A Big Data Architecture Design foR SG.zip

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papers on different types of inverters
A Big Data Architecture Design foR SG.zip
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625bcb05be9ad24cfa31b670/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625bcb05be9ad24cfa31b670/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination.</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc1 sc0 ls1 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _0"> </span>TRANSA<span class="_ _1"></span>CTIONS<span class="_ _0"> </span>ON<span class="_ _0"> </span>SMAR<span class="_ _1"></span>T<span class="_ _0"> </span>GRID<span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls0">1</span></div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">A<span class="_ _3"> </span>Big<span class="_ _3"> </span>Data<span class="_ _3"> </span>Architecture<span class="_ _3"> </span>Design<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>Smart<span class="_ _3"> </span>Grids</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">Based<span class="_ _3"> </span>on<span class="_ _3"> </span>Random<span class="_ _3"> </span>Matrix<span class="_ _3"> </span>Theory</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls3 ws0">Xing<span class="_ _4"> </span>He,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Qian<span class="_ _4"> </span>Ai,<span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="ff2 ls4">Member<span class="_ _5"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1 ls3">,<span class="_ _4"> </span>Robert<span class="_ _4"> </span>Caiming<span class="_ _4"> </span>Qiu,<span class="_ _4"> </span></span><span class="ls5">F<span class="_ _6"></span>ellow<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1 ls4">,<span class="_ _4"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>entao<span class="_ _4"> </span>Huang,</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h5 y6 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Longjian<span class="_ _4"> </span>Piao,<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>Haichun<span class="_ _4"> </span>Liu</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y7 ff3 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4">&#8212;Model-based<span class="_ _7"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _7"> </span>tools,<span class="_ _7"> </span>built<span class="_ _8"> </span>on<span class="_ _8"> </span>assumptions</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y8 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _7"> </span>simpli&#64257;cations,<span class="_ _9"> </span>are<span class="_ _7"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>handle<span class="_ _9"> </span>smart<span class="_ _7"> </span>grids<span class="_ _9"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y9 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls7 ws0">data<span class="_ _8"> </span>characterized<span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _7"> </span>volume,<span class="_ _7"> </span>velocity<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _7"> </span>variety<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>veracity</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 ya ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">(i.e.,<span class="_ _a"> </span>4Vs<span class="_ _a"> </span>data).<span class="_ _a"> </span>This<span class="_ _a"> </span>paper<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _a"> </span>using<span class="_ _a"> </span>random<span class="_ _a"> </span>matrix<span class="_ _a"> </span>theory<span class="_ _a"> </span>(RMT),</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 yb ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">motivates<span class="_ _8"> </span>data-driven<span class="_ _8"> </span>tools<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _8"> </span>perceive<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>complex<span class="_ _7"> </span>grids<span class="_ _8"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 yc ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">high-dimension;<span class="_ _b"> </span>meanwhile,<span class="_ _b"> </span>an<span class="_ _b"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>detailed<span class="_ _b"> </span>pro-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 yd ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">cedures<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>proposed.<span class="_ _b"> </span>In<span class="_ _4"> </span>algorithm<span class="_ _4"> </span>perspective,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _1"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 ye ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">performs<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>high-dimensional<span class="_ _a"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>compares<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64257;ndings</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 yf ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_"> </span>RMT<span class="_"> </span>predictions<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>conduct<span class="_"> </span>anomaly<span class="_"> </span>detections.<span class="_"> </span>Mean<span class="_"> </span>spec-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y10 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tral<span class="_ _c"> </span>radius<span class="_ _c"> </span>(MSR),<span class="_ _c"> </span>as<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>statistical<span class="_ _c"> </span>indicator<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>de&#64257;ned<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>re&#64258;ect</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y11 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>correlations<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>system<span class="_ _c"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>different<span class="_ _a"> </span>dimensions.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _c"> </span>man-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y12 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">agement<span class="_ _c"> </span>mode<span class="_ _c"> </span>perspective,<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>group-work<span class="_ _c"> </span>mode<span class="_ _c"> </span>is<span class="_ _4"> </span>discussed<span class="_ _c"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y13 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">smart<span class="_ _c"> </span>grids<span class="_ _a"> </span>operation.