Optics_for_fiber_laser_applications.zip

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Optics_for_fiber_laser_applications
Optics_for_fiber_laser_applications.zip
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6258e9ad92dc900e62b305c9/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6258e9ad92dc900e62b305c9/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _0"></span>m<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>c<span class="_ _0"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>(<span class="_ _0"></span>5<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span>5<span class="_ _0"></span>)<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>2<span class="_ _0"></span>9<span class="_ _0"></span>6<span class="_ _0"></span>-<span class="_ _0"></span>9<span class="_ _0"></span>5<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span>1<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff2"> <span class="_ _1"> </span>|<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>E<span class="_ _0"></span>u<span class="_ _0"></span>r<span class="_ _0"></span>o<span class="_ _0"></span>p<span class="_ _0"></span>e<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>+<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>(<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span>)<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>1<span class="_ _0"></span>6<span class="_ _0"></span>2<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>6<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span>7<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff2"> <span class="_ _1"> </span>|<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>A<span class="_ _0"></span>s<span class="_ _0"></span>i<span class="_ _0"></span>a<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>+<span class="_ _0"></span>8<span class="_ _0"></span>2<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>(<span class="_ _0"></span>0<span class="_ _0"></span>3<span class="_ _0"></span>2<span class="_ _0"></span>)<span class="_ _0"></span> <span class="_ _1"> </span>6<span class="_ _0"></span>7<span class="_ _0"></span>3<span class="_ _0"></span>-<span class="_ _0"></span>6<span class="_ _0"></span>1<span class="_ _0"></span>1<span class="_ _0"></span>4<span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ff2"> <span class="_"> </span>|<span class="_ _0"></span>&#987044;<span class="_ _2"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987058;</span><span class="_ _4"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987111;</span><span class="_ _5"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987130;</span><span class="_ _5"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987117;</span><span class="_ _6"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987120;</span><span class="_ _6"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987109;</span><span class="_ _5"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987127;</span><span class="_ _7"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987113;</span><span class="_ _8"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987126;</span><span class="_ _9"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987058;</span><span class="_ _4"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987111;</span><span class="_ _5"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987123;</span><span class="_ _a"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987121;</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h3 y2 ff3 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Optics for Fiber Laser Applications </div><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y3 ff2 fs0 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">by Emily Kubacki and Lynore M Abbott, CVI Laser, LLC</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y4 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Technical Reference</div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y5 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Document #20050415</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff4 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Figure<span class="_ _b"></span> 1<span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ff1">: This<span class="_ _b"></span> f<span class="_ _b"></span>igure<span class="_ _b"></span> de<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ail<span class="_ _b"></span>s </span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y7 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>e varia<span class="_ _b"></span>ble<span class="_ _b"></span>s u<span class="_ _b"></span>se<span class="_ _b"></span>d to c<span class="_ _b"></span>al<span class="_ _b"></span>cula<span class="_ _b"></span>te </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y8 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>e foc<span class="_ _b"></span>us<span class="_ _b"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"></span> be<span class="_ _b"></span>am diam<span class="_ _b"></span>ete<span class="_ _b"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y9 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">for a g<span class="_ _b"></span>iven <span class="_ _b"></span>len<span class="_ _b"></span>s fo<span class="_ _b"></span>cal<span class="_ _b"></span> len<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h, </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 ya ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">wavelen<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h, co<span class="_ _b"></span>llimate<span class="_ _b"></span>d b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 yb ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">diame<span class="_ _b"></span>ter<span class="_ _c"></span>, and M</div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 yc ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 yd ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> value.