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Modeling of Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-level Inverter Having Low Total
cascaded-h-bridge.rar
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sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y4 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ISSN-p: 2521-2419 <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 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<span class="_ _0"></span>March 2019 <span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span 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</span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span><span class="fc1 sc0"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h3 y7 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">https://www.ijew.io/<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h3 y8 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y9 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#169; <span class="_ _1"></span>Author<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>retai<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _1"></span>all <span class="_ _2"></span>copyrights <span class="_ _2"></span>2019<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>IJEW. <span class="_ _1"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>his <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>an <span class="_ _1"></span>open <span class="_ _2"></span>access <span class="_ _1"></span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>ticle <span class="_ _2"></span>distributed <span class="_ _2"></span>under <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _1"></span>CC<span class="_ _1"></span>-BY <span class="_ _2"></span>License, <span class="_ _2"></span>which <span class="_ _1"></span>per<span class="_ _0"></span>mits </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 ya ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unrestricted use, distrib<span class="_ _0"></span>ution, and rep<span class="_ _0"></span>roduction in any medium, pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ovided the original wor<span class="_ _0"></span>k is properly cited.<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 yb ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 yc ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Modeling of Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-level Inverter Having Lo<span class="ls3">w </span>Total </div><div class="t m0 xa h5 yd ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Harmonic Distortion by using Equal Phase Distribution Method </div><div class="t m0 xb h2 ye ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Muhamm<span class="_ _3"></span>ad Salman</div><div class="t m0 xc h6 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 xd h2 ye ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Abdul Basit</div><div class="t m0 xe h6 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xf h2 ye ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Aemal Ahm<span class="_ _3"></span>ad</div><div class="t m0 x10 h6 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div><div class="t m0 x11 h2 ye ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Zeeshan Saeed Shah</div><div class="t m0 x12 h6 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4</div><div class="t m0 x13 h2 ye ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, Kamra<span class="_ _3"></span>n Alam</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 yf ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">5 </div><div class="t m0 x15 h6 y10 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1,2,3,4,5</div><div class="t m0 xb h2 y11 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">US Pakistan Cen<span class="_ _3"></span>ter for Advanced S<span class="_ _3"></span>tudies in Energy<span class="_ _3"></span>, University of Engineeri<span class="_ _3"></span>ng and Technolog<span class="_ _3"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x16 h2 y12 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Peshawar, Pakis<span class="_ _3"></span>tan </div><div class="t m0 x17 h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">12ktete0236@uet<span class="_ _3"></span>peshawar.edu.pk</div><div class="t m0 x18 h6 y14 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x19 h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, abdul.basit@uetpe<span class="_ _3"></span>shawar.edu.pk</div><div class="t m0 x1a h6 y14 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x1b h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, aemalahm<span class="_ _3"></span>ad@hotmail.com</div><div class="t m0 x1c h6 y14 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">3</div><div class="t m0 x1d h2 y13 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, </div><div class="t m0 x1e h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">zshah1@asu.edu</div><div class="t m0 x1f h6 y16 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">4</div><div class="t m0 x20 h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">, kalam3@<span class="_ _3"></span>asu.edu</div><div class="t m0 x21 h6 y16 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">5</div><div class="t m0 x22 h2 y15 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x23 h4 y17 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Received: 12 Februar<span class="_ _0"></span>y, Revised<span class="_ _0"></span>: 01 Mar<span class="_ _0"></span>ch, Accepted: 05 March<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y18 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y19 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1b ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff5">&#8212;<span class="ff6 fs4"> <span class="_ _4"> </span></span><span class="ff1">Multi-level <span class="_"> </span>inverter<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff7 ls4">s&#8217;</span> <span class="_"> </span>popularity <span class="_"> </span>over <span class="_"> </span>traditional </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inverters <span class="_ _1"></span>can <span class="_ _0"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _0"></span>attr<span class="_ _0"></span>ibuted <span class="_ _0"></span>to<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span>its <span class="_ _1"></span>lo<span class="_ _0"></span>w <span class="_ _0"></span>total <span class="_ _1"></span>har<span class="_ _0"></span>monic <span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="_ _0"></span>istortion. </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Multi-level <span class="_ _5"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _5"> </span>is <span class="_ _5"> </span>used <span class="_ _5"> </span>both <span class="_ _5"> </span>for <span class="_ _5"> </span>high <span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _5"> </span>low <span class="_ _5"> </span>power </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applications. <span class="_ _6"></span>This <span class="_ _6"></span>study <span class="_ _7"></span>uses <span class="_ _7"></span>E<span class="_ _0"></span>qual <span class="_ _7"></span>phase <span class="_ _6"> </span>method <span class="_ _6"></span>to <span class="_ _7"></span>anal<span class="_ _0"></span>yze </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y1f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _2"></span>total <span class="_ _2"></span>Har<span class="_ _0"></span>monic <span class="_ _2"></span>distortion <span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls5">3,</span> <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls5">5,</span> <span class="_ _2"></span>7<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _2"></span>9 <span class="_ _7"></span>levels <span class="_ _2"></span>by <span class="_ _2"></span>using </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y20 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Cascaded <span class="_ _2"></span>H<span class="_ _0"></span>-Bridge <span class="_ _2"></span>configura<span class="_ _0"></span>tion <span class="_ _2"></span>for <span class="_ _7"></span>such <span class="_ _7"></span>analysis. <span class="_ _2"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _2"></span>total </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y21 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">harmonic <span class="_ _7"></span>distor<span class="_ _0"></span>tions <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _6"></span>three, <span class="_ _7"></span>five, <span class="_ _7"></span>seven<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>and <span class="_ _6"></span>nine <span class="_ _2"></span>leve<span class="_ _0"></span>ls <span class="_ _7"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>re </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y22 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">analyzed, <span class="_ _0"></span>st<span class="_ _0"></span>udied <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _0"></span>finally <span class="_ _0"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>heir <span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>utput <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>compared <span class="_ _1"></span>through </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y23 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fast <span class="_ _5"> </span>Fourier <span class="_ _5"> </span>transform. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Results <span class="_ _5"> </span>are <span class="_ _5"> </span>acquired <span class="_ _5"> </span>by<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>simulating </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y24 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Cascaded <span class="_ _8"> </span>H-Bridge <span class="_ _8"> </span>Multi-le<span class="_ _0"></span>vel <span class="_ _8"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _8"> </span>with </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y25 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MATLAB/Simulink. <span class="_ _9"> </span>Simulation <span class="_ _9"> </span>results <span class="_ _a"> </span>reveal <span class="_ _9"> </span>that <span class="_ _a"> </span>total </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y26 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Harmonics <span class="_"> </span>Distortion <span class="_ _b"> </span>reduces <span class="_"> </span>as <span class="_ _b"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _b"> </span>level <span class="_"> </span>is <span class="_ _b"> </span>increase<span class="_ _0"></span>d<span class="ls6">. </span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y27 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Total <span class="_ _b"> </span>harmonic <span class="_ _c"> </span>distortion <span class="_ _c"> </span>for <span class="_ _b"> </span>3, <span class="_ _c"> </span>5, <span class="_ _c"> </span>7 <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_ _c"> </span>9<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>levels <span class="_ _c"> </span>is <span class="_ _c"> </span>41<span class="_ _0"></span>.42, </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y28 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">39.46, 39.40<span class="_ _0"></span> and 22.50 percent respectively.<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="fs4"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y29 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y2a ff4 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Keywords<span class="ff8">&#8212;</span><span class="fs4"> <span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff1">Cascaded <span class="_ _d"> </span>H-Bridge, <span class="_ _e"> </span>Equal <span class="_ _e"> </span>Ph<span class="_ _0"></span>ase <span class="_ _e"> </span>method, </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y2b ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MATLAB/Simulink, <span class="_ _5"> </span>Switching <span class="_ _4"> </span>Angle, <span class="_ _5"> </span>Total <span class="_ _5"> </span>Harmonic <span class="_ _5"> </span>distortion </div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y2c ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(THD). </div><div class="t m0 x8 h9 y2d ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x24 h4 y2e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">I.