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有关mimo雷达的英文论文,有一定的参考价值。
MIMO-FMCW Radar.rar
  • MIMO-FMCW Radar-Based Parking Monitoring Application With a Modified Convolutional Neural Network With Spatial Priors.pdf
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625d17e392dc900e62704031/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625d17e392dc900e62704031/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received<span class="_ _0"> </span>June<span class="_ _0"> </span>1,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2018,<span class="_ _0"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _0"> </span>July<span class="_ _0"> </span>5,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2018,<span class="_ _0"> </span>date<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>publication<span class="_ _0"> </span>July<span class="_ _0"> </span>18,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2018,<span class="_ _0"> </span>date<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>current<span class="_ _0"> </span>version<span class="_ _0"> </span>August<span class="_ _0"> </span>15,<span class="_ _0"> </span>2018.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Digital<span class="_ _1"> </span>Object<span class="_ _1"> </span>Identifier<span class="_ _1"> </span>1<span class="_ _2"></span>0.1<span class="_ _3"></span>1<span class="_ _2"></span>09/ACCESS.20<span class="_ _2"></span>18.2857<span class="_ _2"></span>007</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y3 ff3 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MIMO-FMCW<span class="_ _4"> </span>Radar-Based<span class="_ _4"> </span>Parking<span class="_ _4"> </span>Monitoring</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y4 ff3 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Application<span class="_ _4"> </span>With<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>Modified<span class="_ _4"> </span>Convolutional</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y5 ff3 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Neural<span class="_ _4"> </span>Network<span class="_ _4"> </span>With<span class="_ _4"> </span>Spatial<span class="_ _4"> </span>Priors</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">JA<span class="_ _2"></span>VI<span class="_ _5"></span>ER<span class="_ _6"> </span>MART&#205;NEZ<span class="_ _6"> </span>GARC&#205;A</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y7 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x3 h5 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _6"> </span>(Student<span class="_ _6"> </span>Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE),<span class="_ _6"> </span>DOM<span class="_ _5"></span>IN<span class="_ _5"></span>IK<span class="_ _6"> </span>ZOEKE</div><div class="t m0 x4 h6 y7 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _6"> </span>(Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE),</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">AND<span class="_ _6"> </span>MARTI<span class="_ _5"></span>N<span class="_ _6"> </span>VOS<span class="_ _2"></span>SI<span class="_ _5"></span>EK</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y9 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _6"> </span>(Fellow<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE)</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 ya ff5 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 yb ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Institute<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>Microw<span class="_ _8"></span>aves<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>Photonics<span class="_ _1"> </span>(LHFT),<span class="_ _1"> </span>Uni<span class="_ _2"></span>versity<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>Erlangen-Nuremberg,<span class="_ _1"> </span>91058<span class="_ _1"> </span>Erlangen,<span class="_ _1"> </span>Germany</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 yc ff5 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 yd ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Siemens<span class="_ _1"> </span>A<span class="_ _8"></span>G,<span class="_ _1"> </span>81739<span class="_ _1"> </span>Munich,<span class="_ _1"> </span>Germany</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 ye ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Corresponding<span class="_ _0"> </span>author:<span class="_ _1"> </span>Javier<span class="_ _0"> </span>Mart&#237;nez<span class="_ _0"> </span>Garc&#237;a<span class="_ _1"> </span>(javier<span class="_ _8"></span>.martinez@ieee.org)</div><div class="t m0 x9 ha yf ff6 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ABSTRACT<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff5 fc0">Radar<span class="_ _0"> </span>imaging<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>competitiv<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>option<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>smart<span class="_ _0"> </span>city<span class="_ _a"> </span>applications<span class="_ _0"> </span>over<span class="_ _0"> </span>optical<span class="_ _0"> </span>approaches,<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _0"> </span>it</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y10 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">raises<span class="_ _a"> </span>no<span class="_ _a"> </span>priv<span class="_ _8"></span>acy<span class="_ _0"> </span>concerns.<span class="_ _6"> </span>The<span class="_ _0"> </span>inherent<span class="_ _a"> </span>dif&#64257;culty<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>interpreting<span class="_ _b"> </span>radar<span class="_ _a"> </span>signals<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>overcome<span class="_ _0"> </span>using<span class="_ _b"> </span>deep</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y11 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">learning<span class="_ _1"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>lev<span class="_ _8"></span>erage<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>capabilities<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>monitoring<span class="_ _1"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _1"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"> </span>minimum<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>human<span class="_ _1"> </span>intervention.