<span class="_ _b"></span> The </div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 ye ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>eor<span class="_ _b"></span>et<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>al limit<span class="_ _b"></span> of <span class="_ _b"></span>M</div><div class="t m0 x7 h5 yf ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x8 h4 y10 ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> is 1</div><div class="t m0 x9 h6 y11 ff1 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">continued</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y12 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fibe<span class="_ _b"></span>r la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>have foun<span class="_ _b"></span>d a p<span class="_ _b"></span>ro<span class="_ _b"></span>ce<span class="_ _b"></span>ss<span class="_ _b"></span>ing a<span class="_ _b"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y13 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">res<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>arch<span class="_ _b"></span> nich<span class="_ _b"></span>e w<span class="_ _b"></span>her<span class="_ _b"></span>e N<span class="_ _b"></span>d:<span class="_ _c"></span>Y<span class="_ _c"></span>AG las<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>rs<span class="_ _b"></span> are<span class="_ _b"></span> to<span class="_ _b"></span>o </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y14 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">exp<span class="_ _b"></span>en<span class="_ _b"></span>sive<span class="_ _b"></span> or h<span class="_ _b"></span>ave b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam p<span class="_ _b"></span>rop<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _0"></span>ties<span class="_ _b"></span> whic<span class="_ _b"></span>h </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y15 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">are u<span class="_ _b"></span>nde<span class="_ _b"></span>sir<span class="_ _b"></span>abl<span class="_ _b"></span>e (<span class="_ _b"></span>e.g. lar<span class="_ _b"></span>ge<span class="_ _b"></span> M</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y16 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xb h7 y17 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> valu<span class="_ _b"></span>es<span class="_ _b"></span>). <span class="_ _b"></span>Us<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y18 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er l<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s may b<span class="_ _b"></span>e c<span class="_ _b"></span>on<span class="_ _b"></span>cer<span class="_ _b"></span>ne<span class="_ _b"></span>d wi<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y19 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">inter<span class="_ _b"></span>chan<span class="_ _b"></span>geab<span class="_ _b"></span>ilit<span class="_ _0"></span>y of t<span class="_ _b"></span>heir <span class="_ _b"></span>exis<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ing<span class="_ _b"></span> sup<span class="_ _b"></span>pl<span class="_ _b"></span>y of </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">opt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>al<span class="_ _b"></span> co<span class="_ _b"></span>mpo<span class="_ _b"></span>nen<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span> or h<span class="_ _b"></span>ow t<span class="_ _b"></span>o sp<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>cif<span class="_ _0"></span>y new </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">opt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>. Thi<span class="_ _b"></span>s ar<span class="_ _0"></span>ticl<span class="_ _b"></span>e ad<span class="_ _b"></span>dr<span class="_ _b"></span>es<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>es s<span class="_ _b"></span>uc<span class="_ _b"></span>h ar<span class="_ _b"></span>ea<span class="_ _b"></span>s of<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">con<span class="_ _b"></span>cer<span class="_ _b"></span>n an<span class="_ _b"></span>d hig<span class="_ _b"></span>hlig<span class="_ _b"></span>ht<span class="_ _0"></span>s which <span class="_ _b"></span>char<span class="_ _b"></span>ac<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>eris<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">sho<span class="_ _b"></span>uld <span class="_ _b"></span>be<span class="_ _b"></span> sp<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>cif<span class="_ _b"></span>ie<span class="_ _b"></span>d p<span class="_ _b"></span>ar<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>ularl<span class="_ _b"></span>y c<span class="_ _b"></span>ar<span class="_ _b"></span>eful<span class="_ _b"></span>ly<span class="_ _c"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1e ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fiber <span class="_ _b"></span>lase<span class="_ _b"></span>rs <span class="_ _b"></span>are <span class="_ _b"></span>gaini<span class="_ _b"></span>ng gr<span class="_ _b"></span>ound <span class="_ _b"></span>in a va<span class="_ _b"></span>riet<span class="_ _0"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y1f ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of ap<span class="_ _b"></span>plic<span class="_ _b"></span>ati<span class="_ _b"></span>ons su<span class="_ _b"></span>ch a<span class="_ _b"></span>s dril<span class="_ _b"></span>ling<span class="_ _b"></span>, we<span class="_ _b"></span>lding<span class="_ _b"></span>, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y20 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">foil cu<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ting<span class="_ _b"></span>,<span class="_ _b"></span> las<span class="_ _b"></span>er ma<span class="_ _b"></span>rking<span class="_ _b"></span>, <span class="_ _b"></span>and p<span class="_ _b"></span>re<span class="_ _b"></span>cise </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y21 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">micr<span class="_ _b"></span>o<span class="_ _b"></span>-mac<span class="_ _b"></span>hining.