<span class="ff9 ls0"> <span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="ff1">I<span class="fs5">NTRODUCTI<span class="_ _3"></span>ON<span class="fs1"> </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x25 h4 y2f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Power <span class="_ _c"> </span>electronics <span class="_ _c"> </span>interface <span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ls8">is</span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>needed <span class="_ _c"> </span>to <span class="_ _c"> </span>synchronize <span class="_ _c"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y30 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">power <span class="_ _2"></span><span class="ls5">of</span> <span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>enewable <span class="_ _2"></span>energy <span class="_ _7"></span>sources <span class="_ _7"></span>with <span class="_ _2"></span>that <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>grid <span class="_ _7"></span>in <span class="_ _2"></span>ord<span class="_ _0"></span>er </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y31 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to <span class="_ _7"></span>meet <span class="_ _2"></span>the <span class="_ _2"></span>require<span class="_ _0"></span>ment <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _7"></span>grid <span class="_ _7"></span>integration<span class="_ _0"></span>. <span class="_ _2"></span>Di<span class="_ _0"></span>fferent <span class="_ _2"></span>kind <span class="_ _7"></span>of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y32 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">grid <span class="_"> </span>tied <span class="_ _b"> </span>inverters <span class="_"> </span>solves <span class="_ _c"> </span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_"> </span>issue <span class="_ _c"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_"> </span>synchronization <span class="_"> </span>each </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y33 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">associated <span class="_ _5"> </span>with <span class="_ _5"> </span>certain <span class="_ _5"> </span>le<span class="_ _0"></span>vel <span class="_ _5"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>THD.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _5"> </span>Multi-level <span class="_ _5"> </span>invert<span class="_ _0"></span>er </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y34 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(MLI) pro<span class="_ _0"></span>ves a goo<span class="_ _0"></span>d candidat<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _0"></span>with the ab<span class="_ _0"></span>ility to <span class="_ _0"></span>harness <span class="_ _0"></span>high </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y35 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">quality <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>ave<span class="_ _0"></span>form <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>ith <span class="_"> </span>low<span class="_ _3"></span> <span class="_"> </span>THD. <span class="_"> </span>The <span class="_ _b"> </span>output <span class="_"> </span>w<span class="_ _3"></span>avefor<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y36 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">multilevel <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>nverter <span class="_ _1"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _1"></span>much <span class="_ _2"></span>better<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"></span>because <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>multiple <span class="_ _2"></span>voltage </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y37 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">levels <span class="_ _10"> </span>if <span class="_ _10"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mpare <span class="_ _10"> </span>to <span class="_ _10"> </span>two <span class="_ _10"> </span>levels <span class="_ _10"> </span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>nverter <span class="_ _11"> </span>which <span class="_ _10"> </span>has <span class="_ _10"> </span>such </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y38 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distortion <span class="_ _5"> </span>comparatively <span class="_ _5"> </span>higher. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Also, <span class="_ _4"> </span>there <span class="_ _5"> </span>is <span class="_ _5"> </span>no <span class="_ _5"> </span>n<span class="_ _3"></span>eed <span class="_ _5"> </span>of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y39 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">output <span class="_ _a"> </span>filter <span class="_ _9"> </span>for <span class="_ _a"> </span>removing <span class="_ _9"> </span>th<span class="_ _3"></span>ese <span class="_ _9"> </span>distortions. <span class="_ _a"> </span>With <span class="_ _a"> </span>l<span class="_ _0"></span>ow </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">switching <span class="_ _b"> </span>frequency <span class="_ _b"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>absence <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_"> </span>large <span class="_ _c"> </span>output <span class="_ _b"> </span>filter <span class="_"> </span>it <span class="_ _c"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">advantageous <span class="_ _4"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>m<span class="_ _3"></span>inimizing <span class="_ _4"> </span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>st, <span class="_ _4"> </span>complexity <span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_"> </span> <span class="_ _5"> </span> <span class="_"> </span>pow<span class="_ _3"></span>er </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">losses<span class="ls9">. <span class="_ _c"> </span></span>MLI <span class="_ _c"> </span>uses <span class="_ _c"> </span>many <span class="_ _c"> </span>diffe<span class="_ _0"></span>rent <span class="_ _c"> </span>topo<span class="_ _0"></span>logies: <span class="_ _c"> </span>Diode <span class="_ _c"> </span>clamped </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">MLI<span