APIT.rar

  • amVVZ
    了解作者
  • matlab
    开发工具
  • 219KB
    文件大小
  • rar
    文件格式
  • 0
    收藏次数
  • 10 积分
    下载积分
  • 1
    下载次数
  • 2021-03-12 08:21
    上传日期
APIT定位算法 无线传感器网络节点定位机制的研究中,基于距离无关的定位技术得到快速发展,其中基于重叠区域的APIT定位技术在实际环境中的定位精度高,被广泛研究和应用。
APIT.rar
  • APIT
  • PPIT.m
    3.3KB
  • APIT.m
    3.6KB
  • Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale.pdf
    280.7KB
内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6251dd406caf5961924b86ce/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6251dd406caf5961924b86ce/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale </div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws1">Sensor Netw<span class="_ _0"></span>orks</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2">1</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y6 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">Tian He, Cheng<span class="_ _1"></span>du Huang, Br<span class="_ _1"></span>ian M. Blum, John A. Stankov<span class="_ _1"></span>ic, Tarek Abdel<span class="_ _1"></span>zaher </div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y7 ff4 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y8 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws4">Departm<span class="_ _0"></span>ent of Computer Sc<span class="_ _0"></span>ience, University<span class="_ _1"></span> of Virginia </div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y9 ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws5">151 Engineer's W<span class="_ _0"></span>ay, P.O. Box 400740, Charlottes<span class="_ _0"></span>v<span class="_ _1"></span>ille, Virginia 22904-4740, USA </div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 ya ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws5">{TianHe, c<span class="_ _0"></span>h4pp, bmb5v, Stankovic<span class="_ _0"></span>, Zaher}@cs.virginia.edu </div><div class="t m0 x5 h8 yb ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 xa h9 yc ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws2">ABSTRACT </div><div class="t m0 xa ha yd ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws6">Wirele<span class="_ _1"></span>ss Se<span class="_ _1"></span>nsor Netw<span class="_ _1"></span>orks ha<span class="_ _1"></span>ve bee<span class="_ _1"></span>n proposed for a<span class="_ _1"></span> multitude of<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa ha ye ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws7">location-de<span class="_ _1"></span>pendent <span class="_ _1"></span>applications<span class="_ _1"></span>. For suc<span class="_ _1"></span>h sy<span class="_ _1"></span>stem<span class="_ _1"></span>s, the c<span class="_ _1"></span>ost and </div><div class="t m0 xa ha yf ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws8">limita<span class="_ _1"></span>tions of the<span class="_ _1"></span> hardw<span class="_ _1"></span>are on s<span class="_ _1"></span>ensing node<span class="_ _1"></span>s prev<span class="_ _1"></span>ent the use of </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y10 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws9">range<span class="_ _1"></span>-base<span class="_ _1"></span>d localiza<span class="_ _1"></span>tion sche<span class="_ _1"></span>mes<span class="_ _1"></span> that depe<span class="_ _1"></span>nd on absolute point-</div><div class="t m0 xa ha y11 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls9 wsa">to-po<span class="_ _0"></span>int distance estimates. Becau<span class="_ _0"></span>se coarse accuracy is sufficient </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y12 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa wsb">for m<span class="_ _1"></span>ost sensor netw<span class="_ _1"></span>ork applic<span class="_ _1"></span>ations, solutions<span class="_ _1"></span> in range<span class="_ _1"></span>-fre<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y13 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb wsc">localizat<span class="_ _0"></span>ion are being p<span class="_ _0"></span>ursued as a cost-effective alternati<span class="_ _2"></span>ve to </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y14 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsc wsd">more<span class="_ _1"></span> expens<span class="_ _1"></span>ive rang<span class="_ _1"></span>e-bas<span class="_ _1"></span>ed approac<span class="_ _1"></span>hes. In this<span class="_ _1"></span> paper, w<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y15 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb wse">present<span class="_ _2"></span> APIT, a novel<span class="_ _2"></span> localizat<span class="_ _2"></span>ion al<span class="_ _2"></span>gorith<span class="_ _2"></span>m that is range-f<span class="_ _1"></span>ree. <span class="_ _3"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y16 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsd wsf">We <span class="_ _1"></span>show<span class="_ _1"></span> that <span class="_ _1"></span>our A<span class="_ _1"></span>PIT s<span class="_ _1"></span>chem<span class="_ _1"></span>e per<span class="_ _1"></span>form<span class="_ _1"></span>s be<span class="_ _1"></span>st whe<span class="_ _1"></span>n an irre<span class="_ _1"></span>gular </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y17 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsd ws10">radio <span class="_ _1"></span>pattern a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd random<span class="_ _1"></span> node pl<span class="lse ws11">acement are considered<span class="_ _2"></span>, and<span class="_ _2"></span> low </span></div><div class="t m0 xa ha y18 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lse ws12">communicatio<span class="_ _2"></span>n overhead i<span class="_ _2"></span>s desired.