Power_LED_Thermal_HeatSink.zip

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design of power led pcb, thermal heatsink
Power_LED_Thermal_HeatSink.zip
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62447afc5d5dd733889a3f5e/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/62447afc5d5dd733889a3f5e/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">978-1-4673-1111-3/12/$31.00 &#169;2012 IEEE<span class="ff2"> 31<span class="ws1">9<span class="ws2"> <span class="ws3"> </span></span></span></span>28th<span class="ws4"> <span class="ls1 ws5">IEEE SEMI-THERM Sy<span class="ls2">m</span>posium<span class="fs1 ls3 ws6"> </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws7">An Innovative Passive Cooling Method for High Performance Light-emitting Diodes </div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws8">Angie Fan</div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws9">, Richard Bonner</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 x8 h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsa">, Stephen Sharratt</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 xa h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls7 wsa"> and Y. Sungtaek Ju</div><div class="t m0 xb h6 y6 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y5 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 xd h6 y7 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">1</div><div class="t m0 xe h5 y8 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws9">Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc </div><div class="t m0 xf h5 y9 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsb">1046 New Holland Ave, Lancaster, PA </div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws3">angie.fan@1-act.com</div><div class="t m0 x11 h8 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 yc ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x13 h5 yd ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls8 wsb">University of California </div><div class="t m0 x14 h3 ye ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsa wsc">Los Angeles, CA </div><div class="t m0 x2 h8 yf ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y10 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws3">Abstract </div><div class="t m0 x15 h2 y11 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsc wsd">Thermal m<span class="_ _0"></span>anagement challenges are becom<span class="_ _0"></span>ing a major </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y12 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd wse">roadblock to the wide use of high-power LED lighting </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse wsf">systems. Increm<span class="_ _0"></span>ental im<span class="_ _0"></span>provement<span class="_ _0"></span>s in conventional<span class="_ _0"></span> bulk </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y14 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsf ws10">metal heat sinks and thermal in<span class="ls10 ws11">terface m<span class="_ _0"></span>aterials are projected </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws12">to be insufficient to meet these challen<span class="_ _1"></span>ges. Active cooling </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y16 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsd ws13">methods, such as forced air and pum<span class="_ _0"></span>ped liquid <span class="_ _0"></span>cooling, m<span class="_ _0"></span>ay </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y17 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws14">provide better performance but at the expense of higher cost </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y18 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws15">and energy consumption. Passive phase change (liquid t<span class="_ _0"></span>o </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y19 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws16">vapor) cooling devices, such as heat pipes and </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws17">thermosyphons, are well establi<span class="_ _0"></span>shed in the electronics </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws18">industry as a very effective and <span class="_ _0"></span>reliable way<span class="_ _0"></span> of removi<span class="_ _0"></span>ng </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws19">excess waste heat at low ther<span class="ws1a">mal resistance. Successful </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws1b">application of heat pipes and thermosy<span class="_ _0"></span>phons in solid-state </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws1c">lighting (SSL) products will requi<span class="ls15 ws1d">re adapting the technologies </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws1e">to the form-factor, m<span class="_ _0"></span>aterial<span class="_ _0"></span> and cost requirement<span class="_ _0"></span>s unique to </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y20 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws1f">SSL products. This paper describes a recent development </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y21 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws20">effort that integrates a planar therm<span class="_ _0"></span>osyphon into a printed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y22 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws21">circuit board (PCB) for LED devices. The planar </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y23 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws22">thermosyphon/PCB<span class="_ _0"></span> uses a dielectric flui<span class="_ _0"></span>d as the heat <span class="_ _0"></span>pipe </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y24 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws23">working fluid, achieving significant<span class="_ _0"></span>ly im<span class="_ _0"></span>proved heat </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y25 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws24">spreading performances over conventi<span class="_ _0"></span>onal PCBs. Anal<span class="_ _0"></span>ytical </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y26 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws25">modeling showed a more than 50% thermal resistance </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y27 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws26">reduction from typical metal core PCBs. A low temperature </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y28 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws27">electroplating technique was also<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls3 ws28"> investigated to fabricate </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y29 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws29">wick structures onto PCB surfaces to enhance the boiling heat </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws2a">transfer performance of the di<span class="lsf ws2b">electric fluids. Test results </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws2c">showed that a boiling heat <span class="ls1c ws2d">transfer