class="ls9">, </span>flying ca<span class="_ _0"></span>pacitor <span class="_ _0"></span>MLI<span class="ls9">, </span>H-Bridge <span class="_ _0"></span>MLI [<span class="_ _0"></span>1]. T<span class="_ _0"></span>otal harmonic </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">distortion <span class="_ _7"></span>can <span class="_ _7"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _7"></span>red<span class="_ _0"></span>uced <span class="_ _7"></span>by <span class="_ _7"></span>varying <span class="_ _7"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>ulse <span class="_ _7"></span>widths <span class="_ _7"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _7"></span>phase </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y3f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">delays o<span class="lsa">f </span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ny level o<span class="_ _0"></span>f inverter [1<span class="_ _0"></span>]. Total harmonic distortio<span class="_ _0"></span>n of </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y40 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">single <span class="_ _2"></span>phase <span class="_ _7"></span>3<span class="_ _0"></span>-level <span class="_ _2"></span>and <span class="_ _7"></span>5-le<span class="_ _0"></span>vel <span class="_ _2"></span>is <span class="_ _7"></span>analyzed <span class="_ _7"></span>by <span class="_ _2"></span>var<span class="_ _0"></span>ying <span class="_ _2"></span>lo<span class="_ _0"></span>ads </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y41 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">such <span class="_ _2"></span>as <span class="_ _2"></span>R-loads <span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>nd <span class="_ _2"></span>RL <span class="_ _2"></span>load<span class="_ _0"></span>s. <span class="_ _2"></span>Both <span class="_ _2"></span>type <span class="_ _2"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>po<span class="_ _0"></span>wer <span class="_ _2"></span>i.e. <span class="_ _2"></span>active </div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y42 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and reactive po<span class="_ _0"></span>wer is calculated and compared<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="ls7">[2].</span> </div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y43 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Multi-level <span class="_ _c"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="lsb">is</span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>better <span class="_ _c"> </span>in <span class="_ _6"> </span>ter<span class="_ _0"></span>ms <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _c"> </span>electromagnetic </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y44 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">compatibility<span class="ls9">, <span class="_ _12"> </span></span>low <span class="_ _12"> </span>switchi<span class="_ _0"></span>ng <span class="_ _12"> </span>losses <span class="_ _12"> </span>and <span class="_ _12"> </span>high <span class="_ _12"> </span>volt<span class="_ _0"></span>age </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y45 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">capability<span class="ls9">. <span class="_ _1"></span></span>In <span class="_ _0"></span>recent <span class="_ _1"></span>years <span class="_ _1"></span>MLI <span class="_ _1"></span>got <span class="_ _0"></span>much <span class="_ _1"></span>high<span class="lsc">er<span class="_ _0"></span></span> <span class="_ _0"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>nsideration </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y46 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">[3<span class="ls0">]<span class="ls9">. <span class="_ _2"></span></span>Multi-level <span class="_ _2"></span>inverter <span class="_ _2"></span>synth<span class="_ _0"></span>esizes <span class="_ _2"></span>voltage <span class="_ _2"></span>fro<span class="_ _0"></span>m <span class="_ _1"></span>di<span class="_ _0"></span>fferent <span class="_ _2"></span>dc </span></div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y47 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sources and separates the<span class="_ _0"></span>m in case o<span class="_ _0"></span>f cascaded H-brid<span class="_ _0"></span>ge. </div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y48 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Three <span class="_ _7"></span>different <span class="_ _7"></span>topologies <span class="_ _7"></span>presented <span class="_ _7"></span>here: <span class="_ _6"></span>diode <span class="_ _7"></span>clamped, </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y49 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">flying <span class="_ _13"> </span>capacitor <span class="_ _13"> </span>and <span class="_ _14"> </span>cascaded <span class="_ _13"> </span>H<span class="_ _0"></span>-Bridge; <span class="_ _13"> </span>their <span class="_ _14"> </span>functions, </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y4a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">features, <span class="_ _1"></span>applications, <span class="_ _1"></span>configu<span class="_ _0"></span>rations, <span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>perating <span class="_ _1"></span>principles <span class="_ _1"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y4b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">performances <span class="_"> </span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_"> </span>discu<span class="_ _0"></span>ssed <span class="_ _15"> </span><span class="ls7">[3</span>]<span class="ls9">. <span class="_"> </span></span>Multilevel <span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"></span>verter <span class="_"> </span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>esides </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y4c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">reducing har<span class="_ _0"></span>monics and EMI<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _0"></span>also decr<span class="_ _0"></span>eases the <span class="_ _0"></span>dv/dt stress <span class="_ _0"></span>on </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y4d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">switches <span class="_ _0"></span>without <span class="_ _1"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>use <span class="_ _0"></span>of <span class="_ _1"></span>high <span class="_ _0"></span>frequenc<span class="_ _0"></span>y <span class="_ _0"></span>switching <span class="_ _0"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>thus </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y4e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lowering switching lose<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="ls7">[4].