>by<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>Belgian<span class="_ _11"> </span>Government.<span class="_ _11"> </span>Paper</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y3a ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws0">no.<span class="_ _11"> </span>TPWRS-00409-2012.</div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y3b ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws0">T.<span class="_ _11"> </span>L.<span class="_ _0"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>andoorn,<span class="_ _0"> </span>B.<span class="_ _11"> </span>Meersman,<span class="_ _0"> </span>J.<span class="_ _11"> </span>D.<span class="_ _11"> </span>M.<span class="_ _11"> </span>De<span class="_ _11"> </span>Kooning,<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>L.<span class="_ _11"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>andevelde<span class="_ _0"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y3c ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws0">with<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>Electric<span class="_"> </span>al<span class="_ _11"> </span>E<span class="_"> </span>nergy<span class="_ _11"> </span>Laboratory<span class="_ _11"> </span>(<span class="ls38">E<span class="_"> </span>EL<span class="_"> </span>AB),<span class="_ _11"> </span>De<span class="_ _e"></span>partment<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _11"> </span>En-</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y3d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws0">e<span class="_ _16"></span>r<span class="_ _16"></span>g<span class="_ _16"></span>y<span class="_ _c"></span>,S<span class="_ _16"></span>y<span class="_ _16"></span>s<span class="_ _17"></span>t<span class="_ _16"></span>e<span class="_ _16"></span>m<span class="_ _16"></span>sa<span class="_ _16"></span>n<span class="_ _16"></span>dA<span class="_ _16"></span>u<span class="_ _16"></span>t<span class="_ _16"></span>o<span class="_ _16"></span>m<span class="_ _16"></span>a<span class="_ _16"></span>t<span class="_ _16"></span>i<span class="_ _16"></span>o<span class="_ _16"></span>n(<span class="_ _16"></span>E<span class="_ _16"></span>E<span class="_ _16"></span>S<span class="_ _16"></span>A<span class="_ _17"></span>)<span class="_ _16"></span>,G<span class="_ _16"></span>h<span class="_ _16"></span>e<span class="_ _16"></span>n<span class="_ _16"></span>tU<span class="_ _16"></span>n<span class="_ _16"></span>i<span class="_ _16"></span>v<span class="_ _16"></span>e<span class="_ _16"></span>r<span class="_ _16"></span>s<span class="_ _16"></span>i<span class="_ _16"></span>t<span class="_ _16"></span>y<span class="_ _18"></span>,B<span class="_ _16"></span>-<span class="_ _16"></span>9<span class="_ _16"></span>0<span class="_ _16"></span>0<span class="_ _16"></span>0G<span class="_ _16"></span>h<span class="_ _16"></span>e<span class="_ _16"></span>n<span class="_ _16"></span>t<span class="_ _16"></span>,B<span class="_ _16"></span>e<span class="_ _16"></span>l<span class="_ _16"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y3e ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">gium<span class="_ _11"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _11"> </span>Tin<span class="_ _7"></span>e.V<span class="_ _2"></span>andoorn@UGent.be).</div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y3f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws0">Dig</div><div class="t m0 x11 h8 y40 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws0">ital<span class="_ _11"> </span>Object<span class="_ _11"> </span>Identi<span class="ff6 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls3c">er<span class="_ _11"> </span>10.1<span class="_ _7"></span>109/TPWRS.2012.2<span class="_ _7"></span>226481</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>is<span class="_ _12"> </span>not<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>sustainable<span class="_ _12"> </span>option<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>coo<span class="_"> </span>rdinated<span class="_ _12"> </span>appr</div><div class="t m0 x13 h6 y41 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">oach<span class="_ _11"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y42 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3e ws0">active<span class="_ _f"> </span>control<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>these<span class="_ _f"> </span>units<span class="_ _12"> </span>w<span class="_"> </span>ill<span class="_ _f"> </span>be<span class="_ _f"> </span>required.</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y43 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3f ws0">W<span class="_ _7"></span>ith<span class="_ _11"> </span>respect<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>coordin<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>ted<span class="_ _12"> </span>integration<span class="_ _11"> </span>o</div><div class="t m0 x15 h6 y44 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws0">f<span class="_ _11"> </span>DG,<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>micro-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y45 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">grid<span class="_ _0"> </span>concept<span class="_ _11"> </span>has<span class="_ _11"> </span>been<span class="_ _0"> </span>develo<span class="_"> </span>ped.