<span class="_ _c"> </span>This<span class="_ _c"> </span>mode<span class="_ _c"> </span>breaks<span class="_ _a"> </span>through<span class="_ _c"> </span>r<span class="_ _1"></span>egional<span class="_ _c"> </span>limi-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y14 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tations<span class="_ _a"> </span>f<span class="_ _1"></span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>energy<span class="_ _0"> </span>&#64258;ows<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>&#64258;ows,<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>makes<span class="_ _a"> </span>advanced<span class="_ _a"> </span>big</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y15 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">data<span class="_"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _d"> </span>possible.<span class="_"> </span>F<span class="_ _6"></span>or<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _d"> </span>large-scale<span class="_"> </span>zone-di<span class="_ _1"></span>viding<span class="_"> </span>sys-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y16 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tem<span class="_ _c"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>multiple<span class="_ _c"> </span>connected<span class="_ _c"> </span>utilities,<span class="_ _a"> </span>each<span class="_ _c"> </span>site,<span class="_ _c"> </span>operating<span class="_ _c"> </span>under</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y17 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _0"> </span>group-work<span class="_ _0"> </span>mode,<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_"> </span>able<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _0"> </span>work<span class="_ _0"> </span>out<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>regional<span class="_ _0"> </span>MSR<span class="_ _a"> </span>only</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y18 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _c"> </span>its<span class="_ _a"> </span>own<span class="_ _c"> </span>measur<span class="_ _6"></span>ed/simulated<span class="_ _c"> </span>data.<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _a"> </span>large-scale<span class="_ _c"> </span>inter<span class="_ _1"></span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y19 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">nected<span class="_ _0"> </span>system,<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _0"> </span>this<span class="_ _a"> </span>way<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _0"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>naturally<span class="_ _0"> </span>decoupled<span class="_ _a"> </span>fr<span class="_ _1"></span>om<span class="_ _0"> </span>statistical</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1a ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls7 ws0">parameters<span class="_ _8"> </span>perspecti<span class="_ _1"></span>ve,<span class="_ _e"> </span>rather<span class="_ _e"> </span>than<span class="_ _e"> </span>from<span class="_ _e"> </span>engineering<span class="_ _e"> </span>models</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1b ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">perspective.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Furthermor<span class="_ _1"></span>e,<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>comparative<span class="_ _4"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _f"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>these<span class="_ _b"> </span>dis-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1c ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tributed<span class="_ _a"> </span>MSRs,<span class="_ _c"> </span>ev<span class="_ _1"></span>en<span class="_ _c"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>imperceptible<span class="_ _c"> </span>differ<span class="_ _1"></span>ent<span class="_ _a"> </span>raw<span class="_ _c"> </span>data,<span class="_ _c"> </span>will</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1d ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">produce<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>contour<span class="_ _a"> </span>line<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>detect<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>event<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>locate<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>source.</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1e ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">It<span class="_"> </span>demonstrates<span class="_"> </span>that<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>compatible<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _0"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>block</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y1f ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">calculation<span class="_ _c"> </span>only<span class="_ _a"> </span>using<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>regional<span class="_ _a"> </span>small<span class="_ _c"> </span>database;<span class="_ _c"> </span>bey<span class="_ _1"></span>ond<span class="_ _c"> </span>that,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y20 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">this<span class="_ _a"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _1"></span>e,<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>data-driven<span class="_ _a"> </span>solution,<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>sensitive<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y21 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">situation<span class="_ _4"> </span>awareness,<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _4"> </span>practical<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>real<span class="_ _4"> </span>large-scale<span class="_ _c"> </span>intercon-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y22 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">nected<span class="_ _0"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Fi<span class="_ _1"></span>ve<span class="_ _0"> </span>case<span class="_ _0"> </span>studies<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>their<span class="_ _a"> </span>visualizations<span class="_ _0"> </span>validate</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y23 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _c"> </span>designed<span class="_ _c"> </span>architectur<span class="_ _1"></span>e<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>various<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#64257;elds<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>power<span class="_ _c"> </span>systems.