wireless snsor network.zip

  • xiko
    了解作者
  • LINUX
    开发工具
  • 9MB
    文件大小
  • zip
    文件格式
  • 0
    收藏次数
  • 1 积分
    下载积分
  • 0
    下载次数
  • 2020-08-03 19:10
    上传日期
mobility prediction in wireless sensor network
wireless snsor network.zip
  • wireless snsor network
  • Mobility Support over RPL using Sensor Nodespeed Classification.pdf
    866.6KB
  • A Prediction-based Mobility Support in the Content- Centric Mobile Networks.pdf
    491.7KB
  • Mobility Prediction in Wireless Cellular Networks for the Optimization of Call Admission Control Schemes.pdf
    609.7KB
  • Mobility Predictions for IoT Devices Using Gated Recurrent Unit Network.pdf
    4.7MB
  • A Mobility Prediction and Delay Prediction Routing Protocol for UAV Networks.pdf
    999.4KB
  • Prediction and QoS Enhancement in New Generation Cellular Networks With Mobile Hosts: A Survey on Different Protocols and ConventionalUnconventional Approaches.pdf
    3.7MB
内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625058e674bc5c01055e33f8/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625058e674bc5c01055e33f8/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _0"> </span>INTERNET<span class="_ _0"> </span>OF<span class="_ _0"> </span>THINGS<span class="_ _0"> </span>JOURNAL,<span class="_ _0"> </span>V<span class="_ _1"></span>OL.<span class="_ _0"> </span>7,<span class="_ _0"> </span>NO.<span class="_ _0"> </span>1,<span class="_ _0"> </span>J<span class="_ _1"></span>ANUAR<span class="_ _1"></span>Y<span class="_ _0"> </span>2020<span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1">505</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Mobility<span class="_ _3"> </span>Predictions<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _3"> </span>De<span class="_ _1"></span>vices<span class="_ _3"> </span>Using</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Gated<span class="_ _3"> </span>Recurrent<span class="_ _3"> </span>Unit<span class="_ _3"> </span>Netw<span class="_ _4"></span>ork</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">Abebe<span class="_ _5"> </span>Belay<span class="_ _5"> </span>Adege<span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ls2">,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hsin-Piao<span class="_ _5"> </span>Lin,<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Li-Chun<span class="_ _5"> </span>W<span class="_ _7"></span>ang<span class="_ _6"> </span>,<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff2 ls5">F<span class="_ _7"></span>ellow<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _5"> </span>IEEE</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4 ls2">&#8212;Wir<span class="_ _1"></span>eless<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _5"> </span>technologies,<span class="_ _8"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>well<span class="_ _9"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>their</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y6 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">users,<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>gr<span class="_ _1"></span>owing<span class="_ _a"> </span>rapidly<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>Internet<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>Things<span class="_ _a"> </span>(IoT)<span class="_ _a"> </span>prod-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y7 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">ucts,<span class="_ _9"> </span>such<span class="_ _8"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>sensor-network<span class="_ _9"> </span>technologies,<span class="_ _9"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _8"> </span>devices,<span class="_ _9"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">supporting<span class="_ _a"> </span>applications,<span class="_ _b"> </span>become<span class="_ _a"> </span>widely<span class="_ _b"> </span>dispersed.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Owing<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y9 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">dynamic<span class="_ _5"> </span>changes<span class="_ _9"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _5"> </span>networks<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>exponential</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ya ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">gro<span class="_ _4"></span>wth<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _c"> </span>products,<span class="_ _9"> </span>which<span class="_ _c"> </span>make<span class="_ _8"> </span>it<span class="_ _c"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>locate</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yb ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">large<span class="_"> </span>quantities<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>users<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>devices,<span class="_ _0"> </span>providing<span class="_"> </span>accurate<span class="_ _0"> </span>tracking</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yc ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">and<span class="_ _0"> </span>trajectory<span class="_ _d"> </span>predictions<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>open<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>highly<span class="_ _d"> </span>condensed<span class="_ _0"> </span>wireless</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yd ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">networks<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>extremely<span class="_ _d"> </span>dif&#64257;cult.<span class="_ _a"> </span>An<span class="_ _a"> </span>adaptive<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>scalable<span class="_ _a"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 ye ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">is<span class="_ _5"> </span>requir<span class="_ _1"></span>ed<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>offer<span class="_ _5"> </span>accurate<span class="_ _5"> </span>location-based<span class="_ _5"> </span>services<span class="_ _5"> </span>(LBSs)<span class="_ _5"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 yf ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>success<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _7"></span>.