<span class="_ _11"> </span>Microgrids</div><div class="t m0 x16 h6 y46 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">are<span class="_ _0"> </span>power<span class="_ _11"> </span>systems</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y47 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls42 ws0">that<span class="_ _f"> </span>consist<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>an<span class="_ _9"> </span>aggregation<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>loads,<span class="_ _9"> </span>sou</div><div class="t m0 x17 h6 y48 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">rces<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>storage<span class="_ _f"> </span>el-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y49 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">ements<span class="_ _f"> </span>[6],<span class="_ _f"> </span>[7].<span class="_ _12"> </span>An<span class="_ _9"> </span>important<span class="_ _f"> </span>characteris</div><div class="t m0 x18 h6 y4a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls43 ws0">tic<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>mi<span class="_"> </span>c<span class="_ _e"></span>rogrid<span class="_ _f"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y4b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls44 ws0">that<span class="_ _14"> </span>it<span class="_ _14"> </span>is<span class="_ _14"> </span>regarded<span class="_ _14"> </span>as<span class="_ _14"> </span>a<span class="_ _14"> </span>controlla<span class="_"> </span>ble<span class="_ _14"> </span>e<span class="_"> </span>nt<span class="_"> </span>it</div><div class="t m0 x19 h6 y4c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws0">y<span class="_ _9"> </span>f<span class="_"> </span>ro<span class="_ _e"></span>m<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>utility<span class="_ _9"> </span>net-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y4d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws0">works<span class="_ _f"> </span>point<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>view.<span class="_ _f"> </span>This<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>made<span class="_ _9"> </span>possible</div><div class="t m0 x1a h6 y4e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">because<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>micro-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y4f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">grid<span class="_ _f"> </span>has<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>single<span class="_ _f"> </span>point<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>common<span class="_ _f"> </span>cou</div><div class="t m0 x1b h6 y50 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">pling<span class="_ _f"> </span>(PCC).<span class="_ _f"> </span>Dependent</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y51 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls45 ws0">on<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>state<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _15"> </span>th<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _15"> </span>P<span class="_"> </span>CC<span class="_ _8"> </span>switch,<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>mi</div><div class="t m0 x1c h6 y52 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">crogrid<span class="_ _15"> </span>can<span class="_ _15"> </span>operate<span class="_ _15"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y53 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">grid-connected<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>islanded<span class="_ _0"> </span>m<span class="_"> </span>ode</div><div class="t m0 x1d h6 y54 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls46 ws0">.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Microgrid<span class="_ _e"></span>s<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>likely<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>play</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y55 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls47 ws0">a<span class="_ _13"> </span>key<span class="_ _0"> </span>role<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>evolution<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>s</div><div class="t m0 x1e h6 y56 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls48 ws0">mart<span class="_ _13"> </span>grid<span class="_ _0"> </span>[8],<span class="_ _13"> </span>[9].<span class="_ _0"> </span>It<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_ _13"> </span>expected</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y57 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">that<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>smart<span class="_ _f"> </span>grid<span class="_ _9"> </span>will<span class="_ _f"> </span>emerge<span class="_ _f"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x1f h6 y58 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws0">s<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>system<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>integrated<span class="_ _f"> </span>smart</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y59 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls49 ws0">microgri<span class="_ _7"></span>ds<span class="_ _0"> </span>[10].