</span> </div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y4f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">When <span class="_ _6"></span>these <span class="_ _6"></span>three <span class="_ _6"></span>configurations <span class="_ _6"></span>are <span class="_ _6"></span>compared, <span class="_ _6"></span>har<span class="_ _0"></span>monic </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y50 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">content <span class="_ _5"> </span>in <span class="_ _10"> </span>cascaded <span class="_ _10"> </span>H-Bridge <span class="_ _10"> </span>mu<span class="_ _3"></span>ltile<span class="_ _0"></span>vel <span class="_ _5"> </span>inverter <span class="_ _10"> </span>is <span class="_ _5"> </span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>uch </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y51 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">lower as <span class="_ _0"></span>co<span class="_ _0"></span>mpared to <span class="_ _0"></span>diode <span class="_ _0"></span>clamped <span class="_ _0"></span>and <span class="_ _0"></span>flying capacitor, <span class="_ _0"></span>also </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y52 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the <span class="_ _0"></span>output <span class="_ _1"></span>waveform <span class="_ _0"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _0"></span>casca<span class="_ _0"></span>ded <span class="_ _1"></span>H-Bridge <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _1"></span>much <span class="_ _0"></span>better <span class="_ _1"></span>and<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y53 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">more <span class="_ _16"> </span>sinusoidal <span class="_ _16"> </span>than <span class="_ _16"> </span>the <span class="_ _16"> </span>other <span class="_ _16"> </span>two <span class="_ _16"> </span>topolo<span class="_ _0"></span>gies <span class="_ _16"> </span>un<span class="_ _0"></span>der </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y54 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">discussions. <span class="_"> </span>Harmonic <span class="_"> </span>contents <span class="_"> </span>decreases <span class="_"> </span>by <span class="_"> </span>increasing <span class="_"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y55 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">output levels [5<span class="ls7">].</span> </div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y56 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Different <span class="_ _6"></span>methods <span class="_ _7"></span>ca<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _7"></span>b<span class="_ _0"></span>e <span class="_ _6"></span>used <span class="_ _6"></span>to <span class="_ _7"></span>calculate<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _6"></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span>switching </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y57 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">angles o<span class="_ _0"></span>f <span class="_ _0"></span>multilevel <span class="_ _0"></span>inverter. <span class="_ _0"></span>O<span class="_ _0"></span>utput <span class="_ _0"></span>voltage <span class="_ _0"></span>depends <span class="_ _0"></span>on <span class="_ _0"></span>firing </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y58 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _2"></span>switching <span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ngles. <span class="_ _2"></span>For <span class="_ _7"></span>m <span class="_ _7"></span>level <span class="_ _7"></span>2<span class="lsd">(m</span>-1) <span class="_ _2"></span>switching <span class="_ _2"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>ngles <span class="_ _7"></span>are </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y59 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">needed [5<span class="ls7">].</span> </div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y5a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Devising <span class="_ _15"> </span>of <span class="_ _15"> </span>line <span class="_ _15"> </span>volta<span class="_ _0"></span>ge <span class="_ _15"> </span>THD <span class="_ _5"> </span>of <span class="_ _15"> </span>MLI <span class="_ _15"> </span>is <span class="_ _15"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>roposed <span class="_ _15"> </span>by </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y5b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">analytical <span class="_ _c"> </span>algebraic <span class="_ _b"> </span>method <span class="_ _c"> </span>with <span class="_ _c"> </span>uneven <span class="_ _c"> </span>dc <span class="_ _b"> </span>generators.