<span class="_ _c"> </span>T<span class="_ _5"></span>o</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y24 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">our<span class="_ _c"> </span>best<span class="_ _c"> </span>knowledge,<span class="_ _c"> </span>this<span class="_ _c"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _c"> </span>attempt<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>apply<span class="_ _c"> </span>big</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y25 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls6 ws0">data<span class="_ _c"> </span>technology<span class="_ _c"> </span>into<span class="_ _a"> </span>smart<span class="_ _c"> </span>grids.</div><div class="t m0 x7 h6 y26 ff3 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _10"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>erms<span class="ff4">&#8212;Ar<span class="_ _6"></span>chitecture,<span class="_ _10"> </span>big<span class="_ _10"> </span>data,<span class="_ _10"> </span>group-work<span class="_ _10"> </span>mode,</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y27 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">high-dimension,<span class="_ _7"> </span>large-scale<span class="_ _7"> </span>distributed<span class="_ _8"> </span>system,<span class="_ _7"> </span>mean<span class="_ _9"> </span>spectral</div><div class="t m0 x2 h6 y28 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">radius<span class="_ _c"> </span>(MSR),<span class="_ _c"> </span>random<span class="_ _a"> </span>matrix,<span class="_ _c"> </span>smart<span class="_ _c"> </span>grid.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y29 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls8 ws0">I.<span class="_ _e"> </span>I<span class="fs6 ls9">NTRODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h8 y2a ff4 fs7 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">B</div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y2b ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">IG<span class="_ _b"> </span>DA<span class="_ _5"></span>T<span class="_ _11"></span>A<span class="_ _b"> </span>technology<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>new<span class="_ _b"> </span>scienti&#64257;c<span class="_ _f"> </span>trend<span class="_ _c"> </span>[<span class="fc0 ls0">1</span><span class="lsb">],<span class="_ _4"> </span>[<span class="fc0 ls0">2</span><span class="lsc">].</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h7 y2c ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">Driv<span class="_ _6"></span>en<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _a"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>analysis<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>high-dimension,<span class="_ _a"> </span>big<span class="_"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>tech-</div><div class="t m0 x2 h7 y2d ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">nology<span class="_ _e"> </span>works<span class="_ _8"> </span>out<span class="_ _8"> </span>data<span class="_ _e"> </span>correlations<span class="_ _8"> </span>(indicated<span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _8"> </span>statistical</div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y2e ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Manuscript<span class="_ _c"> </span>received<span class="_ _c"> </span>January<span class="_ _c"> </span>30,<span class="_ _c"> </span>2015;<span class="_ _c"> </span>revised<span class="_ _c"> </span>April<span class="_ _c"> </span>15,<span class="_ _c"> </span>2015;<span class="_ _c"> </span>accepted</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y2f ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 lse ws0">June<span class="_ _4"> </span>8,<span class="_ _4"> </span>2015.<span class="_ _4"> </span>This<span class="_ _4"> </span>work<span class="_ _4"> </span>was<span class="_ _4"> </span>supported<span class="_ _4"> </span>by<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>National<span class="_ _4"> </span>Key<span class="_ _4"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>echnology</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y30 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Research<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>De<span class="_ _6"></span>velopment<span class="_ _12"> </span>Program<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>Science<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>echnology<span class="_ _12"> </span>under<span class="_ _0"> </span>Grant</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y31 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 lsf ws0">2013B<span class="_ _1"></span>AA01B04.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Paper<span class="_ _12"> </span>no.<span class="_ _12"> </span>TSG-00106-2015.</div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y32 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls10 ws0">X.<span class="_ _12"> </span>He,<span class="_ _a"> </span>Q.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Ai,<span class="_ _a"> </span>W<span class="_ _6"></span>.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Huang,<span class="_ _a"> </span>L.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Piao,<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>H.<span class="_ _12"> </span>Liu<span class="_ _a"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>Department<span class="_ _a"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y33 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Electrical<span class="_"> </span>Engineering,<span class="_"> </span>Research<span class="_"> </span>Center<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _d"> </span>Big<span class="_ _d"> </span>Data<span class="_ _d"> </span>Engineering<span class="_"> </span>T<span class="_ _11"></span>echnology<span class="_ _1"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y34 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">State<span class="_ _8"> </span>Energy<span class="_ _7"> </span>Smart<span class="_ _8"> </span>Grid<span class="_ _7"> </span>Research<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>Development<span class="_ _8"> </span>Center<span class="_ _1"></span>,<span class="_ _8"> </span>Shanghai</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y35 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Jiaotong<span class="_ _0"> </span>University<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _12"> </span>Shanghai<span class="_ _12"> </span>200240,<span class="_ _0"> </span>China<span class="_ _12"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _12"> </span><span class="fc0 lsf">hexing_hx@126.com</span><span class="lse">).</span></div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y36 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">R.