<span class="ff2 fc1"> <span class="_ _b"></span>Res<span class="_ _b"></span>earc<span class="_ _b"></span>h s<span class="_ _b"></span>cie<span class="_ _b"></span>nt<span class="_ _b"></span>is<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _0"></span>s are al<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>o </span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y22 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">fin<span class="_ _b"></span>ding <span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>hem v<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>y<span class="_ _b"></span> us<span class="_ _b"></span>ef<span class="_ _b"></span>ul a<span class="_ _b"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>so<span class="_ _b"></span>urce<span class="_ _b"></span>s b<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>aus<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y23 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span>ir sm<span class="_ _b"></span>all fo<span class="_ _b"></span>ot<span class="_ _b"></span>p<span class="_ _b"></span>rint<span class="_ _0"></span>s and l<span class="_ _b"></span>ow M</div><div class="t m0 xc h8 y24 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y25 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> valu<span class="_ _b"></span>es<span class="_ _b"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y26 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _b"></span>suc<span class="_ _b"></span>ce<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>s of f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>is b<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed <span class="_ _b"></span>on t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>eir </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y27 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">unique<span class="_ _b"></span> com<span class="_ _b"></span>binat<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n of <span class="_ _b"></span>be<span class="_ _b"></span>am c<span class="_ _b"></span>harac<span class="_ _0"></span>teris<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y28 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">unavailab<span class="_ _b"></span>le <span class="_ _b"></span>fro<span class="_ _b"></span>m ot<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>er s<span class="_ _b"></span>our<span class="_ _b"></span>ce<span class="_ _b"></span>s in t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e s<span class="_ _b"></span>am<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y29 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">wavele<span class="_ _b"></span>ng<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span> rang<span class="_ _b"></span>e: <span class="_ _b"></span>opt<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>nal C<span class="_ _0"></span>W or pul<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">op<span class="_ _b"></span>erat<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n, po<span class="_ _b"></span>lari<span class="_ _b"></span>z<span class="_ _b"></span>ati<span class="_ _b"></span>on c<span class="_ _b"></span>ont<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>ol (<span class="_ _b"></span>ran<span class="_ _b"></span>dom, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">linea<span class="_ _b"></span>r or <span class="_ _b"></span>circu<span class="_ _b"></span>lar), nar<span class="_ _b"></span>row s<span class="_ _b"></span>p<span class="_ _b"></span>ec<span class="_ _0"></span>tral b<span class="_ _b"></span>an<span class="_ _b"></span>dwi<span class="_ _b"></span>dt<span class="_ _b"></span>h, </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _b"></span>TEM</div><div class="t m0 xe h9 y2d ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">00</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y2e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> M</div><div class="t m0 x10 h8 y2f ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x11 h7 y2e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> valu<span class="_ _b"></span>es <span class="_ _b"></span>app<span class="_ _b"></span>roa<span class="_ _b"></span>ching <span class="_ _b"></span>1<span class="_ _c"></span>. Wit<span class="_ _b"></span>h </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y30 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">suc<span class="_ _b"></span>h an <span class="_ _b"></span>improv<span class="_ _b"></span>emen<span class="_ _b"></span>t of <span class="_ _b"></span>M</div><div class="t m0 x12 h8 y31 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x13 h7 y32 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> over N<span class="_ _b"></span>d:Y<span class="_ _d"></span>AG </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y33 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s, s<span class="_ _b"></span>ignif<span class="_ _b"></span>i<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>ant<span class="_ _b"></span>ly <span class="_ _b"></span>high<span class="_ _b"></span>er p<span class="_ _b"></span>ower<span class="_ _b"></span> de<span class="_ _b"></span>nsi<span class="_ _b"></span>ti<span class="_ _b"></span>es </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y34 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ca<span class="_ _b"></span>n b<span class="_ _b"></span>e re<span class="_ _b"></span>ali<span class="_ _b"></span>zed. M<span class="_ _b"></span>or<span class="_ _b"></span>e t<span class="_ _b"></span>igh<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ly fo<span class="_ _b"></span>cu<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed <span class="_ _b"></span>be<span class="_ _b"></span>ams </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y35 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">are p<span class="_ _b"></span>o<span class="_ _b"></span>ss<span class="_ _b"></span>ibl<span class="_ _b"></span>e, res<span class="_ _b"></span>ult<span class="_ _b"></span>ing <span class="_ _b"></span>in s<span class="_ _b"></span>harp<span class="_ _b"></span>er <span class="_ _b"></span>image<span class="_ _b"></span>s fo<span class="_ _b"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y36 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">mark<span class="_ _b"></span>ing a<span class="_ _b"></span>nd f<span class="_ _b"></span>in<span class="_ _b"></span>er c<span