<span class="_ _0"> </span>As<span class="_ _11"> </span>most<span class="_ _0"> </span>DG<span class="_ _0"> </span>uni</div><div class="t m0 x1e h6 y5a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">ts<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _11"> </span>connected<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>network</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y5b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls44 ws0">through<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>vo<span class="_"> </span>ltag<span class="_ _e"></span>e-source<span class="_ _11"> </span>inve</div><div class="t m0 x20 h6 y5c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">rter<span class="_ _11"> </span>(VSI),<span class="_ _11"> </span>proper<span class="_ _11"> </span>microgrid<span class="_ _11"> </span>oper-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y5d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">ation<span class="_ _f"> </span>requires<span class="_ _f"> </span>proper<span class="_ _f"> </span>inve</div><div class="t m0 x21 h6 y5e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">rter<span class="_ _f"> </span>control.</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y5f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">The<span class="_ _11"> </span>inverter<span class="_ _11"> </span>control<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x22 h6 y60 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws0">DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>units<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>grid-connected<span class="_ _11"> </span>micro-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y61 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws0">grids<span class="_ _13"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>related<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>deli</div><div class="t m0 x23 h6 y62 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">very<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"> </span>certain<span class="_ _13"> </span>amou<span class="_"> </span>nt<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>power<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _13"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y63 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">network&#8217;<span class="_ _7"></span>s<span class="_ _9"> </span>point<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>view.<span class="_ _14"> </span>G</div><div class="t m0 x24 h6 y64 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">enerally<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _14"> </span>grid-following<span class="_ _14"> </span>units,<span class="_ _14"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y65 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4a ws0">current<span class="_ _11"> </span>co<span class="_"> </span>ntr<span class="_"> </span>ol<span class="_"> </span>lers<span class="_ _12"> </span>tha</div><div class="t m0 x25 h6 y66 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">t<span class="_ _11"> </span>track<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>measured<span class="_ _11"> </span>term<span class="_"> </span>inal<span class="_ _12"> </span>voltage,<span class="_ _11"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y67 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">used<span class="_ _14"> </span>[1<span class="_ _7"></span>1]&#8211;[13].<span class="_ _14"> </span>The<span class="_ _14"> </span>gri</div><div class="t m0 x26 h6 y68 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4b ws0">d<span class="_ _14"> </span>stability<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _14"> </span>power<span class="_ _14"> </span>qual<span class="_"> </span>ity<span class="_ _15"> </span>remain<span class="_ _14"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y69 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4c ws0">task<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>transmiss</div><div class="t m0 x27 h6 y6a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">ion<span class="_ _14"> </span>system.<span class="_ _14"> </span>In<span class="_ _14"> </span>th<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _14"> </span>islan<span class="_"> </span>ded<span class="_ _15"> </span>mode,<span class="_ _9"> </span>th<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _14"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y6b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws0">verter<span class="_ _11"> </span>controllers</div><div class="t m0 x28 h6 y6c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3e ws0">are<span class="_ _11"> </span>responsible<span class="_ _12"> </span>for<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>microgrid<span class="_ _12"> </span>stability<span class="_ _12"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y6d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4d ws0">power<span class="_ _f"> </span>quality.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Grid</div><div class="t m0 x29 h6 y6e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">-forming,<span class="_ _f"> </span>thus<span class="_ _f"> </span>voltage-c<span class="ls4e">ontrolled<span class="_"> </span>,<span class="_ _f"> </span>u<span class="_ _e"></span>nits<span class="_ _f"> </span>are</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y6f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">required<span class="_ _0"> </span>because<span class="_ _11"> </span>o</div><div class="t m0 x2a h6 y70 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">f<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>lack<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"> </span>utility<span class="_ _11"> </span>network<span class="_ _0"> </span>fo<span class="_"> </span>rming<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>ref-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y71 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">erence<span class="_ _14"> </span>voltage.