</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y12 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>paper<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _6"> </span>we<span class="_ _b"> </span>use<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>modi&#64257;ed<span class="_ _b"> </span>conv<span class="_ _2"></span>olutional<span class="_ _b"> </span>neural<span class="_ _b"> </span>network<span class="_ _b"> </span>(CNN)<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>classifying<span class="_ _6"> </span>radar<span class="_ _b"> </span>images<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>order</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y13 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to<span class="_ _c"> </span>detect<span class="_ _c"> </span>vacant<span class="_ _c"> </span>parking<span class="_ _c"> </span>spaces<span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>77-GHz<span class="_ _c"> </span>imaging<span class="_ _c"> </span>radar<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Although<span class="_ _c"> </span>training<span class="_ _c"> </span>CNNs<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>radar-image</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y14 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">classi&#64257;cation<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>challenging<span class="_ _6"> </span>due<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>poor<span class="_ _b"> </span>generalization<span class="_ _6"> </span>performance<span class="_ _6"> </span>caused<span class="_ _6"> </span>by<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>lack<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>labeled<span class="_ _6"> </span>training</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y15 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">data,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>modi&#64257;ed<span class="_ _d"> </span>architecture<span class="_ _d"> </span>takes<span class="_ _d"> </span>into<span class="_ _d"> </span>account<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>properties<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>radar<span class="_ _c"> </span>image<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>order<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>introduce</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y16 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">prior<span class="_ _6"> </span>information<span class="_ _6"> </span>into<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>model<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>improve<span class="_ _b"> </span>performance.<span class="_ _6"> </span>A<span class="_ _6"> </span>MIMO-FMCW<span class="_ _6"> </span>radar<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _6"> </span>utilized<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>render<span class="_ _b"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y17 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">slant-range<span class="_ _b"> </span>image<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _6"> </span>parking<span class="_ _b"> </span>scenario,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>image<span class="_ _b"> </span>patches<span class="_ _b"> </span>corresponding<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>each<span class="_ _b"> </span>parking<span class="_ _b"> </span>location<span class="_ _6"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y18 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">classi&#64257;ed<span class="_ _0"> </span>independently<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>CNN.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Since<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>radiation<span class="_ _a"> </span>pattern<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>MIMO<span class="_ _a"> </span>array<span class="_ _0"> </span>varies<span class="_ _0"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>function<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y19 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scanning<span class="_ _0"> </span>angle,<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>corresponding<span class="_ _0"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _a"> </span>coordinate<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>patch<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>included<span class="_ _0"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>additional<span class="_ _0"> </span>feature<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y1a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">upper<span class="_ _6"> </span>layers<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>network.<span class="_ _b"> </span>This<span class="_ _6"> </span>allows<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>model<span class="_ _6"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>combine<span class="_ _d"> </span>local<span class="_ _b"> </span>features<span class="_ _6"> </span>from<span class="_ _6"> </span>each<span class="_ _6"> </span>patch<span class="_ _6"> </span>with<span class="_ _6"> </span>global</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y1b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scenario<span class="_ _c"> </span>information<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>order<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>learn<span class="_ _c"> </span>robust<span class="_ _c"> </span>features<span class="_ _c"> </span>that<span class="_ _c"> </span>generalize<span class="_ _c"> </span>properly<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>new<span class="_ _d"> </span>scenarios.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Several</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y1c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">models<span class="_ _d"> </span>are<span class="_ _c"> </span>trained<span class="_ _c"> </span>end<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>end<span class="_ _c"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>data<span class="_ _c"> </span>from<span class="_ _c"> </span>four<span class="_ _c"> </span>different<span class="_ _d"> </span>parking<span class="_ _c"> </span>scenarios<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>ev<span class="_ _2"></span>aluated<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>4-fold</div><div class="t m0 x9 hb y1d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cross-validation<span class="_ _0"> </span>scheme,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>performance<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>improv<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"> </span>when<span class="_ _b"> </span>spatial<span class="_ _a"> </span>prior<span class="_ _b"> </span>information<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>included.</div><div class="t m0 x9 ha y1e ff6 fs8 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">INDEX<span class="_ _6"> </span>TERMS<span class="_ _e"> </span><span class="ff5 fc0">Con<span class="_ _2"></span>volutional<span class="_ _a"> </span>neural<span class="_ _b"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _a"> </span>MIMO<span class="_ _b"> </span>radar<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>monitoring,<span class="_ _b"> </span>smart<span class="_ _a"> </span>cities.</span></div><div class="t m0 xa hc y1f ff6 fs9 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">I.