class="_ _b"></span>ut<span class="_ _0"></span>s for micr<span class="_ _b"></span>omac<span class="_ _b"></span>hining. </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y37 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Manuf<span class="_ _b"></span>ac<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>uring<span class="_ _b"></span> wor<span class="_ _b"></span>king <span class="_ _b"></span>dis<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>nce<span class="_ _b"></span>s c<span class="_ _b"></span>an<span class="_ _b"></span> al<span class="_ _b"></span>so<span class="_ _b"></span> b<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y38 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">incr<span class="_ _b"></span>ea<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>d. Thu<span class="_ _b"></span>s, t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e mar<span class="_ _b"></span>ketp<span class="_ _b"></span>lac<span class="_ _b"></span>e i<span class="_ _b"></span>s exp<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ing </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y39 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">to f<span class="_ _b"></span>ace <span class="_ _b"></span>a gr<span class="_ _b"></span>owing<span class="_ _b"></span> dem<span class="_ _b"></span>and <span class="_ _b"></span>in d<span class="_ _b"></span>edic<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>te<span class="_ _b"></span>d </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">opt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>al<span class="_ _b"></span> co<span class="_ _b"></span>mpo<span class="_ _b"></span>nen<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span> de<span class="_ _b"></span>sig<span class="_ _b"></span>ne<span class="_ _b"></span>d for<span class="_ _b"></span> f<span class="_ _b"></span>ibe<span class="_ _b"></span>r la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">app<span class="_ _b"></span>lic<span class="_ _b"></span>at<span class="_ _b"></span>ion<span class="_ _b"></span>s.</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y3c ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1 <span class="_ _e"> </span>Ef<span class="_ _b"></span>fe<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>ts<span class="_ _b"></span> of B<span class="_ _b"></span>eam<span class="_ _b"></span> Qua<span class="_ _b"></span>lit<span class="_ _b"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The <span class="_ _b"></span>com<span class="_ _b"></span>po<span class="_ _b"></span>nent<span class="_ _b"></span> s<span class="_ _b"></span>ele<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n pr<span class="_ _b"></span>oc<span class="_ _b"></span>es<span class="_ _b"></span>s i<span class="_ _b"></span>s h<span class="_ _b"></span>eavily<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">inf<span class="_ _b"></span>luen<span class="_ _b"></span>ce<span class="_ _b"></span>d by <span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>he hig<span class="_ _b"></span>h p<span class="_ _b"></span>ower<span class="_ _b"></span> de<span class="_ _b"></span>nsi<span class="_ _b"></span>ti<span class="_ _b"></span>es </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y3f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">achiev<span class="_ _b"></span>abl<span class="_ _b"></span>e w<span class="_ _b"></span>it<span class="_ _b"></span>h f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er <span class="_ _b"></span>la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s. <span class="_ _b"></span>The<span class="_ _b"></span> op<span class="_ _b"></span>ti<span class="_ _b"></span>ca<span class="_ _b"></span>l c<span class="_ _b"></span>avit<span class="_ _0"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y40 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of a f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er <span class="_ _b"></span>is t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er c<span class="_ _b"></span>or<span class="_ _b"></span>e w<span class="_ _b"></span>hich c<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>n b<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y41 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">de<span class="_ _b"></span>sig<span class="_ _b"></span>ne<span class="_ _b"></span>d to<span class="_ _b"></span> minimize t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e numb<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> of m<span class="_ _b"></span>od<span class="_ _b"></span>es,<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y42 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">thu<span class="_ _b"></span>s a<span class="_ _b"></span>llowi<span class="_ _b"></span>ng man<span class="_ _b"></span>ufac<span class="_ _0"></span>turer<span class="_ _b"></span>s t<span class="_ _b"></span>o co<span class="_ _b"></span>mmer<span class="_ _b"></span>ciall<span class="_ _b"></span>y </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y43 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">pro<span class="_ _b"></span>duc<span class="_ _b"></span>e la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>s wi<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h M</div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y44 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y45 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> = 1<span class="_ _c"></span>.05. M</div><div class="t m0 x15 h8 y44 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x16 h7 y45 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> is t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y46 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">rat<span class="_ _b"></span>io o<span class="_ _b"></span>f t<span class="_ _b"></span>he <span class="_ _b"></span>la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er b<span class="_ _b"></span>ea<span class="_ _b"></span>m&#8217;<span class="_ _d"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>mult<span class="_ _b"></span>imo<span class="_ _b"></span>de<span class="_ _b"></span> diame<span class="_ _b"></span>ter-</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y47 