<span class="_ _d"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>o<span class="_ _d"> </span>enhance<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>attainment<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>propose</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y10 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">a<span class="_ _0"> </span>hybrid<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>principal<span class="_ _d"> </span>component<span class="_"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _d"> </span>(PCA)<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>gated<span class="_"> </span>recur<span class="_ _4"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y11 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">rent<span class="_ _0"> </span>unit<span class="_ _d"> </span>(GRU)<span class="_ _0"> </span>algorithms<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>mobility<span class="_ _d"> </span>predictions<span class="_ _0"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y12 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">urban<span class="_ _5"> </span>area.<span class="_ _b"> </span>During<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>system<span class="_ _5"> </span>development<span class="_ _b"> </span>processes,<span class="_ _5"> </span>we<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#64257;rst</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y13 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">collect<span class="_ _b"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>L<span class="_ _7"></span>TE<span class="_ _b"> </span>signal<span class="_ _5"> </span>from<span class="_ _b"> </span>three<span class="_ _b"> </span>unmanned<span class="_ _b"> </span>aerial<span class="_ _5"> </span>vehicle<span class="_ _b"> </span>base</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y14 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">stations<span class="_ _b"> </span>(U<span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _7"></span>V<span class="_ _7"></span>-BSs),<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>Wi-Fi<span class="_ _b"> </span>signal<span class="_ _5"> </span>strength<span class="_ _5"> </span>from<span class="_ _b"> </span>each<span class="_ _5"> </span>reach-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y15 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">able<span class="_"> </span>Wi-Fi<span class="_"> </span>access<span class="_ _0"> </span>points<span class="_ _0"> </span>(APs),<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>channel<span class="_ _0"> </span>information<span class="_"> </span>from<span class="_"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y16 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Wi-Fi<span class="_ _b"> </span>signal<span class="_ _b"> </span>media.<span class="_ _b"> </span>W<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>then<span class="_ _b"> </span>apply<span class="_ _b"> </span>PCA<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>reduce<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>number</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y17 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">of<span class="_ _d"> </span>Wi-Fi<span class="_ _0"> </span>features<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>decrease<span class="_ _0"> </span>signal<span class="_ _d"> </span>noise.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Next,<span class="_ _d"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>train<span class="_ _d"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y18 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">GR<span class="_ _1"></span>U<span class="_ _b"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>develop<span class="_ _a"> </span>models<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>pr<span class="_ _1"></span>edict<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>mobility</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y19 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">of<span class="_ _d"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _d"> </span>device<span class="_ _d"> </span>users.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Finally<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>evaluate<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>trajec-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1a ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">tory<span class="_ _5"> </span>models.<span class="_ _5"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>o<span class="_ _5"> </span>evaluate<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _5"> </span>techniques,<span class="_ _5"> </span>we<span class="_ _5"> </span>compare</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1b ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">the<span class="_ _5"> </span>common<span class="_ _9"> </span>parameters<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>GRU<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>those<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>other<span class="_ _5"> </span>deep</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1c ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">learning<span class="_ _5"> </span>types.<span class="_ _5"> </span>The<span class="_ _9"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _5"> </span>technique<span class="_ _9"> </span>provides<span class="_ _5"> </span>plausible<span class="_ _5"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1d ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">state-of-the-art<span class="_ _a"> </span>results<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>mobility<span class="_ _a"> </span>predictions<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _b"> </span>devices<span class="_ _a"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y1e ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">a<span class="_ _a"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _b"> </span>en<span class="_ _1"></span>vironment.</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y1f ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Index<span class="_ _8"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>erms<span class="ff4 ls7">&#8212;Deep<span class="_ _8"> </span>learning,<span class="_ _8"> </span>gated<span class="_ _8"> </span>recurrent<span class="_ _8"> </span>units<span class="_ _8"> </span>(GRUs),</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y20 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">mobility<span class="_ _a"> </span>predictions,<span class="_ _b"> </span>principal<span class="_ _a"> </span>component<span class="_ _b"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _a"> </span>(PCA).</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y21 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">I.