<span class="_ _9"> </span>INTRODUCTION</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y20 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _c"> </span>urban<span class="_ _f"> </span>population<span class="_ _c"> </span>worldwide<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>expected<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>gro<span class="_ _8"></span>w<span class="_ _c"> </span>over</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y21 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>coming<span class="_ _d"> </span>decades<span class="_ _6"> </span>at<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>expense<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>depopulation<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>rural</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y22 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">areas<span class="_ _c"> </span>[1].<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _c"> </span>concentration<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>population<span class="_ _c"> </span>around<span class="_ _c"> </span>growing</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y23 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">urban<span class="_ _1"> </span>areas<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>expected<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>lead<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>increased<span class="_ _1"> </span>congestion,<span class="_ _1"> </span>which</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y24 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">translates<span class="_ _0"> </span>into<span class="_ _0"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>demand<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>mobility<span class="_ _a"> </span>solutions<span class="_ _0"> </span>that<span class="_ _a"> </span>guarantee</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y25 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sustainable<span class="_ _f"> </span>urban<span class="_ _9"> </span>dev<span class="_ _2"></span>elopment<span class="_ _9"> </span>based<span class="_ _9"> </span>on<span class="_ _9"> </span>safety<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>ef&#64257;cienc<span class="_ _2"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y26 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _a"> </span>environmental<span class="_ _0"> </span>motivations.</div><div class="t m0 xb hb y27 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Parking<span class="_ _a"> </span>monitoring<span class="_ _6"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>one<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>major<span class="_ _b"> </span>building<span class="_ _b"> </span>blocks<span class="_ _b"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y28 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>solution,<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>which<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>network<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _b"> </span>gathers<span class="_ _a"> </span>infor-</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y29 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">mation<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#8211;<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>provide<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>real-time<span class="_ _b"> </span>map<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>public<span class="_ _b"> </span>space<span class="_ _6"> </span>usage<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#8211;</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y2a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _a"> </span>order<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>ef&#64257;ciently<span class="_ _a"> </span>reroute<span class="_ _b"> </span>traf&#64257;c<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>reduce<span class="_ _b"> </span>congestion.</div><div class="t m0 xb hb y2b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">From<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>point<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>view<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>physical<span class="_ _0"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>parking-</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y2c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">space<span class="_ _6"> </span>detection,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>problem<span class="_ _6"> </span>has<span class="_ _d"> </span>been<span class="_ _6"> </span>addressed<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>past</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y2d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">by<span class="_ _0"> </span>means<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>various<span class="_ _1"> </span>types<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>technologies,<span class="_ _0"> </span>like<span class="_ _1"> </span>ultrasonic<span class="_ _0"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y2e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">infrared<span class="_ _c"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _c"> </span>(normally<span class="_ _c"> </span>restricted<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>indoor<span class="_ _c"> </span>parking<span class="_ _c"> </span>lots</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y2f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">due<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>their<span class="_ _1"> </span>sensitivity<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>weather<span class="_ _1"> </span>conditions)<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>video-based</div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y30 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _a"> </span>[2].</div><div class="t m0 xc hb y1f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">While<span class="_ _d"> </span>optical<span class="_ _d"> </span>systems<span class="_ _d"> </span>have<span class="_ _d"> </span>been<span class="_ _d"> </span>widely<span class="_ _d"> </span>studied<span class="_ _d"> </span>because</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y31 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>reduced<span class="_ _6"> </span>cost<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>video<span class="_ _6"> </span>technology<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>high<span class="_ _b"> </span>resolution</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y32 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">capability<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _0"> </span>their<span class="_ _0"> </span>deployment<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>rather<span class="_ _0"> </span>restricted<span class="_ _a"> </span>due<span class="_ _0"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>priv<span class="_ _2"></span>acy</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y33 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">concerns,<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _b"> </span>they<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>contravene<span class="_ _a"> </span>local<span class="_ _a"> </span>regulations.