<span class="_ _0"> </span>C.<span class="_ _0"> </span>Qiu<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _0"> </span>with<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _0"> </span>Department<span class="_ _0"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _0"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _0"> </span>Engineering,</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y37 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls10 ws0">T<span class="_ _6"></span>ennessee<span class="_ _b"> </span>T<span class="_ _6"></span>echnological<span class="_ _b"> </span>University<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>Cooke<span class="_ _1"></span>ville,<span class="_ _b"> </span>TN<span class="_ _b"> </span>38505<span class="_ _b"> </span>USA<span class="_ _b"> </span>(e-mail:</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y38 ff1 fs6 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">rqiu@tntech.edu<span class="fc1">).</span></div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y39 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 lse ws0">Color<span class="_ _c"> </span>versions<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>one<span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>more<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#64257;gures<span class="_ _c"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>this<span class="_ _4"> </span>paper<span class="_ _c"> </span>are<span class="_ _c"> </span>av<span class="_ _1"></span>ailable</div><div class="t m0 x2 h9 y3a ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 lse ws0">online<span class="_ _12"> </span>at<span class="_ _12"> </span><span class="fc0 ls0">http://ieeexplore<span class="ff5">.</span><span class="ls11">ieee</span><span class="ff5">.</span><span class="ls2">org</span><span class="fc1">.</span></span></div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y3b ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Digital<span class="_ _12"> </span>Object<span class="_ _12"> </span>Identi&#64257;er<span class="_ _a"> </span>10.1109/TSG.2015.2445828</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y7 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">parameters)<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>gain<span class="_ _a"> </span>insight<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>inherent<span class="_ _a"> </span>mechanisms.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Data-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3c ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">driv<span class="_ _6"></span>en<span class="_ _a"> </span>results<span class="_ _a"> </span>only<span class="_ _a"> </span>rely<span class="_ _a"> </span>on<span class="_ _c"> </span>an<span class="_ _12"> </span>unrestrained<span class="_ _a"> </span>selection<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>system</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3d ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">raw<span class="_ _12"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>(<span class="_ _13"></span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>space<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _a"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>whole<span class="_ _12"> </span>system<span class="_ _a"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>only<span class="_ _12"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>region,<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3e ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">time<span class="_ _c"> </span>can<span class="_ _c"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>long<span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>short,<span class="_ _c"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>size<span class="_ _c"> </span>can<span class="_ _c"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>large<span class="_ _a"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>small)</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y3f ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">and<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>general<span class="_ _b"> </span>statistical<span class="_ _b"> </span>procedure<span class="_ _b"> </span>(for<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _4"> </span>processing).<span class="_ _b"> </span>On</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y40 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">the<span class="_"> </span>other<span class="_"> </span>side,<span class="_ _12"> </span>procedures<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_ _12"> </span>traditional<span class="_"> </span>model-based<span class="_ _12"> </span>analysis,</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y41 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">especially<span class="_ _f"> </span>decoupling<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>practical<span class="_ _f"> </span>interconnected<span class="_ _f"> </span>system,<span class="_ _f"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y42 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">always<span class="_ _14"> </span>based<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_ _14"> </span>assumptions<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>simpli&#64257;cations.<span class="_ _14"> </span>Model-based</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y43 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">results<span class="_ _a"> </span>rely<span class="_ _c"> </span>on<span class="_ _a"> </span>identi&#64257;ed<span class="_ _a"> </span>causalities,<span class="_ _c"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _a"> </span>parameters,<span class="_ _c"> </span>sam-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y44 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">ple<span class="_ _12"> </span>selections,<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>training<span class="_ _a"> </span>processes;<span class="_ _12"> </span>imprecise<span class="_ _12"> </span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>incomplete</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y45 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">formulas/expressions,<span class="_ _c"> </span>biased<span class="_ _c"> </span>sample<span class="_ _c"> </span>selections,<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _c"> </span>improper</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y46 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">training<span class="_ _c"> </span>processes<span class="_ _c"> </span>will<span class="_ _4"> </span>all<span class="_ _c"> </span>lead<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>bad<span class="_ _c"> </span>results.