<span class="_ _e"> </span>I<span class="fs5 ls9">NTR<span class="_ _1"></span>ODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y22 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">I</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y23 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">NTERNET<span class="_ _c"> </span>OF<span class="_ _e"> </span>THINGS<span class="_ _c"> </span>(IoT)<span class="_ _c"> </span>i<span class="_ _f"></span>s<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>interconnection<span class="_ _e"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y24 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">intelligent<span class="_ _d"> </span>objects<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>univ<span class="_ _1"></span>ersal<span class="_ _d"> </span>computing,<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>through<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y25 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">use<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>Internet,<span class="_ _b"> </span>it<span class="_ _a"> </span>enables<span class="_ _b"> </span>smart<span class="_ _a"> </span>devices<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>provide<span class="_ _b"> </span>access</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y26 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">to<span class="_ _e"> </span>all<span class="_ _e"> </span>users<span class="_ _b"> </span>[1].<span class="_ _e"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _10"> </span>has<span class="_ _e"> </span>opened<span class="_ _e"> </span>up<span class="_ _10"> </span>tremendous<span class="_ _e"> </span>opportuni-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y27 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">ties<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>novel<span class="_ _b"> </span>applications,<span class="_ _5"> </span>improving<span class="_ _5"> </span>our<span class="_ _5"> </span>lives,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>creating</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y28 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">a<span class="_"> </span>wide<span class="_"> </span>variety<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>smart<span class="_"> </span>systems,<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>smart<span class="_"> </span>buildings,<span class="_"> </span>smart</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y29 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">homes,<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>smart<span class="_ _9"> </span>factories<span class="_ _b"> </span>[2],<span class="_ _b"> </span>[3].<span class="_ _9"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _8"> </span>allows<span class="_ _9"> </span>all<span class="_ _9"> </span>things<span class="_ _8"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y2a ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsc ws0">Manuscript<span class="_ _10"> </span>received<span class="_ _10"> </span>August<span class="_ _11"> </span>17,<span class="_ _10"> </span>2019;<span class="_ _11"> </span>revised<span class="_ _10"> </span>September<span class="_ _11"> </span>21,<span class="_ _10"> </span>2019;</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y2b ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">accepted<span class="_ _5"> </span>October<span class="_ _5"> </span>7,<span class="_ _5"> </span>2019.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Date<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>publication<span class="_ _5"> </span>October<span class="_ _5"> </span>17,<span class="_ _5"> </span>2019;<span class="_ _5"> </span>date<span class="_ _5"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y2c ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsc ws0">current<span class="_ _d"> </span>version<span class="_ _a"> </span>January<span class="_ _d"> </span>10,<span class="_ _a"> </span>2020.<span class="_ _a"> </span>This<span class="_ _d"> </span>work<span class="_ _a"> </span>was<span class="_ _d"> </span>supported<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>Ministry</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y2d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">of<span class="_ _0"> </span>Science<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>echnology<span class="_ _0"> </span>through<span class="_ _0"> </span>Pervasi<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _0"> </span>Arti&#64257;cial<span class="_ _0"> </span>Intelligence<span class="_ _0"> </span>Research</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y2e ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Labs,<span class="_ _5"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aiwan,<span class="_ _b"> </span>under<span class="_ _5"> </span>Grant<span class="_ _5"> </span>MOST<span class="_ _5"> </span>108-2221-E-027-020<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Grant<span class="_ _9"> </span>MOST</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y2f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsd ws0">108-2634-F-009-006.<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff2 lsc">(Corr<span class="_ _1"></span>esponding<span class="_ _d"> </span>author:<span class="_ _d"> </span>Abebe<span class="_ _a"> </span>Belay<span class="_ _0"> </span>Adege<span class="_ _1"></span>.)</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y30 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">A.<span class="_"> </span>B.<span class="_"> </span>Ade<span class="_ _1"></span>ge<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>Department<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>Electrical<span class="_"> </span>Engineering<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>Computer</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y31 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Science,<span class="_ _9"> </span>National<span class="_ _9"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aipei<span class="_ _9"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _1"></span>ersity<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>echnology<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _9"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aipei<span class="_ _9"> </span>10608,<span class="_ _9"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aiwan</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y32 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">(e-mail:<span class="_ _d"> </span>abbblybelay@gmail.com).</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y33 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">H.-P<span class="_ _7"></span>.