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">diver<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>enc<span class="_ _b"></span>e pr<span class="_ _b"></span>od<span class="_ _b"></span>uc<span class="_ _b"></span>t <span class="_ _b"></span>to t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e id<span class="_ _b"></span>eal <span class="_ _b"></span>dif<span class="_ _b"></span>f<span class="_ _b"></span>rac<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y48 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">limite<span class="_ _b"></span>d (<span class="_ _b"></span>T<span class="_ _b"></span>EM</div><div class="t m0 x17 h9 y49 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">00</div><div class="t m0 x18 h7 y4a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">) b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam di<span class="_ _b"></span>amet<span class="_ _b"></span>er-di<span class="_ _b"></span>ver<span class="_ _b"></span>ge<span class="_ _b"></span>nce<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y4b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">pro<span class="_ _b"></span>duc<span class="_ _0"></span>t: </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y4c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _10"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> (1)</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y4d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Whe<span class="_ _b"></span>re <span class="ff5">&#920;</span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h9 y4e ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x1a h7 y4f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> is t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam<span class="_ _b"></span> dive<span class="_ _b"></span>rg<span class="_ _b"></span>enc<span class="_ _b"></span>e in </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y50 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">millira<span class="_ _b"></span>dians <span class="_ _b"></span>and<span class="_ _b"></span> <span class="ff1">w</span></div><div class="t m0 x1b h9 y51 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x1c h7 y52 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> is t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e w<span class="_ _b"></span>idt<span class="_ _b"></span>h <span class="_ _b"></span>of t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e ou<span class="_ _b"></span>tp<span class="_ _b"></span>ut </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y53 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">be<span class="_ _b"></span>am wai<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>t (<span class="_ _b"></span>if t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span> b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam i<span class="_ _b"></span>s cir<span class="_ _b"></span>cular<span class="_ _c"></span>, t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span>n <span class="ff1">w</span></div><div class="t m0 x1d h9 y54 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x1e h7 y55 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y56 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ca<span class="_ _b"></span>n b<span class="_ _b"></span>e re<span class="_ _b"></span>pla<span class="_ _b"></span>ce<span class="_ _b"></span>d by t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam <span class="_ _b"></span>diame<span class="_ _b"></span>ter <span class="_ _b"></span>d</div><div class="t m0 x1f h9 y57 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x20 h7 y58 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">). </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y59 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Or fo<span class="_ _b"></span>r t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span> achi<span class="_ _b"></span>evab<span class="_ _b"></span>le fo<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>al s<span class="_ _b"></span>p<span class="_ _b"></span>ot di<span class="_ _b"></span>amet<span class="_ _b"></span>er d</div><div class="t m0 x1e h9 y5a ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x21 h7 y5b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">:</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y5c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _10"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> (2)</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y5d ff3 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Figur<span class="_ _b"></span>e 1<span class="ff2"> il<span class="_ _b"></span>lus<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>ra<span class="_ _b"></span>te<span class="_ _b"></span>s t<span class="_ _b"></span>he <span class="_ _b"></span>par<span class="_ _b"></span>amet<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s u<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed </span></div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y5e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">in eq<span class="_ _b"></span>uat<span class="_ _b"></span>ion <span class="_ _b"></span>(2). Fib<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er m<span class="_ _b"></span>anuf<span class="_ _b"></span>ac<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>urer<span class="_ _b"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y5f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">t<span class="_ _b"></span>y<span class="_ _b"></span>pic<span class="_ _b"></span>all<span class="_ _b"></span>y p<span class="_ _b"></span>rovi<span class="_ _b"></span>de a<span class="_ _b"></span> b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam d<span class="_ _b"></span>eli<span class="_ _b"></span>ver<span class="_ _b"></span>y<span class="_ _b"></span> hea<span class="_ _b"></span>d w<span class="_ _b"></span>it<span class="_ _b"></span>h a </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y60 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">coll<span class="_ _b"></span>imate<span class="_ _b"></span>d o<span class="_ _b"></span>ut<span class="_ _b"></span>pu<span class="_ _b"></span>t b<span class="_ _b"></span>et<span class="_ _0"></span>ween 5mm an<span class="_ _b"></span>d 20<span class="_ _b"></span>mm </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y61 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">in diam<span class="_ _b"></span>ete<span class="_ _b"></span>r (<span class="_ _b"></span>D</div><div class="t m0 x18 h9 y62 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x22 h7 y63 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">). C<span class="_ _b"></span>al<span class="_ _b"></span>culat<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>ns <span class="_ _b"></span>show<span class="_ _b"></span> t<span class="_ _b"></span>hat a </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y64 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>eo<span class="_ _b"></span>ret<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>l fo<span class="_ _b"></span>ca<span class="_ _b"></span>l s<span class="_ _b"></span>po<span class="_ _b"></span>t diam<span class="_ _b"></span>ete<span class="_ _b"></span>r d</div><div class="t m0 x23 h9 y65 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x24 h7 y66 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> of 10&#181;<span class="_ _b"></span>m </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y67 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is a<span class="_ _b"></span>chiev<span class="_ _b"></span>abl<span class="_ _b"></span>e wi<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>h a 1<span class="_ _c"></span>9mm fo<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>al l<span class="_ _b"></span>eng<span class="_ _0"></span>th l<span class="_ _b"></span>ens<span class="_ _b"></span>. </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y68 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _b"></span>refor<span class="_ _b"></span>e, for a 50W <span class="_ _b"></span>fi<span class="_ _b"></span>be<span class="_ _b"></span>r la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> at 10<span class="_ _c"></span>75<span class="_ _c"></span>nm, </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y69 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>e fo<span class="_ _b"></span>cus<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>d b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam<span class="_ _b"></span> pa<span class="_ _b"></span>ck<span class="_ _b"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>tr<span class="_ _b"></span>eme<span class="_ _b"></span>nd<span class="_ _b"></span>ous<span class="_ _b"></span> op<span class="_ _b"></span>ti<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>al </div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y6a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">powe<span class="_ _b"></span>r de<span class="_ _b"></span>ns<span class="_ _b"></span>it<span class="_ _b"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x14 h7 y6b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _f"> </span> <span class="_ _10"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> <span class="_ _11"> </span> (3<span class="_ _b"></span>)</div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y6c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mor<span class="_ _b"></span>e c<span class="_ _b"></span>ombin<span class="_ _b"></span>ati<span class="_ _b"></span>on<span class="_ _b"></span>s are<span class="_ _b"></span> gi<span class="_ _b"></span>ven in<span class="_ _b"></span> <span class="ff3">t<span class="_ _b"></span>able<span class="_ _b"></span> 1<span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ff2">. <span class="_ _b"></span>Whil<span class="_ _b"></span>e </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y6d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>e b<span class="_ _b"></span>eam<span class="_ _b"></span> s<span class="_ _b"></span>te<span class="_ _b"></span>ering<span class="_ _b"></span> op<span class="_ _b"></span>ti<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>s may n<span class="_ _b"></span>ever <span class="_ _b"></span>se<span class="_ _b"></span>e a<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y6e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">pe<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>fec<span class="_ _0"></span>tly <span class="_ _b"></span>focu<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"></span> sp<span class="_ _b"></span>ot<span class="_ _b"></span>, t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>ere <span class="_ _b"></span>is a<span class="_ _b"></span> s<span class="_ _b"></span>afet<span class="_ _0"></span>y fac<span class="_ _b"></span>to<span class="_ _b"></span>r </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y6f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tha<span class="_ _b"></span>t t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span> de<span class="_ _b"></span>sig<span class="_ _b"></span>n en<span class="_ _b"></span>gine<span class="_ _b"></span>er <span class="_ _b"></span>will <span class="_ _b"></span>want<span class="_ _b"></span> to t<span class="_ _0"></span>ake into </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y70 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">acc<span class="_ _b"></span>ount;<span class="_ _b"></span> t<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e hig<span class="_ _b"></span>h, dif<span class="_ _b"></span>fr<span class="_ _b"></span>ac<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n limit<span class="_ _b"></span>ed<span class="_ _b"></span> pow<span class="_ _b"></span>er </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y71 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">den<span class="_ _b"></span>sit<span class="_ _b"></span>ie<span class="_ _b"></span>s may <span class="_ _b"></span>imping<span class="_ _b"></span>e on<span class="_ _b"></span> opt<span class="_ _b"></span>i<span class="_ _b"></span>ca<span class="_ _b"></span>l el<span class="_ _b"></span>eme<span class="_ _b"></span>nt<span class="_ _0"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y72 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">during <span class="_ _b"></span>alig<span class="_ _b"></span>nmen<span class="_ _b"></span>t.