<span class="_ _14"> </span>G</div><div class="t m0 x2b h6 y72 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">enerally<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _14"> </span>droop-based<span class="_ _15"> </span>c<span class="ls2f">ontrol<span class="_ _14"> </span>algorithms<span class="_ _14"> </span>are</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y73 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">used<span class="_ _15"> </span>for<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>prima</div><div class="t m0 x2c h6 y74 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">ry<span class="_ _15"> </span>control<span class="_ _15"> </span>in<span class="_ _15"> </span>islanded<span class="_ _15"> </span>microgrids,<span class="_ _15"> </span>to<span class="_ _15"> </span>avoid</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y75 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">communication<span class="_ _11"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x2d h6 y76 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls42 ws0">nd<span class="_ _11"> </span>single<span class="_ _11"> </span>points<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>failure<span class="_ _11"> </span>for<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>reliable<span class="_ _0"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y77 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4f ws0">operation.</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y78 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Droop<span class="_ _13"> </span>control<span class="_ _0"> </span>c</div><div class="t m0 x2b h6 y79 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">an<span class="_ _13"> </span>be<span class="_ _0"> </span>classi<span class="ff6 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls50">ed<span class="_ _13"> </span>in</span></div><div class="t m0 x2e h6 y7a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">and<span class="_ _19"> </span><span class="ls38">droops,<span class="_ _13"> </span>with</span></div><div class="t m0 x2f h6 y7b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">the<span class="_ _9"> </span>active<span class="_ _15"> </span>po</div><div class="t m0 x30 h6 y7c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls51 ws0">wer<span class="_ _7"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x31 h6 y7d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">the<span class="_ _14"> </span>grid<span class="_ _14"> </span>frequency<span class="_ _14"> </span>and<span class="_ _1a"> </span><span class="ls2c">the<span class="_ _14"> </span>terminal</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y7e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">rms<span class="_ _9"> </span>voltage.<span class="_ _9"> </span>T</div><div class="t m0 x32 h6 y7f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls52 ws0">he<span class="_ _f"> </span>former<span class="_ _9"> </span>focusses<span class="_ _9"> </span>on<span class="_ _9"> </span>mimicking<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x33 h6 y80 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4c ws0">con-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y81 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls53 ws0">trollers<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _14"> </span>t</div><div class="t m0 x34 h6 y82 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">he<span class="_ _14"> </span>synchrono<span class="_"> </span>us<span class="_ _15"> </span>generators<span class="_ _14"> </span>connected<span class="_ _15"> </span>to<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>trans-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y83 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4d ws0">mission<span class="_ _15"> </span>netw</div><div class="t m0 x35 h6 y84 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3e ws0">orks<span class="_ _15"> </span>[7],<span class="_ _15"> </span>[14]&#8211;[16].<span class="_ _15"> </span>Low<span class="_ _e"></span>-voltage<span class="_ _15"> </span>micro<span class="_"> </span>grids<span class="_ _8"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y85 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">considere</div><div class="t m0 x36 h6 y86 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">d<span class="_ _14"> </span>in<span class="_ _14"> </span>this<span class="_ _9"> </span>paper,<span class="_ _9"> </span>which<span class="_ _14"> </span>generally<span class="_ _14"> </span>lack<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>rotating<span class="_ _14"> </span>in-</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y87 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls53 ws0">ertia<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>c</div><div class="t m0 x36 h6 y88 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">onventional<span class="_ _11"> </span>grid<span class="_ _11"> </span>control<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _11"> </span>based<span class="_ _11"> </span>upon.<span class="_ _11"> </span>Also,<span class="_ _11"> </span>th<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _11"> </span>lines</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y89 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls54 ws0">are<span class="_ _11"> </span>predo</div><div class="t m0 x37 h6 y8a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">minantly<span class="_ _12"> </span>resistive<span class="_ _12"> </span>such<span class="_ _12"> </span>that<span class="_ _12"> </span>there<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _12"> </span>linkage<span class="_ _12"> </span>betw<span class="_ _e"></span>een</div><div class="t m0 x38 h6 y8b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls55 ws0">and<span class="_ _1b"> </span><span class="ls56">,n<span class="_ _1c"></span>o</span></div><div class="t m0 x39 h6 y8c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws0">t<span class="_ _8"> </span>frequency<span class="_ _8"> </span>(through<span class="_ _8"> </span>phase<span class="_ _1d"> </span>angles).