<span class="_"> </span>Lin<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>Department<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>Electronic<span class="_"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_"> </span>National<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>aipei</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Univ<span class="_ _1"></span>ersity<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>echnology<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aipei<span class="_ _0"> </span>10608,<span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>aiwan<span class="_ _0"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _0"> </span>hplin@ntut.edu.tw).</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y35 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">L.-C.<span class="_ _13"> </span>W<span class="_ _7"></span>ang<span class="_ _13"> </span>is<span class="_ _13"> </span>with<span class="_ _14"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>Department<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _13"> </span>and<span class="_ _13"> </span>Computer</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y36 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Engineering,<span class="_ _10"> </span>National<span class="_ _11"> </span>Chiao<span class="_ _10"> </span>Tung<span class="_ _10"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _1"></span>ersity<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _11"> </span>Hsinchu<span class="_ _10"> </span>300-10,<span class="_ _11"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>aiwan</div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y37 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">(e-mail:<span class="_ _d"> </span>lichun@cc.nctu.edu.tw).</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y38 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Digital<span class="_ _d"> </span>Object<span class="_ _d"> </span>Identi&#64257;er<span class="_ _d"> </span>10.1109/JIOT<span class="_ _7"></span>.2019.2948075</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">exist<span class="_"> </span>through<span class="_"> </span>Internet<span class="_"> </span>connections.<span class="_"> </span>Because<span class="_"> </span>we<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>highly<span class="_"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y39 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">nected<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>Internet<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>large<span class="_"> </span>numbers<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>IoT<span class="_"> </span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>vices<span class="_ _d"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">been<span class="_"> </span>produced,<span class="_ _d"> </span>human<span class="_ _d"> </span>daily<span class="_"> </span>activities<span class="_"> </span>are<span class="_ _d"> </span>highly<span class="_ _d"> </span>dependent<span class="_"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">IoT<span class="_ _a"> </span>services.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>coming<span class="_ _a"> </span>years,<span class="_ _a"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _a"> </span>numbers<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>cur<span class="_ _1"></span>-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">rently<span class="_ _8"> </span>av<span class="_ _1"></span>ailable<span class="_ _8"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _8"> </span>devices<span class="_ _9"> </span>will<span class="_ _8"> </span>become<span class="_ _8"> </span>connected<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>each</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">other<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>global<span class="_ _a"> </span>economic<span class="_ _a"> </span>impact<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>expected<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>increase</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">by<span class="_ _a"> </span>$2<span class="_ _b"> </span>trillion.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Although<span class="_ _b"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _a"> </span>will<span class="_ _b"> </span>lead<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>easier<span class="_ _b"> </span>life<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y3f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">Internet<span class="_ _b"> </span>community<span class="_ _b"> </span>[4],<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>explosion<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _b"> </span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>vices<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>lead-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y40 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">ing<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>higher<span class="_ _d"> </span>signal<span class="_ _d"> </span>interference<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _d"> </span>networks<span class="_"> </span>owing<span class="_"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y41 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">the<span class="_ _9"> </span>additional<span class="_ _9"> </span>protocols,<span class="_ _9"> </span>channels,<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>communication<span class="_ _9"> </span>man-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y42 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">agement<span class="_ _5"> </span>requirements.<span class="_ _5"> </span>In<span class="_ _9"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _5"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_ _9"> </span>parallel<span class="_ _5"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y43 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>expansion<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>W<span class="_ _4"></span>i-Fi<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>mobile<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>traf&#64257;c<span class="_ _b"> </span>hav<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y44 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">gro<span class="_ _4"></span>wn<span class="_ _c"> </span>rapidly<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>causing<span class="_ _c"> </span>unav<span class="_ _1"></span>oidable<span class="_ _e"> </span>interference<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>unsuc-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y45 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">cessful<span class="_ _d"> </span>implementations<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _7"></span>-based<span class="_"> </span>applications,<span class="_ _a"> </span>such<span class="_ _d"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y46 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">channel<span class="_ _d"> </span>modeling<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>location-based<span class="_ _d"> </span>services<span class="_ _a"> </span>(LBS).