<span class="_ _2"></span> We compare our work via </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y19 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsf ws13">extensive simulatio<span class="_ _2"></span>n, with th<span class="_ _2"></span>ree state-of-the-art<span class="_ _2"></span> range-free </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1a ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws14">localization sc<span class="_ _1"></span>heme<span class="_ _1"></span>s to identify<span class="_ _1"></span> the <span class="_ _1"></span>prefe<span class="_ _1"></span>rable sy<span class="_ _1"></span>stem<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1b ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls11 ws15">configurations of each. In<span class="_ _2"></span> addition<span class="_ _2"></span>, we study the eff<span class="_ _1"></span>ect of </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1c ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls12 ws16">location e<span class="_ _1"></span>rror on routing a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd track<span class="_ _1"></span>ing per<span class="_ _1"></span>form<span class="_ _1"></span>ance<span class="_ _1"></span>. We show that </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1d ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls13 ws17">routi<span class="_ _2"></span>ng p<span class="_ _2"></span>erformance an<span class="_ _2"></span>d t<span class="_ _2"></span>racking accu<span class="_ _2"></span>racy are not sign<span class="_ _2"></span>ificantly </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1e ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsf ws18">affected by localization<span class="_ _2"></span> error when th<span class="_ _2"></span>e error is less th<span class="_ _2"></span>an 0.4<span class="_ _2"></span> ti<span class="_ _2"></span>mes </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y1f ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsa ws19">the com<span class="_ _1"></span>m<span class="_ _1"></span>unication radio r<span class="_ _1"></span>adius. </div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y20 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls14 ws1a">Categor<span class="_ _1"></span>ies and Subject<span class="_ _1"></span> Descr<span class="_ _1"></span>iptors<span class="ff3 fs4 ls1 ws2"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xa hb y21 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls15 ws1b">C.2. [<span class="ff2 ls16 ws1c">Computer Communication Net<span class="_ _2"></span>w<span class="_ _2"></span>orks</span><span class="ls17 ws1d">]: Networ<span class="_ _1"></span>k Protocols <span class="ff5 ls1 ws2"> </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y22 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls18 ws1e">General Terms </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y23 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls19 ws1f">Alg<span class="_ _2"></span>or<span class="_ _2"></span>i<span class="_ _2"></span>th<span class="_ _2"></span>ms,<span class="_ _2"></span> P<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>rfo<span class="_ _2"></span>r<span class="_ _2"></span>man<span class="_ _2"></span>ce<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _2"></span> Des<span class="_ _2"></span>i<span class="_ _2"></span>gn<span class="_ _2"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y24 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1a ws2">Keywords<span class="ff3 fs4 ls1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xa ha y25 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1b ws20">Loca<span class="_ _1"></span>lization, Positioning, L<span class="_ _1"></span>ocation disc<span class="_ _1"></span>overy<span class="_ _1"></span>, Sensor<span class="_ _1"></span> Netw<span class="_ _1"></span>orks</div><div class="t m0 xb hc y26 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2">1</div><div class="t m0 xc ha y27 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 xa ha y28 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws2"> <span class="_ _3"></span><span class="ls1"> </span></div><div class="t m0 xa hc y29 ff3 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2">1</div><div class="t m0 xd ha y2a ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 xe hd y2b ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2">1.