Golay Codes.rar

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• 2021-04-19 14:52
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This folder provides the Matlab files of Golaycodes based on the visible light communication system.
Golay Codes.rar
• Golay Codes
• golaycodec.m
8.7KB
• nlos_channel.m
2.8KB
• OOK_with_extended_golay.m
4.1KB
• plotter.m
546B

function [y,err]=golaycodec(x,enc,ext) % GOLAYCODEC - encode/decode a binary array using the Golay code with error correction. % % golaycodec encodes or decodes a binary array using the Golay code. % Words of length 12 are encoded as codewords of length 23 (or 24 for the % extended Golay code). The Golay code is tolerant of up to 3 errors, % i.e. for any word of length 23 there is a unique codeword that differs % in at most 3 positions. % % The Golay code can be constructed as a polynomial code using one of the % degree 11 factors of z^23+1 (mod 2). Here we use % g = 1 + z^2 + z^4 + z^5 + z^6 + z^10 + z^11 % For more details see Wikipedia etc. % % Usage: % y = golaycodec(x) % [y,err] = golaycodec(x) % ... = golaycodec(x,enc) % ... = golaycodec(x,enc,ext) % % Inputs: % x can be an Mx12, Mx23 or Mx24 binary (logical) array or an Mx1 integer array. % If x is Mx1, the binary representation of each integer is used. % enc is a logical; if true x is to be encoded, otherwise x is to be decoded. % If not specified, enc is inferred from the size of x or set to true. % ext is a logical; if true use the extended Golay code (length 24), % otherwise use the non-extended Golay code (length 23). % If not specified, enc is inferred from the size of x or set to false. % NOTE: the algorithm has so far only been implemented for ext=false % % Outputs: % y is an array consisting of the coded or decoded rows of x % If x is Mx12 and ext=false then y is Mx23 % If x is Mx12 and ext=true then y is Mx24 % If x is Mx23 or Mx24 then y is Mx12 % If x is Mx1 then y is Mx1 % err (only available if decoding is done, e.g enc=false) is an array % with the errors that differ each word in x from its closest codeword) % % Example: encode some messages, add transmission errors and decode % n=10; % x=zeros(n,12);for i=1:n,x(i,ceil(12*rand(1,8)))=1;end; % random message % y=golaycodec(x); % err=zeros(n,23);for i=1:n,err(i,ceil(23*rand(1,3)))=1;end; % 3 random errors per message % y1=xor(y,err); % add transmission error % [x1,err1]=golaycodec(y1); % decode: should have x1==x and err1==err % % Author: Ben Petschel 18/3/2009 % % Change history: % 18/3/2009 - created % 30/4/2009 - updated to implement extended Golay codes % encdef = true; % default value of "enc" if not specified for integer input extdef = false; % default value of "ext" if not specified % input checking: x nx=size(x,2); if any(~isfinite(x(:))) || any(~isreal(x(:))) error('golaycodec: input array must be finite real values'); end; if nx==1 if any(x~=round(x)) error('golaycodec: column input must be integers'); end; if any(x<0) % check later that integers are small enough error('golaycodec: column input must be non-negative integers'); end; intout = true; elseif nx>1 if any((x(:)~=0)&(x(:)~=1)) error('golaycodec: entries of row or matrix input must be 0 or 1'); end; if ~any(nx==[12,23,24]), error('golaycodec: number of columns of input must be 1, 12, 23 or 24'); end; intout = false; % binary output else error('golaycodec: empty input'); end; % if nx==1 elseif ... else ... end; % input checking: enc, ext must be booleans if nargin>=2, if isnumeric(enc), enc = enc>0; end; if ~islogical(enc) || ~isscalar(enc) error('golaycodec: enc must be 1x1 logical value'); end; end; if nargin>=3, if isnumeric(ext), ext = ext>0; end; if ~islogical(ext) || ~isscalar(ext) error('golaycodec: enc must be 1x1 logical value'); end; end; % input checking: consistency of nx with enc and ext if