<span class="_ _8"> </span>Therefore,</div><div class="t m0 x3a h6 y8d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">droo</div><div class="t m0 x3b h6 y8e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws0">ps<span class="_ _11"> </span>h<span class="_ _e"></span>ave<span class="_ _12"> </span>been<span class="_ _12"> </span>used<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>[17]<span class="_ _12"> </span>an<span class="_"> </span>d<span class="_ _f"> </span>[18].<span class="_ _12"> </span>The</div><div class="t m0 x3c h6 y8f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls57 ws0">droop</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y90 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4f ws0">contro</div><div class="t m0 x3a h6 y91 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">ller<span class="_ _11"> </span>focusses<span class="_ _11"> </span>on<span class="_ _11"> </span>dispatchable<span class="_ _11"> </span>DG<span class="_ _11"> </span>un<span class="_ _e"></span>its.<span class="_ _11"> </span>A<span class="_ _11"> </span>variant<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>these</div><div class="t m0 x3d h6 y92 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">dro</div><div class="t m0 x3e h6 y93 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls58 ws0">ops,<span class="_ _15"> </span>called<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>voltage-based<span class="_ _15"> </span>droop<span class="_ _15"> </span>(VBD)<span class="_ _15"> </span>cont<span class="_ _7"></span>rol,</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y94 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">has<span class="_ _f"> </span>be</div><div class="t m0 x3a h6 y95 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls41 ws0">en<span class="_ _f"> </span>presented<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>[19].<span class="_ _f"> </span>This<span class="_ _f"> </span>co<span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2b">ntrol<span class="_ _9"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _f"> </span>takes<span class="_ _9"> </span>into<span class="_ _f"> </span>ac-</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y96 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls59 ws0">coun</div><div class="t m0 x3f h6 y97 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4c ws0">t<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>less<span class="_ _9"> </span>dispatchable<span class="_ _14"> </span>nature<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>various<span class="_ _14"> </span>DG<span class="_ _14"> </span>units.<span class="_ _9"> </span>It<span class="_ _14"> </span>also</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y98 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">enab</div><div class="t m0 x3f h6 y99 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4c ws0">les<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>use<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>voltage<span class="_ _0"> </span>as<span class="_ _0"> </span>trigger<span class="_ _11"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>primary<span class="_ _0"> </span>l<span class="_"> </span>oad<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>storage</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y9a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">con</div><div class="t m0 x40 h6 y9b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls4c ws0">trol<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>[20].</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y9c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls5a ws0">An<span class="_ _14"> </span>im</div><div class="t m0 x41 h6 y9d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws0">portant<span class="_ _15"> </span>bene<span class="ff6 ls1">&#64257;</span><span class="ls3e">t<span class="_ _14"> </span>of<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>VBD<span class="_ _15"> </span>control<span class="_ _15"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _14"> </span>is<span class="_ _15"> </span>that<span class="_ _14"> </span>it</span></div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 y9e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">can</div><div class="t m0 x42 h6 y9f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">be<span class="_ _12"> </span>used<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>both<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>grid-connected<span class="_ _12"> </span>o<span class="_"> </span>r<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>islanded<span class="_ _f"> </span>mode<span class="_ _f"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x43 h8 ya0 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls5b ws0">0885-8950/$3<span class="_ _7"></span>1.00<span class="_ _12"> </span>&#169;<span class="_ _11"> </span>2013<span class="_ _12"> </span>IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x44 h9 ya1 ff7 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE. Downloaded on March 26,2020 at 17:25:10 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.621622,0.000000,0.000000,1.621622,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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