<span class="_ _c"> </span>The<span class="_ _c"> </span>results<span class="_ _4"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y47 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">often<span class="_ _b"> </span>barely<span class="_ _f"> </span>satis&#64257;ed<span class="_ _f"> </span>or<span class="_ _b"> </span>even<span class="_ _b"> </span>unsatis&#64257;ed<span class="_ _b"> </span>as<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>system<span class="_ _f"> </span>size</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y48 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">gro<span class="_ _1"></span>ws<span class="_ _8"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>complexity<span class="_ _8"> </span>increases.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Generally<span class="_ _7"> </span>speaking,<span class="_ _8"> </span>data-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y49 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">driv<span class="_ _6"></span>en<span class="_ _c"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _c"> </span>tools,<span class="_ _c"> </span>rather<span class="_ _c"> </span>than<span class="_ _c"> </span>model-based<span class="_ _c"> </span>ones,<span class="_ _c"> </span>are<span class="_ _c"> </span>more</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y4a ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">suitable<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>complex<span class="_ _b"> </span>large-scale<span class="_ _f"> </span>interconnected<span class="_ _f"> </span>systems<span class="_ _f"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y4b ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">readily<span class="_ _c"> </span>accessible<span class="_ _c"> </span>data.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4c ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">Data<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>power<span class="_ _b"> </span>systems<span class="_ _b"> </span>have<span class="_ _b"> </span>increased<span class="_ _b"> </span>dramatically<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _b"> </span>leav-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y4d ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">ing<span class="_ _7"> </span>gaps<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>challenges;<span class="_ _9"> </span>data<span class="_ _7"> </span>processing<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>major<span class="_ _9"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y4e ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">cern<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>its<span class="_ _8"> </span>urgency<span class="_ _e"> </span>increases<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _e"> </span>data<span class="_ _8"> </span>growth.<span class="_ _e"> </span>The<span class="_ _8"> </span>4Vs</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y4f ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">data<span class="_ _9"> </span>(data<span class="_ _15"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>features<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _15"> </span>volume,<span class="_ _9"> </span>variety<span class="_ _11"></span>,<span class="_ _15"> </span>velocity<span class="_ _11"></span>,<span class="_ _15"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y50 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">veracity)<span class="_ _c"> </span>[<span class="fc0 ls0">3</span>]<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>smart<span class="_ _7"> </span>grids,<span class="_ _9"> </span>which<span class="_ _7"> </span>can<span class="_ _7"> </span>hardly<span class="_ _7"> </span>be<span class="_ _9"> </span>handled</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y51 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">within<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>tolerable<span class="_ _4"> </span>elapsed<span class="_ _c"> </span>time<span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _4"> </span>hardware<span class="_ _c"> </span>resources<span class="_ _c"> </span>by<span class="_ _c"> </span>tra-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y52 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">ditional<span class="_ _c"> </span>model-based<span class="_ _c"> </span>tools,<span class="_ _c"> </span>ha<span class="_ _6"></span>ve<span class="_ _c"> </span>encouraged<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>de<span class="_ _1"></span>velopment</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y53 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls12 ws0">of<span class="_ _7"> </span>an<span class="_ _7"> </span>emerging<span class="_ _7"> </span>paradigm&#8212;big<span class="_ _9"> </span>data<span class="_ _7"> </span>technology<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>po<span class="_ _6"></span>wer</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y54 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _b"> </span>[<span class="fc0">4</span><span class="lsa">]&#8211;[</span><span class="fc0">6</span><span class="lsd">].<span class="_ _b"> </span>Big<span class="_ _f"> </span>data<span class="_ _b"> </span>technology<span class="_ _f"> </span>does<span class="_ _b"> </span>not<span class="_ _f"> </span>con&#64258;ict<span class="_ _b"> </span>with</span></div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y55 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">classical<span class="_ _f"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _e"> </span>or<span class="_ _e"> </span>pretreatments.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Actually<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _e"> </span>big<span class="_ _e"> </span>data<span class="_ _f"> </span>tech-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y56 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">nology<span class="_ _b"> </span>has<span class="_ _f"> </span>already<span class="_ _f"> </span>been<span class="_ _b"> </span>successfully<span class="_ _f"> </span>applied<span class="_ _f"> </span>as<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>powerful</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y57 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls12 ws0">data-driv<span class="_ _6"></span>en<span class="_ _b"> </span>tool<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>numerous<span class="_ _b"> </span>phenomena,<span class="_ _f"> </span>such<span class="_ _b"> </span>as<span class="_ _b"> </span>quantum</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y58 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">systems<span class="_ _c"> </span>[<span class="fc0">7</span><span class="lsa">],<span class="_"> </span>&#64257;nancial<span class="_"> </span>systems<span class="_"> </span>[</span><span class="fc0">8</span><span class="lsb">],<span class="_"> </span>[</span><span class="fc0">9</span><span class="lsa">],<span class="_"> </span>biological<span class="_"> </span>systems<span class="_"> </span>[<span class="fc0 ls13">10</span><span class="lsb">],</span></span></div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y59 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">as<span class="_ _a"> </span>well<span class="_ _a"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _c"> </span>communication<span class="_ _12"> </span>networks<span class="_ _a"> </span>[<span class="fc0 ls13">11</span><span class="ls0">]&#8211;[<span class="fc0 ls13">13</span>].