<span class="ff1"> <span class="_ _4"> </span></span><span class="ls1d">INTRODUCTION </span></div><div class="t m0 xf ha y2c ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws21">Wire<span class="_ _1"></span>less <span class="_ _1"></span>Sensor Ne<span class="_ _1"></span>twork<span class="_ _1"></span>s (WSN<span class="_ _1"></span>s)<span class="ls1f ws22"> distinguish them<span class="_ _1"></span>selve<span class="_ _1"></span>s from<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y2d ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws23">other traditional w<span class="_ _1"></span>irele<span class="_ _1"></span>ss or w<span class="_ _1"></span>ired ne<span class="_ _1"></span>twork<span class="_ _1"></span>s throug<span class="_ _1"></span>h sensor a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y2e ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls20 ws24">actuator ba<span class="_ _1"></span>sed interac<span class="_ _1"></span>tion with the e<span class="_ _1"></span>nvironm<span class="_ _1"></span>ent. Such networks </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y2f ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls21 ws25">have<span class="_ _1"></span> been propos<span class="_ _1"></span>ed for<span class="_ _1"></span> various<span class="_ _1"></span> applica<span class="_ _1"></span>tions including<span class="_ _1"></span> sear<span class="_ _1"></span>ch and </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y30 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws26">rescue, di<span class="_ _2"></span>saster relief, target t<span class="_ _2"></span>racking, an<span class="_ _2"></span>d smart environ<span class="_ _2"></span>ments. <span class="_ _5"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y31 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb ws27">The inh<span class="_ _2"></span>erent charact<span class="_ _2"></span>eristics of th<span class="_ _2"></span>ese sensor n<span class="_ _2"></span>etworks make a </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y32 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws28">node&#8217;s loc<span class="_ _1"></span>ation an im<span class="_ _1"></span>portant par<span class="_ _1"></span>t of thei<span class="_ _1"></span>r state<span class="_ _1"></span>. For <span class="_ _1"></span>such </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y33 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws29">netw<span class="_ _1"></span>orks, loca<span class="_ _1"></span>tion is being<span class="_ _1"></span> used <span class="ls24 ws2a">(i) to identif<span class="_ _1"></span>y the<span class="_ _1"></span> location a<span class="_ _1"></span>t </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y34 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lse ws2b">which senso<span class="_ _2"></span>r readin<span class="_ _2"></span>gs origin<span class="_ _2"></span>ate, (for example,<span class="_ _2"></span> ident<span class="_ _2"></span>ifying a </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y35 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws2c">target&#8217;s position during<span class="_ _1"></span> tracking<span class="_ _1"></span>, <span class="ls26 ws2d">providing the<span class="_ _1"></span> location of<span class="_ _1"></span> an </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y36 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws2e">earthqua<span class="_ _1"></span>ke s<span class="_ _1"></span>urvivor<span class="_ _1"></span> buried underne<span class="_ _1"></span>ath rubble<span class="_ _1"></span> during dis<span class="_ _1"></span>aste<span class="_ _1"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y37 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws1d">relief<span class="_ _1"></span> operations<span class="_ _1"></span>) (ii) in nove<span class="_ _1"></span>l com<span class="_ _1"></span>munic<span class="_ _1"></span>ation protocols tha<span class="_ _1"></span>t route </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y38 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsc ws2f">to geog<span class="_ _1"></span>raphica<span class="_ _1"></span>l area<span class="_ _1"></span>s inste<span class="_ _1"></span>ad of I<span class="_ _1"></span>Ds ([13], [16]<span class="_ _2"></span>, [17]<span class="_ _2"></span>, [19]<span class="_ _2"></span>, [35]<span class="_ _2"></span>), </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y39 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1c ws30">and (iii) whe<span class="_ _1"></span>n providing other loca<span class="_ _1"></span>tion based serv<span class="_ _1"></span>ices ( such a<span class="_ _1"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3a ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsc ws31">sensing<span class="_ _1"></span> cove<span class="_ _1"></span>rage<span class="_ _1"></span> [36] and location dire<span class="_ _1"></span>ctory<span class="_ _1"></span> serv<span class="_ _1"></span>ice [20] to </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3b ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws32">provide m<span class="_ _1"></span>edic<span class="_ _1"></span>al infor<span class="_ _1"></span>mation a<span class="_ _1"></span>bout a nea<span class="_ _1"></span>rby pa<span class="_ _1"></span>tient in a sm<span class="_ _1"></span>art </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3c ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws33">hospital). <span class="_ _1"></span> In <span class="_ _1"></span>addition to the a<span class="_ _1"></span>pplications a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd protocols m<span class="_ _1"></span>entioned, </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3d ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws34">continued rese<span class="_ _1"></span>arch in WSNs w<span class="_ _1"></span>ill serve<span class="_ _1"></span> to invent <span class="_ _1"></span>and ide<span class="_ _1"></span>ntify<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3e ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls28 ws35">ma<span class="_ _1"></span>ny a<span class="_ _1"></span>dditional protocols and a<span class="ls20 ws36">pplica<span class="_ _1"></span>tions, ma<span class="_ _1"></span>ny of<span class="_ _1"></span> which w<span class="_ _1"></span>ill </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y3f ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws3">likely<span class="_ _1"></span> depe<span class="_ _1"></span>nd on location a<span class="_ _1"></span>war<span class="_ _1"></span>e sens<span class="_ _1"></span>ing dev<span class="_ _1"></span>ices. </div><div class="t m0 xf ha y40 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws37">Many<span class="_ _1"></span> localiza<span class="_ _1"></span>tion algor<span class="_ _1"></span>ithms f<span class="_ _1"></span>or se<span class="_ _1"></span>nsor netw<span class="_ _1"></span>orks<span class="_ _1"></span> have be<span class="_ _1"></span>en </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y41 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws38">proposed to prov<span class="_ _1"></span>ide per-<span class="_ _1"></span>node location inf<span class="_ _1"></span>orm<span class="_ _1"></span>ation. With reg<span class="_ _1"></span>ard </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y42 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws39">to the m<span class="_ _1"></span>echanism<span class="_ _1"></span>s used for e<span class="_ _1"></span>stima<span class="_ _1"></span>ting location, we divide these<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y43 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1e ws3a">localiza<span class="_ _1"></span>tion protocols into tw<span class="_ _1"></span>o cate<span class="_ _1"></span>gories<span class="_ _1"></span>: <span class="ff5 ls2a ws2">range-<span class="_ _1"></span>based<span class="ff3 ws3b"> a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd </span></span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y44 ff5 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws2">range-f<span class="_ _1"></span>ree<span class="ff3 ls22 ws3c">. T<span class="_ _1"></span>he f<span class="_ _1"></span>orme<span class="_ _1"></span>r is def<span class="_ _1"></span>ined by<span class="_ _1"></span> protocols<span class="_ _1"></span> that use absolute </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y45 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws3d">poin<span class="_ _2"></span>t-to-p<span class="_ _2"></span>oin<span class="_ _2"></span>t distan<span class="_ _2"></span>ce estimates (range) or an<span class="_ _2"></span>gle estimates for </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y46 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws3e">calcula<span class="_ _1"></span>ting location. The latter m<span class="_ _1"></span>ak<span class="_ _1"></span>es no as<span class="_ _1"></span>sumption about the<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y47 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2d ws3f">availability or validity of such information. Because of the </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y48 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws40">hardwa<span class="_ _1"></span>re limita<span class="_ _1"></span>tions of W<span class="_ _1"></span>SN device<span class="_ _1"></span>s, solutions in rang<span class="_ _1"></span>e-fre<span class="_ _1"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y49 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsb wsc">localizat<span class="_ _2"></span>ion are b<span class="_ _2"></span>eing p<span class="_ _2"></span>ursued<span class="_ _2"></span> as a cost-effective alternative to </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4a ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 lsd ws41">mor<span class="_ _1"></span>e expe<span class="_ _1"></span>nsive<span class="_ _1"></span> range<span class="_ _1"></span>-base<span class="_ _1"></span>d approac<span class="_ _1"></span>hes. </div><div class="t m0 xf ha y4b ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws42">This paper m<span class="_ _1"></span>ake<span class="_ _1"></span>s three m<span class="_ _1"></span>ajor c<span class="ls20 ws24">ontributions to the localiza<span class="_ _1"></span>tion </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4c ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws43">problem<span class="_ _1"></span> in W<span class="_ _1"></span>SNs. First, w<span class="_ _1"></span>e propos<span class="_ _1"></span>e a nov<span class="_ _1"></span>el rang<span class="_ _1"></span>e-f<span class="_ _1"></span>ree a<span class="_ _1"></span>lgorithm<span class="_ _1"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4d ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls17 ws44">called A<span class="_ _1"></span>PIT, w<span class="_ _1"></span>ith enhanc<span class="_ _1"></span>ed perf<span class="_ _1"></span>orm<span class="_ _1"></span>ance unde<span class="_ _1"></span>r rea<span class="_ _1"></span>listic <span class="_ _1"></span>sys<span class="_ _1"></span>tem<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4e ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws45">config<span class="_ _1"></span>urations. Se<span class="_ _1"></span>cond, thoug<span class="lsc ws46">h m<span class="_ _1"></span>any<span class="_ _1"></span> dif<span class="_ _1"></span>fer<span class="_ _1"></span>ent protoc<span class="_ _1"></span>ols </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y4f ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws47">[3][22]<span class="_ _2"></span>[26] have been pr<span class="_ _1"></span>oposed to solv<span class="_ _1"></span>e the loca<span class="_ _1"></span>lization problem<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y50 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws48">in a <span class="_ _1"></span>rang<span class="_ _1"></span>e-f<span class="_ _1"></span>ree <span class="_ _1"></span>contex<span class="_ _1"></span>t, no prior w<span class="_ _1"></span>ork ha<span class="_ _1"></span>s been done<span class="_ _1"></span> to com<span class="_ _1"></span>pare </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y51 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws49">them in re<span class="_ _1"></span>alistic settings<span class="_ _1"></span>. This <span class="ls24 ws4a">pa<span class="_ _1"></span>per is the f<span class="_ _1"></span>irst to provide a </span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y52 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws4b">realistic a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd detailed quantita<span class="_ _1"></span>tiv<span class="ws4c">e c<span class="_ _1"></span>omparison of<span class="_ _1"></span> ex<span class="_ _1"></span>isting ra<span class="_ _1"></span>nge-</span></div><div class="t m0 xe ha y53 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls26 ws4d">fre<span class="_ _1"></span>e alg<span class="_ _1"></span>orithms<span class="_ _1"></span> to determ<span class="_ _1"></span>ine the <span class="_ _1"></span>sy<span class="_ _1"></span>stem<span class="_ _1"></span> c<span class="_ _1"></span>onfigur<span class="_ _1"></span>ations unde<span class="_ _1"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y54 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws4e">which each is<span class="_ _2"></span> opti<span class="_ _2"></span>mized. We perform such a stu<span class="_ _2"></span>dy to serve as a </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y55 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls33 ws4f">guide f<span class="_ _1"></span>or f<span class="_ _1"></span>uture rese<span class="_ _1"></span>arch. T<span class="_ _1"></span>hird, no attem<span class="_ _1"></span>pt has previously<span class="_ _1"></span> been </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y56 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws50">ma<span class="_ _1"></span>de to broadly<span class="_ _1"></span> study<span class="_ _1"></span> the<span class="_ _1"></span> impac<span class="_ _1"></span>t of loc<span class="_ _1"></span>ation e<span class="_ _1"></span>rror on <span class="_ _1"></span>va<span class="_ _1"></span>rious </div><div class="t m0 xe ha y57 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws51">location-de<span class="_ _1"></span>pendent applic<span class="_ _1"></span>ations <span class="ls27 ws52">a<span class="_ _1"></span>nd protocols. T<span class="_ _1"></span>his pape<span class="_ _1"></span>r </span></div><div class="t m0 x10 he y58 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws53">This w<span class="_ _1"></span>or<span class="_ _1"></span>k was<span class="_ _1"></span> suppor<span class="_ _1"></span>ted