</div><div class="t m0 xc hb y34 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Radar<span class="_ _a"> </span>technology<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>viable<span class="_ _a"> </span>option<span class="_ _a"> </span>here,<span class="_ _a"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>only<span class="_ _a"> </span>because</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y35 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _9"> </span>its<span class="_ _9"> </span>reliability<span class="_ _10"> </span>under<span class="_ _9"> </span>unfavorable<span class="_ _f"> </span>light<span class="_ _10"> </span>or<span class="_ _9"> </span>en<span class="_ _2"></span>vironmental</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y25 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conditions,<span class="_ _d"> </span>but<span class="_ _d"> </span>also<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>its<span class="_ _c"> </span>capability<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>detect<span class="_ _d"> </span>and/or<span class="_ _c"> </span>track</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y36 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">objects<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>persons<span class="_ _f"> </span>while<span class="_ _f"> </span>protecting<span class="_ _f"> </span>pri<span class="_ _2"></span>vacy<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>personal</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y37 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">data.<span class="_ _d"> </span>W<span class="_ _8"></span>ith<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>evolution<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>industry<span class="_ _d"> </span>standard<span class="_ _d"> </span>packages<span class="_ _c"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y38 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">higher<span class="_ _d"> </span>monolithic<span class="_ _d"> </span>integration,<span class="_ _d"> </span>critical<span class="_ _d"> </span>features<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>mm-w<span class="_ _8"></span>ave</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y39 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">circuits,<span class="_ _10"> </span>such<span class="_ _10"> </span>as<span class="_ _10"> </span>cost,<span class="_ _10"> </span>size<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>power<span class="_ _9"> </span>consumption,<span class="_ _10"> </span>have</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y3a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been<span class="_ _d"> </span>consistently<span class="_ _6"> </span>reduced<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>recent<span class="_ _d"> </span>years,<span class="_ _6"> </span>leading<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _6"> </span>highly</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y2b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">integrated<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>mature<span class="_ _b"> </span>radar<span class="_ _b"> </span>components.</div><div class="t m0 xc hb y3b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>context<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>smart<span class="_ _6"> </span>cities,<span class="_ _6"> </span>radar<span class="_ _6"> </span>sensors<span class="_ _d"> </span>are<span class="_ _b"> </span>becoming</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y3c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">more<span class="_ _6"> </span>competitiv<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>than<span class="_ _6"> </span>other<span class="_ _d"> </span>technologies,<span class="_ _b"> </span>not<span class="_ _6"> </span>only<span class="_ _6"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>terms</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y3d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _c"> </span>cost,<span class="_ _f"> </span>b<span class="_ _2"></span>ut<span class="_ _f"> </span>also<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>added<span class="_ _c"> </span>value<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>including<span class="_ _c"> </span>multiple</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y3e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">features,<span class="_ _c"> </span>like<span class="_ _c"> </span>parking<span class="_ _c"> </span>detection,<span class="_ _c"> </span>measuring<span class="_ _f"> </span>traf<span class="_ _2"></span>&#64257;c<span class="_ _c"> </span>load<span class="_ _f"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y3f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">velocity<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>detecting<span class="_ _b"> </span>pedestrians<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>cyclists,<span class="_ _a"> </span>etc.</div><div class="t m0 x1 hd y40 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">VOLUME<span class="_ _1"> </span>6,<span class="_ _1"> </span>2018</div><div class="t m0 xe hd y41 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2169-3536<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff7">&#58890;<span class="_ _1"> </span></span>2018<span class="_ _0"> </span>IEEE.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Translations<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>content<span class="_ _1"> </span>mining<span class="_ _0"> </span>are<span class="_ _1"> </span>permitted<span class="_ _1"> </span>for<span class="_ _1"> </span>academic<span class="_ _0"> </span>research<span class="_ _1"> </span>only.</div><div class="t m0 x3 hd y42 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Personal<span class="_ _1"> </span>use<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>also<span class="_ _1"> </span>permitted,<span class="_ _1"> </span>but<span class="_ _1"> </span>republication/redistribution<span class="_ _1"> </span>requires<span class="_ _0"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _1"> </span>permission.</div><div class="t m0 xf hd y43 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">See<span class="_ _1"> </span>http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html<span class="_ _1"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>more<span class="_ _1"> </span>information.</div><div class="t m0 x10 h2 y40 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">41391</div><a class="l" 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