<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y73 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">For l<span class="_ _b"></span>ow en<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>y <span class="_ _b"></span>pul<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>ed f<span class="_ _b"></span>ib<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span> la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>s <span class="_ _b"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y74 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">mid-<span class="_ _b"></span>ra<span class="_ _b"></span>nge <span class="_ _b"></span>C<span class="_ _b"></span>W la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>rs<span class="_ _b"></span> (o<span class="_ _b"></span>n t<span class="_ _b"></span>he <span class="_ _b"></span>ord<span class="_ _b"></span>er o<span class="_ _b"></span>f 1-5W </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y75 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">averag<span class="_ _b"></span>e p<span class="_ _b"></span>ower), N<span class="_ _b"></span>-<span class="_ _b"></span>BK<span class="_ _b"></span>7 g<span class="_ _b"></span>la<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>s f<span class="_ _b"></span>rom <span class="_ _b"></span>Sc<span class="_ _b"></span>hot<span class="_ _0"></span>t </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y76 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987052;</span><span class="_ _4"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _3"></span><span class="fc2 sc0">&#987131;</span><span class="_ _12"></span>&#987058;<span class="_ _4"></span>&#987127;<span class="_ _7"></span>ch<span class="_ _b"></span>ot<span class="_ _0"></span>t.de) <span class="_ _b"></span>is a<span class="_ _b"></span> suit<span class="_ _0"></span>able a<span class="_ _b"></span>nd in<span class="_ _b"></span>exp<span class="_ _b"></span>en<span class="_ _b"></span>si<span class="_ _b"></span>ve </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y77 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">sub<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>rat<span class="_ _b"></span>e mat<span class="_ _b"></span>erial<span class="_ _b"></span> for b<span class="_ _b"></span>ot<span class="_ _b"></span>h <span class="_ _b"></span>ref<span class="_ _b"></span>l<span class="_ _b"></span>ec<span class="_ _0"></span>tive a<span class="_ _b"></span>nd </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y78 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tr<span class="_ _b"></span>ans<span class="_ _b"></span>mis<span class="_ _b"></span>si<span class="_ _b"></span>ve o<span class="_ _b"></span>pt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>s w<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span>re t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e en<span class="_ _b"></span>er<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>y<span class="_ _b"></span> at t<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span>e </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y79 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">opt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>al<span class="_ _b"></span> sur<span class="_ _0"></span>face is<span class="_ _b"></span> &lt;5<span class="_ _c"></span>0MW<span class="_ _b"></span>/cm</div><div class="t m0 x26 h8 y7a ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x27 h7 y7b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">. N<span class="_ _b"></span>-<span class="_ _b"></span>BK<span class="_ _b"></span>7 i<span class="_ _b"></span>s a </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y7c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">bo<span class="_ _b"></span>ros<span class="_ _b"></span>ilic<span class="_ _b"></span>at<span class="_ _b"></span>e cr<span class="_ _b"></span>own <span class="_ _b"></span>opt<span class="_ _b"></span>ic<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>l gl<span class="_ _b"></span>a<span class="_ _b"></span>ss<span class="_ _b"></span> wit<span class="_ _b"></span>h<span class="_ _b"></span> high<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y7d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">hom<span class="_ _b"></span>oge<span class="_ _b"></span>neit<span class="_ _0"></span>y and hi<span class="_ _b"></span>gh t<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>ans<span class="_ _b"></span>mis<span class="_ _b"></span>sio<span class="_ _b"></span>n in <span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>he </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y7e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">vis<span class="_ _b"></span>ibl<span class="_ _b"></span>e an<span class="_ _b"></span>d ne<span class="_ _b"></span>ar-infrar<span class="_ _b"></span>ed.<span class="_ _b"></span> Ant<span class="_ _b"></span>i<span class="_ _b"></span>-r<span class="_ _b"></span>ef<span class="_ _b"></span>le<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>io<span class="_ _b"></span>n (<span class="_ _b"></span>AR<span class="_ _b"></span>) </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y7f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">coa<span class="_ _b"></span>tin<span class="_ _b"></span>g<span class="_ _b"></span>s c<span class="_ _b"></span>an <span class="_ _b"></span>be<span class="_ _b"></span> us<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>d on<span class="_ _b"></span> win<span class="_ _b"></span>dow<span class="_ _b"></span>s, l<span class="_ _b"></span>ens<span class="_ _b"></span>e<span class="_ _b"></span>s </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y80 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">and <span class="_ _b"></span>par<span class="_ _0"></span>tial re<span class="_ _b"></span>f<span class="_ _b"></span>le<span class="_ _b"></span>c<span class="_ _b"></span>to<span class="_ _b"></span>r<span class="_ _b"></span>s to<span class="_ _b"></span> inc<span class="_ _b"></span>rea<span class="_ _b"></span>s<span class="_ _b"></span>e <span class="_ _b"></span>t<span class="_ _b"></span>he ove<span class="_ _b"></span>rall<span class="_ _b"></span> </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y81 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tr<span class="_ _b"></span>ans<span class="_ _b"></span>mis<span class="_ _b"></span>si<span class="_ _b"></span>on t<span class="_ _b"></span>hr<span class="_ _b"></span>oug<span class="_ _b"></span>h t<span class="_ _b"></span>he <span class="_ _b"></span>com<span class="_ _b"></span>po<span class="_ _b"></span>nent<span class="_ _b"></span>.