<span class="_ _a"> </span>Major</span></div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y5a ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">tasks<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>architecture<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _8"> </span>these<span class="_ _7"> </span>applications<span class="_ _7"> </span>seem<span class="_ _7"> </span>simi-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y5b ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">lar:<span class="_ _7"> </span>1)<span class="_ _7"> </span>big<span class="_ _9"> </span>data<span class="_ _7"> </span>modeling;<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>2)<span class="_ _7"> </span>big<span class="_ _7"> </span>data<span class="_ _9"> </span>analysis.<span class="_ _8"> </span>It<span class="_ _9"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y5c ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">belie<span class="_ _1"></span>ved<span class="_ _9"> </span>that<span class="_ _16"> </span>big<span class="_ _15"> </span>data<span class="_ _15"> </span>technology<span class="_ _16"> </span>will<span class="_ _15"> </span>also<span class="_ _15"> </span>have<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _16"> </span>wide</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y5d ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">applied<span class="_ _15"> </span>scope<span class="_ _15"> </span>in<span class="_ _15"> </span>power<span class="_ _15"> </span>systems,<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _16"> </span>results<span class="_ _9"> </span>will<span class="_ _16"> </span>be</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y5e ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls14 ws0">fruitful.</div><div class="t m0 xb ha y5f ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">A.<span class="_ _e"> </span>Contribution</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y60 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">This<span class="_ _c"> </span>paper<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>aiming<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>apply<span class="_ _c"> </span>big<span class="_ _c"> </span>data<span class="_ _c"> </span>technology<span class="_ _a"> </span>into<span class="_ _c"> </span>smart</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y61 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">grids,<span class="_ _8"> </span>proposes<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>feasible<span class="_ _8"> </span>architecture<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _8"> </span>detailed<span class="_ _7"> </span>proce-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y62 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">dures.<span class="_ _4"> </span>Firstly<span class="_ _6"></span>,<span class="_ _4"> </span>we<span class="_ _4"> </span>introduce<span class="_ _b"> </span>random<span class="_ _4"> </span>matrix<span class="_ _4"> </span>theory<span class="_ _4"> </span>(RMT)<span class="_ _b"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y63 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">our<span class="_ _c"> </span>mathematical<span class="_ _c"> </span>foundations.<span class="_ _a"> </span>According<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>RMT<span class="_ _11"></span>,<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>standard</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y64 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">random<span class="_ _b"> </span>matrix<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>systematically<span class="_ _b"> </span>formed<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>map<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>system.</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y65 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsd ws0">Then,<span class="_ _8"> </span>we<span class="_ _8"> </span>conduct<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>high-dimensional<span class="_ _8"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _8"> </span>com-</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y66 ff1 fs5 fc1 sc0 lsa ws0">pare<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>&#64257;ndings<span class="_ _c"> </span>[i.e.,<span class="_ _4"> </span>empirical<span class="_ _c"> </span>spectrum<span class="_ _4"> </span>density<span class="_ _c"> </span>(ESD)<span class="_ _c"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xd h9 y67 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">1949-3053</div><div class="t m0 xe h9 y68 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">c</div><div class="t m0 xf h9 y67 ff6 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#58882;<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff1">2015<span class="_ _12"> </span>IEEE.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Personal<span class="_ _12"> </span>use<span class="_ _12"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>permitted,<span class="_ _12"> </span>but<span class="_ _12"> </span>republication/redistribution<span class="_ _0"> </span>requires<span class="_ _a"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _12"> </span>permission.</span></div><div class="t m0 x10 h9 y69 ff1 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls15 ws0">See<span class="_ _12"> </span><span class="fc0 ls0">http://www<span class="_ _6"></span>.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html<span class="_ _0"> </span><span class="fc1 lse">for<span class="_ _a"> </span>more<span class="_ _12"> </span>information.</span></span></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><div class="d m1"></div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m1"></div></a></div><div class="pi" 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