coefficient of </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1d ws3">20,000W/m</div><div class="t m0 x16 ha y2d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x17 h2 y2e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws2e">-K can be achieved with the 3M Novec fluid. In </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y2f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws2f">this paper, the pr<span class="_ _1"></span>eliminary study<span class="ls16 ws30"> on heat transfer enhancement </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y30 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws31">by using the PCB planar thermosy<span class="_ _0"></span>phon in single LED </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y31 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws32">assembly was reported. Future d<span class="_ _1"></span>evelopment efforts will verify </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y32 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws33">the design in practical applications, address m<span class="_ _0"></span>anufacturing </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y33 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws34">issues and improve the cost efficiency. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y34 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws3">Keywords </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y35 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws35">Two-phase passive cooling, PCB-based dielect<span class="_ _0"></span>ric planar </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y36 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws36">themosyphon, high power LEDs, boiling heat transfer </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y37 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws34">enhancement, low temperature sintering </div><div class="t m0 x1 hb y38 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws3">1.<span class="ff4 ls3"> <span class="_ _2"> </span></span><span class="lsc">Introduction </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y39 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws37">According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws38">solid-state light<span class="_ _0"></span>ing (SSL) technology has the potenti<span class="_ _0"></span>al to cut </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws39">U.S. lighting energy usage by<span class="_ _0"></span> one-quarter and contribut<span class="_ _0"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws3a">significantly t<span class="_ _0"></span>o our nation's clim<span class="_ _0"></span>ate change <span class="_ _0"></span>solutions. <span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws3b">C<span class="ls20">o<span class="ls2">m</span>p<span class="ls12">ared<span class="ws3c"> </span>w<span class="ls23">it</span>h<span class="ws3d"> </span>conven<span class="ls23">ti</span>onal<span class="ws3e"> </span>wh<span class="ls23">it</span>e<span class="ws3f"> </span><span class="ls23">li</span>ght<span class="ws3e"> </span>sources such as </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws40">incandescent, flu<span class="_ _1"></span>orescent, and metal halide lamps, light-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws41">emitting diodes (LEDs) provide sig<span class="_ _1"></span>nificant benefits including<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y40 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws42">compact size, long life, ease of mai<span class="_ _0"></span>ntenance, resistance to </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y41 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws43">breakage and vibration, good perform<span class="_ _0"></span>ance in cold </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y42 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws44">temperatures, reduced infrared or ultraviole<span class="_ _0"></span>t emissi<span class="_ _0"></span>ons, and </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y43 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws45">instant-on performance. Tabl<span class="_ _0"></span>e 1 shows the potenti<span class="_ _0"></span>al </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y44 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws46">advantages as well as the challenges faci<span class="_ _0"></span>ng LED technology. <span class="_ _4"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y45 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws3b">Although the electrical power t<span class="_ _0"></span>o visible light conversi<span class="_ _0"></span>on </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y46 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws47">efficiency of 20-30% represents signi<span class="_ _0"></span>ficant im<span class="_ _0"></span>provement <span class="_ _0"></span>over </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y47 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws48">the incandescent light sources, the 70-80% <span class="_ _0"></span>non-radiant heat </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y48 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws49">dissipation poses a signifi<span class="_ _0"></span>cant challenge to the therm<span class="_ _0"></span>al </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y49 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws4a">managem<span class="_ _0"></span>ent of the device. </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y4a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws4b">Cost competitiveness and qu<span class="_ _1"></span>ality have been iden<span class="_ _1"></span>tified by </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y4b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws4c">DOE as the two additional roadblocks in the </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y4c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws4d">comm<span class="_ _0"></span>ercialization path of the LED technology<span class="_ _0"></span>. Currently, </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y4d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws4e">LEDs cost 10 times more than incandescent lam<span class="_ _0"></span>ps and 5 </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y4e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws4f">times more than com<span class="_ _0"></span>pact fluorescent lamps (CFL). <span class="_ _0"></span>DOE&#8217;s </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y4f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws50">goal is to reduce the LED cost com<span class="_ _0"></span>parable to <span class="_ _0"></span>CFL&#8217;s by 2015. <span class="_ _5"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y50 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws51">Since a large portion of the en<span class="ws52">ergy in LED devices becomes </span></div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y51 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws53">waste heat and the LED junction temperature affects device&#8217;s </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y52 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws54">long-term reliability, developing <span class="ls10 ws55">therm<span class="_ _0"></span>ally and cost effective </span></div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y53 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws56">thermal m<span class="_ _5"></span>anagement methods play<span class="_ _0"></span>s a key role <span class="_ _0"></span>in im<span class="_ _0"></span>proving </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y54 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws57">LED&#8217;s quality and cost competitiveness. </div><div class="t m0 x19 hc y55 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x18 h3 y56 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws58">Table 1:<span class="ff1 fc1 ls3 ws3"> </span><span class="ff1">Power Conversion for White Light Sources</span><span class="ls3 ws3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1a h2 y57 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x1b h2 y58 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws3">Incandescent<span class="ff1 ls3"> <span class="_ _6"></span></span><span class="ls2a">Fluorescent<span class="ff1 ls3"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1c h9 y59 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws3">Metal </div><div class="t m0 x1d h9 y5a ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws3">Halide</div><div class="t m0 x1e h2 y5b ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws3">LED<span class="ff1 ls3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x1f h2 y5c ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws57">Visible Light<span class="ff1 ls3 ws3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x20 h2 y5d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws3">8% <span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls2c">21% <span class="_ _8"> </span>27% <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2d">20-30%</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x21 h2 y5e ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws3">IR<span class="ff1 ls3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x22 h2 y5f ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws59">73% 37% <span class="_ _a"></span>17% <span class="_ _b"></span>0% </div><div class="t m0 x23 h2 y60 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws3">UV<span class="ff1 ls3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x20 h2 y61 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws3">0% <span class="_ _c"> </span>0% <span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ls2c">19% <span class="_ _e"> </span></span>0% </div><div class="t m0 x24 h9 y62 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws5a">Total Radiant </div><div class="t m0 x25 h2 y63 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">Energy<span class="ff1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x22 h2 y64 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws5b">81% 58% <span class="_ _a"></span>63% <span class="_ _f"></span>20-30%</div><div class="t m0 x1f h9 y65 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws3">Non-Radiant </div><div class="t m0 x26 h2 y66 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws3">Heat<span class="ff1 ls3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x22 h2 y67 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws3">19% <span class="_ _10"> </span>42% <span class="_ _8"> </span>37% <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2d">70-80%</span></div><div class="t m0 x1f h2 y68 ff3 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws5c">Total Energy<span class="ff1 ls3 ws3"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x27 h2 y69 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws5d">100% 100% <span class="_ _a"></span>100% <span class="_ _11"></span>100% </div><div class="t m0 x19 hc y6a ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3"> </div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y6b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws5e">High brightness LEDs (HBLEDs) are finding i<span class="_ _0"></span>ncreasing </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y6c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1f ws5f">usage in app<span class="_ _1"></span>lications like LED lamps, display backlig<span class="_ _1"></span>hting, </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y6d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws60">and camera flash for cell<span class="_ _0"></span> phones. A typical high power LED </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y6e ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws61">chip has 1mm</div><div class="t m0 x9 ha y6f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 xa h2 y70 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls16 ws30"> surface area with a total power consumption of </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y71 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws62">1W. According to the 70-80% power to heat conversi<span class="_ _0"></span>on rate </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y72 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws63">in LEDs, the heat flux can be as high as 80 <span class="_ _0"></span>W/cm</div><div class="t m0 x28 ha y73 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x29 h2 y74 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws64">. By 2012, </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y75 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws65">the heat flux will reach about 340 W/cm</div><div class="t m0 x2a ha y76 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">2</div><div class="t m0 x2b h2 y77 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws66">, which is 6-7 times </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y78 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws67">higher than that of conventional<span class="_ _0"></span> CPU chips [1]. <span class="_ _0"></span> The high </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y79 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lsb ws68">heat fluxes at the junction level<span class="_ _0"></span>, coupled with the dense </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y7a ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 lse ws69">packaging of many com<span class="_ _5"></span>ponents into a small package, resul<span class="_ _0"></span>ts </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y7b ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws6a">in two thermal management challenges: temperature </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y7c ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws6b">uniformity across multiple LED junction<span class="_ _1"></span>s and in-plane h<span class="_ _1"></span>eat </div><div class="t m0 x18 h2 y7d ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws34">spreading at the heat sink and PCB package levels. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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