<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _c"> </span>The </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y5c ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">conventional <span class="_ _10"> </span>technique <span class="_ _10"> </span>works <span class="_ _10"> </span>in <span class="_ _5"> </span>more <span class="_ _10"> </span>of <span class="_ _10"> </span>an <span class="_ _5"> </span>ap<span class="_ _0"></span>proximate </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y5d ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fashion, <span class="_ _c"> </span>ig<span class="_ _0"></span>noring <span class="_ _c"> </span>high <span class="_ _c"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>rder <span class="_ _b"> </span>harmonics <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>formulating <span class="_ _c"> </span>the </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y5e ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">THD <span class="_ _10"> </span>with <span class="_ _5"> </span>limited <span class="_ _10"> </span>number <span class="_ _10"> </span>of <span class="_ _5"> </span>lo<span class="_ _0"></span>w <span class="_ _5"> </span>ord<span class="_ _0"></span>er <span class="_ _10"> </span>harmonics. <span class="_ _5"> </span>Nine </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y5f ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">equations <span class="_ _13"> </span>of <span class="_ _13"> </span>a <span class="_ _13"> </span>line <span class="_ _13"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _13"> </span>for <span class="_ _13"> </span>five <span class="_ _13"> </span>level <span class="_ _13"> </span>inverters <span class="_ _13"> </span>ar<span class="_ _0"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y60 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">presented <span class="_ _1"></span>to <span class="_ _1"></span>formulate <span class="_ _0"></span>a <span class="_ _2"></span>line <span class="_ _1"></span>THD <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>consider <span class="_ _1"></span>harmonics <span class="_ _1"></span>up </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y61 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">to <span class="_ _11"> </span>10</div><div class="t m0 x28 ha y62 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">6</div><div class="t m0 x29 h4 y61 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">th<span class="ls0"> <span class="_ _11"> </span>order. <span class="_ _11"> </span>The <span class="_ _17"> </span>proposed <span class="_ _11"> </span>model <span class="_ _17"> </span>is <span class="_ _11"> </span>based <span class="_ _17"> </span>on <span class="_ _11"> </span>speed, </span></div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y63 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 lsc ws0">ac<span class="ls0">curacy and simplicity and fo<span class="_ _0"></span>und accurate <span class="_ _0"></span>[6<span class="ls7">].</span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x26 h4 y64 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A <span class="_ _2"></span>model <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _2"></span>three <span class="_ _7"></span>phase <span class="_ _7"></span>5 <span class="_ _2"></span>lev<span class="_ _0"></span>el <span class="_ _2"></span>hybrid <span class="_ _2"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>nverter <span class="_ _7"></span>with <span class="_ _2"></span>three<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y65 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cascaded <span class="_ _1"></span>H-Bridges <span class="_ _1"></span>and <span class="_ _1"></span>diffe<span class="_ _0"></span>rent <span class="_ _0"></span>DC <span class="_ _1"></span>sources <span class="_ _1"></span>is <span class="_ _2"></span>propo<span class="_ _0"></span>sed <span class="_ _0"></span>[1<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls7">].</span> </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y66 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _0"></span>control <span class="_ _0"></span>signal <span class="_ _0"></span>is <span class="_ _0"></span>given t<span class="_ _0"></span>hrough d<span class="_ _0"></span>igital tec<span class="_ _0"></span>hnique <span class="_ _0"></span>by <span class="_ _0"></span>FPGA </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y67 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">controller. <span class="_ _2"></span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>he <span class="_ _2"></span>pr<span class="_ _0"></span>ototype <span class="_ _2"></span>has <span class="_ _7"></span>bee<span class="_ _0"></span>n <span class="_ _2"></span>tested <span class="_ _7"></span>with <span class="_ _2"></span>di<span class="_ _0"></span>fferent <span class="_ _2"></span>typ<span class="_ _0"></span>es </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y68 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of <span class="_ _7"></span>load<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _7"></span>suc<span class="_ _0"></span>h <span class="_ _7"></span>as <span class="_ _6"></span>18W <span class="_ _6"></span>fluorescent <span class="_ _6"></span>lamp, <span class="_ _6"></span>induction <span class="_ _6"></span>motor <span class="_ _7"></span>of <span class="_ _6"></span>1<span class="_ _0"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y69 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">HP <span class="_ _c"> </span>and <span class="_ _c"> </span>RL <span class="_ _6"> </span>lo<span class="_ _0"></span>ad. <span class="_ _c"> </span>The <span class="_ _c"> </span>result<span class="_ _0"></span>s <span class="_ _c"> </span>are <span class="_ _c"> </span>obtained <span class="_ _c"> </span>in <span class="_ _c"> </span>terms <span class="_ _c"> </span>of <span class="_ _c"> </span>total </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y6a ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">harmonic <span class="_ _14"> </span>distortion. <span class="_ _14"> </span>Results <span class="_ _14"> </span>show <span class="_ _14"> </span>that <span class="_ _13"> </span>T<span class="_ _0"></span>HD <span class="_ _14"> </span>voltage <span class="_ _14"> </span>is </div><div class="t m0 x27 h4 y6b ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">between <span class="_ _5"> </span>15.6<span class="_ _0"></span>% <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>18.3%<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _15"> </span>for <span class="_ _5"> </span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>utput <span class="_ _5"> </span>line-line <span class="_ _5"> </span>and <span class="_ _5"> </span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>hase </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.612252,0.000000,0.000000,1.612252,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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