in part by<span class="_ _1"></span> NS<span class="_ _1"></span>F g<span class="_ _1"></span>rant CCR-0098269, the<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y59 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws54">MURI<span class="_ _1"></span> aw<span class="_ _1"></span>ard N00014-<span class="_ _1"></span>01-1-0576 f<span class="_ _1"></span>rom O<span class="_ _1"></span>NR, and the<span class="_ _1"></span> DA<span class="_ _1"></span>PRPA<span class="_ _1"></span> I<span class="_ _1"></span>XO<span class="_ _1"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5a ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws55">off<span class="_ _1"></span>ice unde<span class="_ _1"></span>r the N<span class="_ _1"></span>EST<span class="_ _1"></span> proje<span class="_ _1"></span>ct (gr<span class="_ _1"></span>ant numbe<span class="_ _1"></span>r F336615-<span class="_ _1"></span>01-C-1905)<span class="_ _1"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5b ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5c ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5d ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls36 ws56">Permission to make di<span class="_ _2"></span>gital or h<span class="_ _2"></span>ard c<span class="_ _2"></span>opies of a<span class="_ _2"></span>ll or part<span class="_ _2"></span> of thi<span class="_ _2"></span>s work for </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5e ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls37 ws57">person<span class="_ _2"></span>al or cla<span class="_ _2"></span>ssroom u<span class="_ _2"></span>se is<span class="_ _2"></span> grant<span class="_ _2"></span>ed wit<span class="_ _2"></span>hou<span class="_ _2"></span>t fee pr<span class="_ _2"></span>ovided<span class="_ _2"></span> th<span class="_ _2"></span>at c<span class="_ _2"></span>opi<span class="_ _2"></span>es are </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y5f ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls38 ws58">not made<span class="_ _1"></span> or dis<span class="_ _1"></span>tributed f<span class="_ _1"></span>or pro<span class="_ _1"></span>fit or<span class="_ _1"></span> comm<span class="_ _1"></span>ercial<span class="_ _1"></span> adva<span class="_ _1"></span>ntage <span class="_ _1"></span>and that </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y60 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls39 ws59">copies<span class="_ _1"></span> bear this<span class="_ _1"></span> notice and the<span class="_ _1"></span> full<span class="_ _1"></span> citation o<span class="_ _1"></span>n the firs<span class="_ _1"></span>t page. T<span class="_ _1"></span>o co<span class="_ _1"></span>py </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y61 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls34 ws54">othe<span class="_ _1"></span>rw<span class="_ _1"></span>ise, or<span class="_ _1"></span> republish, to pos<span class="_ _1"></span>t on se<span class="_ _1"></span>rve<span class="_ _1"></span>rs o<span class="_ _1"></span>r to r<span class="_ _1"></span>edistr<span class="_ _1"></span>ibute to l<span class="_ _1"></span>ists, </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y62 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3a ws5a">requir<span class="_ _1"></span>es pr<span class="_ _1"></span>ior spe<span class="_ _1"></span>cific pe<span class="_ _1"></span>rmissio<span class="_ _1"></span>n and/or a f<span class="_ _1"></span>ee. </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y63 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3b ws5b">MobiCom &#8217;03<span class="ff3 ls39 ws5c">, Se<span class="_ _1"></span>ptem<span class="_ _1"></span>ber 14-<span class="_ _1"></span>19, 2003, San Die<span class="_ _1"></span>go, Cal<span class="_ _1"></span>ifor<span class="_ _1"></span>nia, USA<span class="_ _1"></span> </span></div><div class="t m0 x10 he y64 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws5d">Copy<span class="_ _1"></span>rig<span class="_ _1"></span>ht 2003 ACM 1-<span class="_ _1"></span>58113-753-2/03/0009&#8230;$5.00. </div><div class="t m0 x10 he y65 ff3 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2"> </div><div class="t m0 x11 ha y66 ff6 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws2">81</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
评论
    相关推荐
    • APIT.rar
      APIT定位算法的matlab程序,APIT是一种经典的无线传感器网络定位算法。
    • APIT.rar
      H:\无线传感器节点的定位算法\APIT算法
    • APIT.zip
      近似三角形内点测试APIT算法,matlab例程,可解压直接用
    • APIT.zip
      APIT定位算法的matlab仿真编码,具体代码段
    • APIT.rar
      无线传感器网络节点定位,借助虚拟节点进行定位
    • APIT.rar
      APTI 基于三角形的无锚点WSN节点定位算法的马特拉布程序
    • APIT.zip
      APIT算法,锚节点比例不同对平均定位误差的影响
    • APIT.zip
      无线传感器网络定位算法中的APIT算法的仿真实例程序。
    • 无线传感器网络无需测距定位算法matlab源代码。包括apit,dv-hop,amorphous在内的共7个range-free
      传感器网络节点定位算法matlab代码(Centroid,APIT,DVHOP, Bounding Box,……共7个) 无线传感器网络无需测距定位算法matlab源代码。包括apit,dv-hop,amorphous在内的共7个range-free算法。在run.m里的算法选择...
    • matlabcnhelp.rar
      matlab中文帮助很难找的,快速下载