<span class="_ _b"></span> At </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y82 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">th<span class="_ _b"></span>es<span class="_ _b"></span>e <span class="_ _b"></span>ene<span class="_ _b"></span>rg<span class="_ _b"></span>ies,<span class="_ _b"></span> eit<span class="_ _b"></span>he<span class="_ _b"></span>r nar<span class="_ _b"></span>row<span class="_ _b"></span>ban<span class="_ _b"></span>d (<span class="_ _b"></span>&#8220;<span class="_ _b"></span>V&#8221;-c<span class="_ _b"></span>oat<span class="_ _b"></span>) </div><div class="t m0 x25 h7 y83 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">AR c<span class="_ _b"></span>oat<span class="_ _b"></span>ing<span class="_ _0"></span>s or mult<span class="_ _b"></span>i-<span class="_ _b"></span>layer <span class="_ _b"></span>bro<span class="_ _b"></span>adb<span class="_ _b"></span>an<span class="_ _b"></span>d AR </div><div class="t m0 x28 h7 y84 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">M</div><div class="t m0 x29 h8 y85 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x2a h7 y84 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> = &#8212; <span class="ff1">w</span></div><div class="t m0 x2b h9 y86 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x2c ha y84 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#920;</div><div class="t m0 x2d h9 y86 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x2e h7 y84 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> = &#8212; <span class="_ _b"></span>&#8212; &#8212;</div><div class="t m0 x2f ha y87 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#960;</div><div class="t m0 x2f ha y88 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#955;</div><div class="t m0 x30 ha y87 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#960;</div><div class="t m0 x30 ha y88 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#955;</div><div class="t m0 x31 h7 y89 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">d</div><div class="t m0 x32 h9 y8a ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x33 h7 y8b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x34 h7 y8c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">D</div><div class="t m0 x35 h9 y8a ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x34 h7 y8b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2<span class="_ _d"></span>&#402;</div><div class="t m0 x28 h7 y8d ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">d</div><div class="t m0 x1a h9 y8e ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x29 h7 y8f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> = &#8212;&#8212;<span class="_ _d"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _c"></span>&#8212;</div><div class="t m0 x18 h7 y90 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">M</div><div class="t m0 x36 h8 y91 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x37 h7 y92 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> 4 <span class="ff5">&#955;<span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ff2">&#402;</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x36 h7 y93 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#960;<span class="_ _b"></span><span class="ff2">D</span></div><div class="t m0 x38 h9 y94 ff2 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">0</div><div class="t m0 x39 h7 y95 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8212; = &#8212; <span class="_ _b"></span>= &#8212;&#8212;<span class="_ _d"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _c"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _c"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _c"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _d"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _d"></span> <span class="_ _13"></span>=</div><div class="t m0 x3a h7 y96 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">50W</div><div class="t m0 x3b h7 y97 ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#960;<span class="ff2"> (5<span class="_ _b"></span> &#183; 10</span></div><div class="t m0 x3c h8 y98 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">-<span class="_ _b"></span>4</div><div class="t m0 x3d h7 y99 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> cm)</div><div class="t m0 x32 h8 y98 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x3e h7 y9a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">P</div><div class="t m0 x3e h7 y9b ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">A</div><div class="t m0 x3f h7 y9a ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">P</div><div class="t m0 x40 h7 y9b ff5 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#960;<span class="_ _b"></span><span class="ff2">r</span></div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y98 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x39 h7 y9c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">6.366 &#183; 10</div><div class="t m0 x2f h8 y9d ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">7</div><div class="t m0 x41 h7 y9c ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0"> &#8212; = 63.7 &#8212;&#8212;</div><div class="t m0 x36 h7 y9e ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">W</div><div class="t m0 x42 h7 y9f ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">cm</div><div class="t m0 x1c h8 ya0 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div><div class="t m0 x43 h7 ya1 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">MW</div><div class="t m0 x44 h7 ya2 ff2 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">cm</div><div class="t m0 x45 h8 ya0 ff2 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">2</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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