<span class="_ _d"> </span>Because</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y47 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">LBS<span class="_"> </span>serves<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>locate<span class="_ _d"> </span>IoT<span class="_"> </span>devices,<span class="_"> </span>apply<span class="_"> </span>resource<span class="_"> </span>management,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y48 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">and<span class="_ _a"> </span>supply<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>higher<span class="_ _a"> </span>quality<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>service<span class="_ _a"> </span>(QoS),<span class="_ _b"> </span>it<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>key<span class="_ _a"> </span>tech-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y49 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">nology<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _5"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _5"> </span>applications<span class="_ _b"> </span>[1],<span class="_ _b"> </span>[5].<span class="_ _5"> </span>Thus,<span class="_ _5"> </span>adaptiv<span class="_ _1"></span>e,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y4a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">accurate,<span class="_ _a"> </span>robust,<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>scalable<span class="_ _a"> </span>technologies<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>vital<span class="_ _a"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>aiding</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y4b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">an<span class="_ _b"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _b"> </span>world.</div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y4c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">Satellite-based<span class="_ _11"> </span>positioning,<span class="_ _11"> </span>such<span class="_ _11"> </span>as<span class="_ _15"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>global<span class="_ _11"> </span>positioning</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y4d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">system<span class="_"> </span>(GPS),<span class="_ _d"> </span>global<span class="_"> </span>navigation<span class="_"> </span>satellite<span class="_ _d"> </span>system<span class="_"> </span>(GLONASS),</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y4e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">and<span class="_ _6"> </span>Galileo,<span class="_ _6"> </span>commonly<span class="_ _6"> </span>offer<span class="_ _6"> </span>localization<span class="_ _6"> </span>services<span class="_ _b"> </span>[6].</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y4f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">Ne<span class="_ _4"></span>vertheless,<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>satellite-based<span class="_ _8"> </span>applications<span class="_ _c"> </span>are<span class="_ _c"> </span>inappropri-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y50 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">ate<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>urban<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>hierarchical<span class="_ _b"> </span>geolocation<span class="_ _b"> </span>applications<span class="_ _b"> </span>owing</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y51 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">to<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>line-of-sight<span class="_ _8"> </span>(LoS)<span class="_ _8"> </span>problems,<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>requirement<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>sig-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y52 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">ni&#64257;cant<span class="_ _b"> </span>power<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>additional<span class="_ _b"> </span>devices,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>their<span class="_ _b"> </span>sensitivity<span class="_ _b"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y53 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">occlusions.<span class="_ _9"> </span>GPS,<span class="_ _8"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>example,<span class="_ _8"> </span>requires<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _9"> </span>amount</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y54 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">of<span class="_ _c"> </span>po<span class="_ _1"></span>wer<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>needs<span class="_ _c"> </span>LoS<span class="_ _8"> </span>s<span class="_ _f"></span>ervices,<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>it<span class="_ _8"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>too<span class="_ _c"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _8"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y55 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">de<span class="_ _4"></span>velop<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>model<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_ _d"> </span>offer<span class="_"> </span>accurate<span class="_"> </span>mobility<span class="_ _d"> </span>predictions<span class="_"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y56 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">highly<span class="_ _a"> </span>rev<span class="_ _1"></span>ealing<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>changing<span class="_ _a"> </span>urban<span class="_ _a"> </span>areas<span class="_ _b"> </span>[7].