specified switch nx case 1 if nargin == 1, enc = encdef; % set to default value (usually true) end; if nargin <= 2, ext = extdef; % set to default value (usually false) end; case 12 if nargin == 1, enc = true; % encode 12-digit word elseif ~enc, error('golaycodec: cannot decode 12-digit words'); end; if nargin <=2, ext = extdef; % set to default value (usually false) end; case 23 if nargin == 1, enc = false; % decode 23-digit word elseif enc, error('golaycodec: cannot encode 23-digit words'); end; if nargin <=2, ext = false; % not from the extended code elseif ext, error('golaycodec: 23 digit words are not in the extended code'); end; case 24 if nargin == 1, enc = false; % decode 24-digit word elseif enc, error('golaycodec: cannot encode 24-digit words'); end; if nargin <=2, ext = true; % use the extended code elseif ~ext, error('golaycodec: 24-digit words are not in the non-extended code'); end; otherwise error('golaycodec: input must have 1, 12, 23 or 24 columns'); end; % switch nx % for integer inputs, check that the integers are not too large if intout if enc if any(x(:)>=2^12), error('golaycodec: integers for coding must be less than 2^12'); end; elseif any(x(:)>=2^23), error('golaycodec: integers for decoding must be less than 2^23'); end; end; % output checking: nargout>1 only for decoding if (nargout>2) || ((nargout>1) && enc) error('golaycodec: can only specify two outputs when decoding'); end; if nx==1, % convert integers to the appropriate length if enc nx=12; elseif ext % decode extended code nx=24; else % decode non-extended code nx=23; end; x = dec2logi(x,nx); end; % if nx==1 % retain generating polynomial, parity check and error parity table persistent g h errtab if isempty(g) % generating polynomial: g = 1+x^2+x^4+x^5+x^6+x^10+x^11 g=zeros(1,12);g([0,2,4,5,6,10,11]+1)=1; end; if isempty(h) % parity check polynomial is the other factor of x^23-1 (mod 2) % h = (1+x)*(1+x+x^5+x^6+x^7+x^9+x^11) h=mod(deconv([1,zeros(1,22),1],g),2); end; if isempty(errtab), % set up the error table for decoding: determine all errors of up to 3 bits % the error will be determined by simple table lookup of the parity check % the table is a sparse array indexed by the integer representation of the parity bits errtab = geterrtab(h,3,23); end; % now encode or decode the array if enc y = circprod(x,g,23); if ext % if using extended code, append a checksum bit (row sums mod 2) y = [y,mod(sum(y,2),2)]; end; else if ext % drop the checksum bit if using extended code c = x(:,24); x = x(:,1:23); end; % check parity p = circprod(x,h,23); % look up parity in error table err = dec2logi(errtab(logi2dec(p)+1),23); y = zeros(size(x,1),12); for i=1:size(x,1), y(i,:) = mod(deconv(x(i,:)-err(i,:),g),2); end; if ext % if using extended code, append the checksum bit error err = [err,mod(c-sum(y,2),2)]; end; end; % convert back to integers, if necessary if intout, y = logi2dec(y); if nargout == 2, err = logi2dec(err); end; end; end % main function golaycodec function t=geterrtab(h,k,n) % produces lookup table of parity checks of all errors with weight <=k on n digits % y is a sparse matrix: index is 1 + (h*err converted to integer) % and y(i) is (err) converted to binary % % h must be row vector of length <= n % also 0 <= k <= n. m=length(h); if (2^n-1)>intmax, error('golaycodec:geterrtab: too many digits to convert to integer'); end; if m>n, error('golaycodec:geterrtab: parity check polynomial is too long'); end; t = sparse(1,1,0,2^n,1); % initialize with 0*h+1 -> 0 for i=1:k, ind = nchoosek(1:n,i); % all possible combinations of i error digits nck = size(ind,1); errbin = zeros(nck,n); % error in binary format errbin(sub2ind([nck,n],repmat((1:nck)',i,1),ind(:)))=1; % in row j place 1's in columns ind(j,:) errint = logi2dec(e

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