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GYTAR Routing protocol for GLOMSIM Simulator
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625eb8438cbeb85d57257fee/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625eb8438cbeb85d57257fee/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y4 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff1">&#8212; <span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="ff3 fs1">Multi-hop <span class="_ _1"> </span>data <span class="_ _1"> </span>delive<span class="_ _2"></span>ry <span class="_ _1"> </span>through <span class="_ _1"> </span>Veh<span class="_ _2"></span>icular <span class="_ _1"> </span>Ad-</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y5 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">hoc <span class="_ _3"></span>Networks <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>challenging <span class="_ _3"></span>since <span class="_ _3"></span>it <span class="_ _4"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ust <span class="_ _3"></span>efficiently <span class="_ _3"></span>handle rapid </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y6 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">topology changes and a fragmen<span class="_ _2"></span>ted network. This paper pro<span class="_ _2"></span>poses </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y7 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a <span class="_ _5"> </span>new <span class="_ _5"> </span>intersection<span class="_ _2"></span>-base<span class="_ _2"></span>d <span class="_ _5"> </span>geograp<span class="_ _2"></span>hical <span class="_ _5"> </span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>outing <span class="_ _5"> </span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>rotoc<span class="_ _2"></span>ol <span class="_ _5"> </span>called<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y8 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">GyTAR <span class="_ _4"></span>(impr<span class="_ _2"></span>oved<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>Greedy <span class="_ _4"></span>Traffic <span class="_ _4"></span>Aw<span class="_ _3"></span>are <span class="_ _4"></span>Routing <span class="_ _4"></span>pro<span class="_ _2"></span>tocol) <span class="_ _3"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y9 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">capab<span class="_ _2"></span>le <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _6"> </span>find <span class="_ _6"> </span>robu<span class="_ _2"></span>st <span class="_ _6"> </span>routes <span class="_ _6"> </span>within <span class="_ _6"> </span>city <span class="_ _6"> </span>enviro<span class="_ _2"></span>nm<span class="_ _2"></span>en<span class="_ _2"></span>ts. <span class="_ _6"> </span>GyTAR </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 ya ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">consists <span class="_ _1"> </span>of <span class="_"> </span>two <span class="_"> </span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>od<span class="_ _2"></span>ules: <span class="_ _1"> </span>(i) <span class="_"> </span>dynam<span class="_ _2"></span>ic <span class="_ _1"> </span>selection <span class="_ _1"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>the <span class="_ _1"> </span>junction<span class="_ _2"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yb ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">throu<span class="_ _2"></span>gh w<span class="_ _3"></span>hich a pack<span class="_ _2"></span>et mu<span class="_ _2"></span>st pass to reach its destination, and<span class="_ _2"></span> (ii) </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yc ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">an <span class="_ _1"> </span>imp<span class="_ _2"></span>roved<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>g<span class="_ _3"></span>reedy <span class="_ _1"> </span>strategy <span class="_ _0"> </span>used<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>to <span class="_ _0"> </span>forward <span class="_ _1"> </span>pack<span class="_ _2"></span>ets <span class="_ _1"> </span>between </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yd ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">two <span class="_ _7"> </span>junction<span class="_ _2"></span>s. <span class="_ _5"> </span>GyTAR <span class="_ _7"> </span>assu<span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>es <span class="_ _5"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>ex<span class="_ _3"></span>istence <span class="_ _5"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>an <span class="_ _5"> </span>accurate </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 ye ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">traffic-infor<span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span>ation <span class="_ _0"> </span>system<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_"> </span>th<span class="_ _2"></span>at <span class="_"> </span>it <span class="_"> </span>req<span class="_ _2"></span>uires <span class="_ _0"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>se<span class="_ _2"></span>lect <span class="_"> </span>p<span class="_ _2"></span>aths <span class="_ _1"> </span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>ith </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 yf ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">high <span class="_ _7"> </span>connectivity. <span class="_ _8"> </span>To <span class="_ _8"> </span>add<span class="_ _2"></span>ress <span class="_ _7"> </span>this <span class="_ _8"> </span>issue, <span class="_ _7"> </span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _7"> </span>also <span class="_ _7"> </span>propose <span class="_ _7"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y10 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">com<span class="_ _2"></span>plete<span class="_ _2"></span>ly <span class="_ _6"> </span>dece<span class="_ _2"></span>ntralized<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _6"> </span>m<span class="_ _9"></span>echan<span class="_ _9"></span>ism <span class="_ _6"> </span>fo<span class="_ _9"></span>r <span class="_ _6"> </span>the <span class="_ _6"> </span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>stim<span class="_ _9"></span>ation <span class="_ _6"> </span>o<span class="_ _9"></span>f <span class="_ _6"> </span>traffic </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y11 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">density <span class="_ _3"></span>in <span class="_ _4"></span>city-road<span class="_ _9"></span>s <span class="_ _4"></span>called <span class="_ _3"></span>IFTIS <span class="_ _3"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>Infrastructure<span class="_ _9"></span>-F<span class="_ _3"></span>ree <span class="_ _3"></span>Traffic </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y12 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Inform<span class="_ _9"></span>ation <span class="_ _a"> </span>System<span class="_ _2"></span>. <span class="_ _a"> </span>The <span class="_ _a"> </span>proposed <span class="_ _a"> </span>rou<span class="_ _2"></span>ting <span class="_ _a"> </span>protocol <span class="_ _a"> </span>shows </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y13 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">significant perfor<span class="_ _2"></span>m<span class="_ _9"></span>ance imp<span class="_ _9"></span>rovem<span class="_ _9"></span>ent in a com<span class="_ _9"></span>parative sim<span class="_ _9"></span>ulation </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y14 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">study with other rou<span class="_ _2"></span>ting appr<span class="_ _2"></span>oache<span class="_ _9"></span>s.<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h5 y16 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index <span class="_ _7"> </span>Terms<span class="ff1 fs1">&#8212; <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff3">V<span class="_ _9"></span>ehicular <span class="_ _5"> </span>Ad<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>hoc <span class="_ _5"> </span>Network, <span class="_ _5"> </span>G<span class="_ _2"></span>reedy <span class="_ _5"> </span>Ro<span class="_ _9"></span>uting, </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y17 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Veh<span class="_ _2"></span>icular Tra<span class="_ _2"></span>ffic Estim<span class="_ _9"></span>ation, Perform<span class="_ _9"></span>ance Measurem<span class="_ _9"></span>ents </div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y18 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I.<span class="ff4"> <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>I<span class="fs2">NTRODUCT<span class="_ _9"></span>ION<span class="fs0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h2 y19 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Inter-vehicle <span class="_"> </span>comm<span class="_ _9"></span>unication <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_"> </span>a <span class="_"> </span>fast <span class="_"> </span>growing <span class="_"> </span>research </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">topic <span class="_ _3"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>the acad<span class="_ _3"></span>emic sector <span class="_ _3"></span>and industry. Thro<span class="_ _3"></span>ugh<span class="_ _2"></span> this kind <span class="_ _3"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">comm<span class="_ _9"></span>unication, <span class="_ _0"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _1"> </span>are <span class="_ _1"> </span>able <span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>comm<span class="_ _9"></span>unicate <span class="_ _1"> </span>with <span class="_ _6"> </span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>ach </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">other <span class="_ _1"> </span>by <span class="_ _6"> </span>using <span class="_ _6"> </span>wireless <span class="_ _1"> </span>technology<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>like <span class="_ _1"> </span>WLAN. <span class="_ _6"> </span>As <span class="_ _1"> </span>a <span class="_ _6"> </span>r<span class="_ _3"></span>esult, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">they <span class="_ _c"> </span>can <span class="_ _c"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>e <span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _3"></span>ganized <span class="_ _c"> </span>in <span class="_ _c"> </span>vehicular <span class="_ _c"> </span>ad<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>hoc <span class="_ _c"> </span>networks </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(VANETs). <span class="_"> </span>VANETs <span class="_ _0"> </span>are <span class="_"> </span>an <span class="_ _0"> </span>instantiation <span class="_ _1"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>mobile <span class="_ _0"> </span>ad <span class="_"> </span>hoc </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">netw<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>rks <span class="_ _1"> </span>(MANETs). <span class="_ _1"> </span>MANETs <span class="_ _1"> </span>have <span class="_ _1"> </span>no <span class="_ _1"> </span>fixed <span class="_ _1"> </span>infrastructure </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y20 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _5"> </span>instead <span class="_ _7"> </span>rely <span class="_ _5"> </span>on <span class="_ _5"> </span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>rdinary <span class="_ _5"> </span>nodes <span class="_ _5"> </span>to <span class="_ _7"> </span>perform <span class="_ _5"> </span>routing <span class="_ _5"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y21 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">messag<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>s <span class="_ _d"> </span>and <span class="_ _d"> </span>network <span class="_ _d"> </span>m<span class="_ _9"></span>anagement <span class="_ _d"> </span>fu<span class="_ _2"></span>nctions. <span class="_ _d"> </span>Howev<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>r, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y22 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vehicular <span class="_ _7"> </span>ad <span class="_ _8"> </span>hoc <span class="_ _8"> </span>netw<span class="_ _2"></span>orks <span class="_ _7"> </span>b<span class="_ _3"></span>ehave <span class="_ _7"> </span>in <span class="_ _7"> </span>different <span class="_ _7"> </span>ways<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _7"> </span>than </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y23 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conventional <span class="_ _4"></span>MANETs. <span class="_ _4"></span>Driver <span class="_ _4"></span>behavior, <span class="_ _4"></span>mobility <span class="_ _4"></span>constraints, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y24 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _5"> </span>high <span class="_"> </span>speeds <span class="_ _5"> </span>create <span class="_ _5"> </span>unique <span class="_"> </span>characteristics <span class="_ _5"> </span>of <span class="_"> </span>VANET<span class="_ _3"></span>s. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y25 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">These <span class="_ _e"> </span>characteristics <span class="_ _e"> </span>have <span class="_ _f"> </span>important <span class="_ _f"> </span>implications <span class="_ _f"> </span>for </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y26 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">designing <span class="_ _d"> </span>decisions <span class="_ _d"> </span>in <span class="_ _c"> </span>these <span class="_ _d"> </span>networks. <span class="_ _d"> </span>Thus, <span class="_ _d"> </span>numerous </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y27 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">research <span class="_"> </span>challenges <span class="_"> </span>need <span class="_"> </span>to <span class="_"> </span>be <span class="_"> </span>addressed <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_"> </span>inter-vehicul<span class="_ _2"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y28 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">comm<span class="_ _9"></span>unications <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _6"></span>be <span class="_ _10"></span>widely<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _10"> </span>dep<span class="_ _3"></span>loyed. <span class="_ _4"></span>For<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>example, <span class="_ _10"></span>routing </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y29 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in <span class="_ _10"></span>conventional <span class="_ _10"></span>mobile <span class="_ _10"></span>ad <span class="_ _10"> </span>hoc<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _10"></span>networks <span class="_ _4"></span>is <span class="_ _10"></span>a <span class="_ _10"></span>challenging <span class="_ _4"></span>task </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">because <span class="_ _11"> </span>of <span class="_ _11"> </span>the <span class="_ _11"> </span>netw<span class="_ _9"></span>ork's <span class="_ _11"> </span>dynam<span class="_ _9"></span>ic <span class="_ _11"> </span>topo<span class="_ _3"></span>logy <span class="_ _12"> </span>changes. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Numerous <span class="_"> </span>studies <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>prop<span class="_ _3"></span>osals <span class="_"> </span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>f <span class="_"> </span>ro<span class="_ _3"></span>uting <span class="_"> </span>proto<span class="_ _3"></span>cols <span class="_ _5"> </span>h<span class="_ _2"></span>ave </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been <span class="_ _4"></span>conducted <span class="_ _4"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>relay <span class="_ _3"></span>data <span class="_ _4"></span>in <span class="_ _4"></span>such <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _4"></span>context; <span class="_ _3"></span>however <span class="_ _3"></span>these </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">solutions <span class="_ _4"></span>can <span class="_ _4"></span>not <span class="_ _4"></span>be <span class="_ _4"></span>app<span class="_ _3"></span>lied <span class="_ _4"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>vehicular <span class="_ _4"></span>environm<span class="_ _2"></span>ent <span class="_ _4"></span>due </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to the specific constraints and characteristics of VANETs. </div><div class="t m0 x5 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In <span class="_ _8"> </span>this <span class="_ _8"> </span>work, <span class="_ _8"> </span>we <span class="_ _8"> </span>pre<span class="_ _3"></span>sent <span class="_ _8"> </span>a <span class="_ _8"> </span>novel <span class="_ _8"> </span>geographical <span class="_ _8"> </span>r<span class="_ _3"></span>outing </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">protoco<span class="_ _3"></span>l <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>r <span class="_"> </span>veh<span class="_ _9"></span>icular <span class="_"> </span>networks <span class="_ _0"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>city<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_"> </span>environm<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>nts <span class="_ _0"> </span>called </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">GyTAR: <span class="_ _0"> </span>improved <span class="_ _0"> </span>Greed<span class="_ _3"></span>y<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>raffic <span class="_ _0"> </span>Aw<span class="_ _9"></span>a<span class="_ _3"></span>re <span class="_ _0"> </span>Routing <span class="_ _0"> </span>protoco<span class="_ _3"></span>l. </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Based <span class="_ _d"> </span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _d"> </span>a <span class="_ _d"> </span>localiza<span class="_ _3"></span>tion <span class="_ _d"> </span>system<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>like <span class="_ _c"> </span>th<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>GPS <span class="_ _d"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>Global </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y33 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Positioning <span class="_ _3"></span>System<span class="_ _9"></span>), <span class="_ _4"></span>our <span class="_ _3"></span>solution <span class="_ _3"></span>aims to <span class="_ _4"></span>eff<span class="_ _2"></span>iciently<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _3"></span>relay <span class="_ _3"></span>data </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y34 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in <span class="_ _4"></span>the <span class="_ _10"> </span>network <span class="_ _4"></span>considering <span class="_ _10"></span>the <span class="_ _10"></span>real <span class="_ _10"></span>time <span class="_ _4"></span>roa<span class="_ _3"></span>d <span class="_ _10"></span>traffic <span class="_ _4"></span>variation </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y35 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _10"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>charac<span class="_ _3"></span>teristics <span class="_ _4"></span>of <span class="_ _10"> </span>city <span class="_ _4"></span>environments. <span class="_ _4"></span>GyTAR <span class="_ _4"></span>assumes </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y36 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">then <span class="_ _0"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>existence <span class="_ _0"> </span>of <span class="_"> </span>an <span class="_ _0"> </span>accurate <span class="_"> </span>traffic-inf<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>rmation <span class="_ _0"> </span>sys<span class="_ _9"></span>te<span class="_ _3"></span>m<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y37 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that <span class="_ _1"> </span>it <span class="_ _6"> </span>req<span class="_ _3"></span>uires. <span class="_ _6"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>o <span class="_ _1"> </span>this <span class="_ _6"> </span>end,<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>e <span class="_ _1"> </span>also <span class="_ _1"> </span>propose <span class="_ _1"> </span>in <span class="_ _6"> </span>this <span class="_ _6"> </span>work <span class="_ _6"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y38 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">completely <span class="_ _7"> </span>decentralized<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _8"> </span>mechan<span class="_ _2"></span>ism <span class="_ _7"> </span>for <span class="_ _8"> </span>the <span class="_ _8"> </span>estimation <span class="_ _7"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y39 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">traffic <span class="_"> </span>density <span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_"> </span>city-roads <span class="_"> </span>called <span class="_"> </span>IFTI<span class="_ _3"></span>S <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_"> </span>Inf<span class="_ _2"></span>rastructure-</div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Free <span class="_"> </span>Traffic <span class="_ _0"> </span>Information <span class="_ _0"> </span>Sys<span class="_ _2"></span>tem. <span class="_ _0"> </span>Note <span class="_"> </span>th<span class="_ _9"></span>at,<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>although <span class="_ _0"> </span>it <span class="_ _0"> </span>has </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been <span class="_ _3"></span>d<span class="_ _3"></span>esigned <span class="_ _3"></span>to <span class="_ _4"></span>operate <span class="_ _4"></span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>ith <span class="_ _4"></span>Gy<span class="_ _9"></span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>AR, <span class="_ _3"></span>IFT<span class="_ _3"></span>IS <span class="_ _3"></span>is <span class="_ _3"></span>a <span class="_ _4"></span>com<span class="_ _2"></span>pletelty </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 yd ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">independent <span class="_"> </span>component <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>hich <span class="_"> </span>could <span class="_"> </span>be <span class="_"> </span>us<span class="_ _2"></span>ed <span class="_"> </span>for <span class="_ _0"> </span>any <span class="_"> </span>other </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">purpose req<span class="_ _3"></span>uiring road density estim<span class="_ _9"></span>ation. I<span class="_ _3"></span>ndeed, IFT<span class="_ _3"></span>IS could </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">be <span class="_ _13"> </span>adopted<span class="_ _3"></span>, <span class="_ _13"> </span>for <span class="_ _13"> </span>ins<span class="_ _2"></span>tance, <span class="_ _13"> </span>to <span class="_ _13"> </span>be <span class="_ _13"> </span>used <span class="_ _13"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _13"> </span>real-tim<span class="_ _9"></span>e <span class="_ _13"> </span>traffic </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">congestion <span class="_ _b"> </span>warnin<span class="_ _9"></span>g <span class="_ _a"> </span>sys<span class="_ _9"></span>tems, <span class="_ _b"> </span>leveraging <span class="_ _b"> </span>on <span class="_ _b"> </span>the <span class="_ _b"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y3f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distributed <span class="_ _14"> </span>mechan<span class="_ _2"></span>ism <span class="_ _15"> </span>that <span class="_ _15"> </span>pr<span class="_ _3"></span>ovides <span class="_ _15"> </span>updated <span class="_ _14"> </span>traffic </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y40 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">information to drivers. </div><div class="t m0 x7 h2 y41 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h2 y42 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_"> </span>rest <span class="_"> </span>of <span class="_ _0"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span>paper <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_ _0"> </span>structured <span class="_ _0"> </span>as <span class="_"> </span>f<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>llows<span class="_ _9"></span>.<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _0"> </span>Section <span class="_"> </span>2 </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y43 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">presents <span class="_ _3"></span>existing ap<span class="_ _3"></span>proaches <span class="_ _3"></span>on <span class="_ _3"></span>routing <span class="_ _3"></span>in VANET <span class="_ _3"></span>and <span class="_ _3"></span>details </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y44 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _10"></span>principles <span class="_ _10"> </span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>f <span class="_ _10"></span>GyTAR. <span class="_ _4"></span>Sectio<span class="_ _3"></span>n <span class="_ _10"></span>3 <span class="_ _10"> </span>descr<span class="_ _3"></span>ibes <span class="_ _10"></span>the <span class="_ _10"></span>mechan<span class="_ _2"></span>ism </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y45 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">used <span class="_ _7"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>IFT<span class="_ _3"></span>IS <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_ _7"> </span>provide <span class="_ _7"> </span>the <span class="_ _5"> </span>information <span class="_ _5"> </span>about <span class="_ _7"> </span>vehicular </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y46 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">traffic <span class="_ _0"> </span>between <span class="_ _1"> </span>two <span class="_ _0"> </span>junctions. <span class="_ _0"> </span>Section <span class="_ _0"> </span>4 <span class="_ _0"> </span>presents <span class="_ _0"> </span>sim<span class="_ _9"></span>ulation </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y47 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">setting <span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_ _2"></span>d <span class="_"> </span>results. <span class="_"> </span>F<span class="_ _2"></span>inally<span class="_ _2"></span>, <span class="_"> </span>conclusion <span class="_ _0"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>fu<span class="_ _2"></span>ture <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>ork <span class="_"> </span>are </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y48 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sum<span class="_ _9"></span>marized in Section 5<span class="_ _3"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x8 h2 y49 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">II.<span class="ff4"> <span class="_ _b"> </span></span><span class="fs2">IMPROV<span class="_ _2"></span>ED <span class="fs0">G</span>REED<span class="ff3">Y</span> <span class="fs0">T</span>RAFF<span class="_ _9"></span>IC <span class="fs0">A</span>WA<span class="_ _9"></span>RE <span class="fs0">R</span>OUTI<span class="_ _9"></span>NG <span class="fs0">P</span>ROTOCOL<span class="_ _9"></span><span class="fs0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y4a ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="ff5"> <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>Routing <span class="_ _3"></span>in VANET </div><div class="t m0 x9 h2 y4b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Recently, some routing protoco<span class="_ _3"></span>ls specific to VANET<span class="_ _3"></span>s have </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y4c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been <span class="_ _d"> </span>proposed.<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _d"> </span>In <span class="_ _a"> </span>the <span class="_ _d"> </span>followin<span class="_ _9"></span>g, <span class="_ _d"> </span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _a"> </span>p<span class="_ _3"></span>resent <span class="_ _a"> </span>the <span class="_ _d"> </span>m<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>st </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y4d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">important ones: GSR, A-S<span class="_ _2"></span>TAR, and GPCR. </div><div class="t m0 x9 h2 y4e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">'GSR'<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>[1] <span class="_ _6"> </span>(Geo<span class="_ _3"></span>graphic <span class="_ _6"> </span>Source <span class="_ _6"> </span>Routing) <span class="_ _6"> </span>has <span class="_ _10"> </span>been <span class="_ _6"> </span>recently </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y4f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">propo<span class="_ _3"></span>sed <span class="_ _4"></span>as <span class="_ _10"></span>a <span class="_ _4"></span>pro<span class="_ _3"></span>mis<span class="_ _2"></span>ing <span class="_ _4"></span>routing <span class="_ _4"></span>strategy <span class="_ _4"></span>for <span class="_ _4"></span>vehicul<span class="_ _2"></span>ar <span class="_ _4"></span>ad <span class="_ _4"></span>hoc </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y50 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">netw<span class="_ _9"></span>o<span class="_ _3"></span>rks <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _7"> </span>city <span class="_ _5"> </span>environments. <span class="_ _5"> </span>I<span class="_ _3"></span>t <span class="_ _5"> </span>co<span class="_ _3"></span>mbines <span class="_ _5"> </span>position-based </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y51 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">routing <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _9"></span>ith <span class="_"> </span>topological <span class="_"> </span>knowledge. <span class="_ _0"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>he <span class="_"> </span>s<span class="_ _9"></span>imulation <span class="_"> </span>results<span class="_ _9"></span>,<span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y52 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _10"></span>the <span class="_ _4"></span>use <span class="_ _4"></span>of <span class="_ _4"></span>realistic <span class="_ _4"></span>vehicular <span class="_ _4"></span>traffic <span class="_ _4"></span>in <span class="_ _4"></span>city <span class="_ _3"></span>environments, </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y53 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">show<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _4"></span>that <span class="_ _4"></span>GSR <span class="_ _4"></span>outperforms <span class="_ _4"></span>topology-based <span class="_ _4"></span>approaches <span class="_ _4"></span>(DSR </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y54 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _5"> </span>AODV) <span class="_ _7"> </span>wit<span class="_ _2"></span>h <span class="_ _5"> </span>respect <span class="_ _7"> </span>to <span class="_ _7"> </span>delivery <span class="_ _5"> </span>rate <span class="_ _7"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>latency. <span class="_ _5"> </span>In </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y55 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">another <span class="_ _10"> </span>study <span class="_ _10"></span>[2]<span class="_ _3"></span>, <span class="_ _10"></span>the <span class="_ _10"></span>same <span class="_ _10"></span>authors <span class="_ _10"></span>have <span class="_ _10"></span>shown, <span class="_ _4"></span>for <span class="_ _6"> </span>highw<span class="_ _9"></span>ay </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y56 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scenarios, <span class="_ _10"> </span>that <span class="_ _10"></span>routing <span class="_ _4"></span>a<span class="_ _3"></span>pproaches <span class="_ _10"></span>using <span class="_ _4"></span>position <span class="_ _10"> </span>information, </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y57 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">e.g., o<span class="_ _3"></span>btained from on-board<span class="_ _3"></span> GPS <span class="_ _3"></span>receivers, <span class="_ _3"></span>can very w<span class="_ _9"></span>ell d<span class="_ _3"></span>eal </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y58 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _9"></span> the mobility of the vehicles. </div><div class="t m0 x9 h2 y59 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">'A-<span class="_ _9"></span>ST<span class="_ _3"></span>AR'[3] <span class="_ _b"> </span>(<span class="_ _3"></span>Anch<span class="_ _2"></span>or-based <span class="_ _a"> </span>Street <span class="_ _a"> </span>and <span class="_ _b"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>raffic <span class="_ _b"> </span>Aware </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y5a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Routing) <span class="_ _16"> </span>is <span class="_ _16"> </span>a <span class="_ _16"> </span>p<span class="_ _3"></span>osition-based <span class="_ _16"> </span>ro<span class="_ _3"></span>uting<span class="_ _2"></span> <span class="_ _16"> </span>scheme <span class="_ _16"> </span>design<span class="_ _9"></span>e<span class="_ _3"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y5b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">specifically <span class="_ _3"></span>for <span class="_ _3"></span>IVC <span class="_ _4"></span>in <span class="_ _3"></span>city <span class="_ _3"></span>environments<span class="_ _2"></span>. <span class="_ _3"></span>I<span class="_ _3"></span>t <span class="_ _3"></span>features <span class="_ _3"></span>the <span class="_ _3"></span>novel </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y5c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">use <span class="_ _1"> </span>of <span class="_ _6"> </span>city <span class="_ _6"> </span>bus <span class="_ _6"> </span>ro<span class="_ _3"></span>ute <span class="_ _6"> </span>information <span class="_ _6"> </span>to <span class="_ _1"> </span>identify<span class="_ _9"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>anchor <span class="_ _6"> </span>paths <span class="_ _1"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x6 h2 y5d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">higher <span class="_ _6"> </span>connectivity <span class="_ _6"> </span>so <span class="_ _6"> </span>that <span class="_ _1"> </span>more <span class="_ _6"> </span>packets <span class="_ _1"> </span>can <span class="_ _6"> </span>be <span class="_ _6"> </span>d<span class="_ _3"></span>elivered <span class="_ _6"> </span>to </div><div class="t m0 xa h6 y5e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _17"></span>owards Ef<span class="_ _9"></span>ficient Routing in V<span class="_ _18"></span>ehicular </div><div class="t m0 xb h6 y5f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ad Hoc Networks <span class="fs4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y60 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Moez Jerbi*, Sidi-Mohammed Senouci* and Yacine Ghamri-Douda<span class="_ _2"></span>ne** </div><div class="t m0 xd h8 y61 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">*France Tele<span class="_ _3"></span>com R<span class="_ _9"></span>&amp;D, Core Network Laboratories<span class="_ _3"></span>, Lannion, France<span class="ff2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xe h8 y62 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">**Networks and Multimedia Systems Research Group, ENSI<span class="_ _9"></span>IE, Evry<span class="_ _9"></span>, Cedex, Franc<span class="_ _3"></span>e </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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