<span class="_ _a"> </span>Localizing<span class="_ _b"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y57 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">moving<span class="_"> </span>objects<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>wireless<span class="_"> </span>network<span class="_"> </span>incurs<span class="_"> </span>higher<span class="_"> </span>data<span class="_"> </span>&#64258;uctu-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y58 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">ations,<span class="_"> </span>which<span class="_"> </span>causes<span class="_"> </span>dif<span class="_ _1"></span>ferent<span class="_"> </span>objects<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>be<span class="_ _16"> </span>erroneously<span class="_"> </span>located</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y59 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">or<span class="_ _8"> </span>tracked<span class="_ _c"> </span>because<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>complex<span class="_ _8"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _c"> </span>areas<span class="_ _c"> </span>o<span class="_ _1"></span>wing<span class="_ _c"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5a ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _b"> </span>interference,<span class="_ _b"> </span>blocking,<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>shado<span class="_ _1"></span>wing<span class="_ _b"> </span>effects.</div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y5b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">Mobility<span class="_ _13"> </span>prediction<span class="_ _14"> </span>is<span class="_ _14"> </span>a<span class="_ _14"> </span>signi&#64257;cant<span class="_ _14"> </span>technique<span class="_ _14"> </span>for<span class="_ _14"> </span>dif-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">ferent<span class="_ _13"> </span>applications,<span class="_ _13"> </span>such<span class="_ _13"> </span>as<span class="_ _13"> </span>locating,<span class="_ _14"> </span>tracking,<span class="_ _13"> </span>predicting</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5d ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">future<span class="_ _11"> </span>routes,<span class="_ _11"> </span>or<span class="_ _15"> </span>patterns<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>IoT<span class="_ _15"> </span>de<span class="_ _4"></span>vices<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _11"> </span>sequences<span class="_ _15"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5e ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">time<span class="_ _10"> </span>slots,<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _10"> </span>location-based<span class="_ _10"> </span>advertisements<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>resource</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y5f ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">allocations<span class="_ _b"> </span>[6],<span class="_ _b"> </span>[8],<span class="_ _a"> </span>[9].</div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y60 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">Mobility<span class="_ _a"> </span>prediction<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>implemented<span class="_ _a"> </span>through<span class="_ _a"> </span>location<span class="_ _d"> </span>updat-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y61 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">ing<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _17"> </span>location<span class="_ _15"> </span>prediction<span class="_ _17"> </span>strategies,<span class="_ _15"> </span>where<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _17"> </span>location</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y62 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">updating<span class="_ _d"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>used<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>predict<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>current<span class="_ _d"> </span>locations<span class="_ _d"> </span>based</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y63 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">on<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>av<span class="_ _1"></span>ailable<span class="_ _9"> </span>records,<span class="_ _5"> </span>which<span class="_ _5"> </span>refers<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _5"> </span>prediction.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y64 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">By<span class="_ _9"> </span>contrast,<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>trajectory<span class="_ _8"> </span>prediction<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _9"> </span>dynamic<span class="_ _8"> </span>strategy<span class="_ _9"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y65 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">which<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>operation<span class="_ _e"> </span>estimations<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>future<span class="_ _10"> </span>locations<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>IoT</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y66 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">de<span class="_ _4"></span>vices<span class="_ _9"> </span>are<span class="_ _9"> </span>based<span class="_ _9"> </span>on<span class="_ _9"> </span>user<span class="_ _9"> </span>mov<span class="_ _1"></span>ements<span class="_ _9"> </span>or<span class="_ _9"> </span>patterns.<span class="_ _9"> </span>This<span class="_ _9"> </span>type</div><div class="t m0 xb h8 y67 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">2327-4662</div><div class="t m0 xc h8 y68 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">c</div><div class="t m0 xd h8 y67 ff5 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">&#58882;<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1">2019<span class="_ _d"> </span>IEEE.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Personal<span class="_ _d"> </span>use<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>permitted,<span class="_ _a"> </span>b<span class="_ _4"></span>ut<span class="_ _d"> </span>republication/redistribution<span class="_ _0"> </span>requires<span class="_ _d"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _d"> </span>permission.</span></div><div class="t m0 xe h8 y69 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">See<span class="_ _d"> </span>http://www<span class="_ _1"></span>.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>more<span class="_ _d"> </span>information.</div><div class="t m0 xf h9 y6a ff6 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: XIDIAN UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on June 07,2020 at 15:16:03 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. </div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
评论
    相关推荐