sliding mode.rar

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Paper about sliding mode for autonomous
sliding mode.rar
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内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625d80f0be9ad24cfa814342/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625d80f0be9ad24cfa814342/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">327 </div><div class="t m1 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">IEEE </div><div class="t m2 x3 h4 y2 ff2 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">JOURNAL </div><div class="t m3 x4 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">OF </div><div class="t m4 x5 h5 y2 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls4 ws0">OCEANIC <span class="_ _0"></span>ENGINEERING, </div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 y2 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls5 ws0">VOL. </div><div class="t m5 x7 h7 y2 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">18, </div><div class="t m4 x8 h5 y2 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">NO. </div><div class="t m6 x9 h7 y2 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls6 ws0">3, </div><div class="t m7 xa h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">JULY </div><div class="t m8 xb h8 y2 ff1 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">1993 </div><div class="t m9 xc h9 y3 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Multivariable <span class="_ _1"></span><span class="ls9">SlidingKMode </span></div><div class="t ma xd h9 y3 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">Control </div><div class="t mb xe ha y4 ff2 fs6 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">for </div><div class="t m9 xf h9 y4 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Autonomous <span class="_ _2"></span>Diving <span class="_ _1"></span><span class="lsa">and <span class="_ _3"></span></span>Steering </div><div class="t mc x10 hb y5 ff2 fs7 fc0 sc0 lsc ws0">of </div><div class="t m9 x11 h9 y5 ff2 fs5 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">Unmanned <span class="_ _4"> </span>Underwater <span class="_ _4"> </span><span class="lsd">Vehicles </span></div><div class="t m0 x12 hc y6 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">Anthony </div><div class="t md x13 hd y6 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 lsf ws0">J. </div><div class="t m0 x14 hc y6 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 lse ws0">Healey </div><div class="t me x15 hc y6 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">and <span class="_ _2"> </span>David </div><div class="t m0 x16 hc y6 ff2 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls10 ws0">Lienard </div><div class="t mf x17 he y7 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls11 ws0">Abstruct-A <span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ls2">six <span class="ls12">degree <span class="_ _0"></span>of <span class="_ _0"></span>freedom <span class="_ _6"></span>model <span class="_ _6"></span></span>for <span class="ls13">the <span class="ls12">maneuvering </span></span></span></div><div class="t mf x2 he y8 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls14 ws0">of <span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls13">an <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls12">underwater <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>vehicle <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls12">used <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _9"> </span></span></span>a <span class="_ _8"></span>sliding <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls12">mode <span class="_ _8"></span></span>autopilot </span></div><div class="t mf x2 he y9 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">is <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls12">designed <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls13">for <span class="_ _0"></span></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>combined </span></div><div class="t mf x2 he ya ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">functions. <span class="ls14">In <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls15">flight <span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls12">control <span class="_"> </span></span></span></span>a </div><div class="t mf x2 he yb ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">arise <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls12">because <span class="_ _7"> </span></span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls12">system <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">to <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls15">be <span class="_ _1"> </span></span></span></span>controlled <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>highly <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls12">nonlinear, </span></div><div class="t mf x2 he yc ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">coupled, <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls13">and <span class="_"> </span></span>there <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls13">a <span class="_ _a"> </span>good <span class="_"> </span></span></span>deal <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls14">of <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>parameter <span class="_ _b"> </span>uncertainty </div><div class="t mf x2 he yd ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">and <span class="_ _9"> </span>variation <span class="_"> </span>with <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls13">operational </span>conditions. <span class="_"> </span>The <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls13">development </span></div><div class="t m0 x18 hf ye ff1 fsb fc0 sc0 ls16 ws0">of </div><div class="t mf x2 he yf ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">variable <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls13">structure <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>control <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls2">in <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls13">the <span class="_ _7"> </span></span></span>form <span class="_ _b"> </span>of <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls13">sliding <span class="_"> </span></span>modes <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls13">has </span></div><div class="t mf x2 he y10 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">been <span class="_"> </span>shown <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls13">to <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>provide <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls13">robustness </span>that <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _8"></span></span>expected <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls13">to <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls15">be <span class="_ _7"> </span></span>quite </span></div><div class="t mf x2 he y11 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">remarkable <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">for <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls15">AUV <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls13">autopilot <span class="_ _0"></span></span></span></span>design. <span class="_ _1"> </span>This <span class="_ _7"> </span>paper <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls13">shows <span class="_ _8"></span>that </span></div><div class="t mf x19 he y12 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">a <span class="_ _0"></span>multivariable <span class="_ _c"></span>sliding <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls12">mode <span class="_ _8"></span></span>autopilot <span class="ls12">based <span class="_ _8"></span>on <span class="_ _9"></span></span>state <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls12">feedback, </span></div><div class="t mf x19 he y13 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">designed <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls13">assuming </span>decoupled <span class="_ _8"></span>modeling, <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _0"></span></span>quite </div><div class="t m10 x1a h10 y14 ff1 fsc fc0 sc0 ls17 ws0">s-ory </div><div class="t mf x1b he y14 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">for </div><div class="t mf x19 he y15 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">the combined <span class="ls13">speed, <span class="_ _c"></span>steering, <span class="_ _e"></span>and <span class="_ _c"></span>diving <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls12">response <span class="_ _d"></span>of <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls13">a slow <span class="_ _f"></span>speed </span></span></span></div><div class="t mf x19 he y16 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls15 ws0">AUV. <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls12">The <span class="ls13">influence <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls12">of <span class="_ _d"></span>speed, <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls13">modeling <span class="_ _e"></span>nonlinearity, <span class="_ _10"></span>uncertainty, </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t mf x19 he y17 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">and <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls13">disturbances, <span class="_ _e"></span>can <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls15">be <span class="_ _8"></span></span>effectively <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls12">compensated, <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls13">even for <span class="_ _d"></span>com- </span></span></span></div><div class="t mf x19 he y18 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">plex <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls12">maneuvering. <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls15">Waypoint <span class="_ _7"> </span></span></span>acquisition <span class="ls12">based <span class="_"> </span>on <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>line <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls12">of <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>sight </div><div class="t mf x19 he y19 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls12 ws0">guidance <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _0"></span></span>used <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">to <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls13">achieve path <span class="_ _6"></span></span></span>tracking. </div><div class="t m11 x1c h11 y1a ff2 fsd fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">I. </div><div class="t m12 x1d h11 y1a ff2 fsd fc0 sc0 ls18 ws0">INTRODUCTION </div><div class="t m13 x1e h12 y1b ff1 fse fc0 sc0 ls19 ws0">HIS </div><div class="t m0 x1f h13 y1b ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1a ws0">PAPER <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">proposes <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">use <span class="_"> </span></span></span></span>of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">a <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">multivariable <span class="_ _0"></span></span>sliding </span></div><div class="t m14 x2 h14 y1c ff1 fs10 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">T </div><div class="t m0 x1e h13 y1c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">mode <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">autopilot <span class="ls1d">for <span class="_ _d"></span></span></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>combined <span class="_ _9"> </span>control <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">AUV <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">steer- </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y1d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">ing, <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls2">depth, <span class="_ _6"></span></span>and <span class="_ _9"> </span>speed <span class="_ _9"> </span>during <span class="_ _8"></span>complex <span class="_ _9"> </span>flight <span class="_ _8"></span>maneuvers. <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">The </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y1e ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">method <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">draws <span class="_ _0"></span>upon </span></div><div class="t m15 x20 h15 y1f ff2 fsb fc0 sc0 ls1f ws0">the </div><div class="t m0 x21 h13 y1f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">power <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>sliding <span class="_ _d"></span>modes <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">to <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1e">reduce </span></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y20 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">inherent <span class="_"> </span>coupling <span class="_"> </span>between <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>vehicle <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1e">response <span class="_ _6"></span></span>modes <span class="_"> </span>that </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y21 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">naturally <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls2">exist <span class="_ _2"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span>ROV/AUV <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>vehicles. <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls1e">The <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>approach <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls2">leads </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y22 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">to <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls1b">a <span class="_ _b"> </span>set <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _4"> </span></span></span>separate <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1e">designs <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>for <span class="_ _1"> </span>the <span class="_ _a"> </span>steering, <span class="_"> </span>diving, <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">and </span></div><div class="t m0 x2 h13 y23 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">speed <span class="_ _8"></span>control <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">systems, <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls20">and <span class="_"> </span></span></span>a <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">series <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls21">of <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>simulations <span class="_ _6"></span></span>based <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls20">on </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y24 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">the <span class="_"> </span>dynamics </div><div class="t m16 x22 h16 y25 ff2 fs11 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws0">of </div><div class="t m0 xe h13 y25 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">a <span class="_"> </span>swimmer <span class="_"> </span>delivery <span class="_"> </span>vehicle <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls2">illustrates <span class="_ _9"></span></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y26 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">robustness <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _0"></span></span>validity <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">concept. <span class="ls1e">This <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _0"></span>likely to <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1b">be <span class="_ _0"></span></span>the </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y27 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">control <span class="_ _8"></span>method <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1e">choice <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls2">for <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">AUV&#8217;s <span class="_ _8"></span>in <span class="_ _8"></span></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>future. </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x23 h13 y28 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">Well-behaved <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls2">autopilot <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1b">systems <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1e">enable <span class="_ _11"></span><span class="ls1b">the <span class="_ _0"></span>use <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">of <span class="_ _8"></span></span>a <span class="_ _0"></span>variety </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y29 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1a ws0">of <span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls1b">guidance <span class="_ _8"></span>schemes <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">to <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls1e">achieve <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1b">waypoint <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _8"></span></span>path <span class="_ _9"> </span>tracking. </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y2a ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">Waypoint <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1b">acquisition <span class="_ _9"> </span>is <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">illustrated <span class="_ _6"></span></span>using <span class="_ _9"></span>proportional <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">line <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1a">of </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y2b ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">sight <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1b">guidance <span class="ls1c">with <span class="_ _6"></span>and <span class="_ _6"></span></span>without <span class="_ _d"></span>the influence <span class="_ _11"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">ocean <span class="ls2">current. </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y2c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">The <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1e">paper <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls2">contains </span></span></div><div class="t m17 x24 h13 y2d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">a </div><div class="t m0 x25 h13 y2d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">discussion <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">vehicle <span class="_ _6"></span></span>modeling; <span class="_ _9"></span>the </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y2e ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">sliding <span class="_ _9"> </span>mode <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">control <span class="_ _9"> </span>design; <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1e">guidance <span class="_ _0"></span>scheme; <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _7"> </span></span></span>the </span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y2f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">results <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">of <span class="_ _0"></span></span>computer <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">simulations <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls1b">under <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">conditions <span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">parameter </span></span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y30 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">mismatch. </div><div class="t m18 x1c h17 y31 ff1 fs12 fc0 sc0 ls23 ws0">11. </div><div class="t m0 x26 h13 y31 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">BACKGROUND </div><div class="t m0 x23 h13 y32 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">The <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls1b">design </span></div><div class="t m19 x27 h18 y33 ff2 fs13 fc0 sc0 ls24 ws0">of </div><div class="t m0 x28 h13 y33 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">an <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls2">autopilot <span class="_ _0"></span>for <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1b">the <span class="_"> </span>control <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _7"> </span></span></span></span>underwater </div><div class="t m0 x19 h13 y34 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">vehicles <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">is <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _b"> </span></span>interest <span class="_ _9"></span></span>both <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1e">from <span class="_ _8"></span></span>the <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">view <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _b"> </span></span></span>motion <span class="_ _1"> </span>stabi- </div><div class="t mf x19 he y35 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">lization </div><div class="t m1a x29 h19 y35 ff1 fs14 fc0 sc0 ls25 ws0">as </div><div class="t mf x2a he y35 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls26 ws0">well <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls2">as <span class="_"> </span>maneuvering <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls15">and <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls13">tracking <span class="_ _9"> </span>performance. </span></span></span></div><div class="t m1b x17 h1a y36 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Manuscript <span class="_ _f"></span>received <span class="ls28">November </span></div><div class="t m1c x2b h1b y36 ff2 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls29 ws0">8, </div><div class="t m1b x2c h1a y36 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">1991; <span class="_ _e"></span>revised <span class="_ _d"></span>April 23, <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">1993. </span></div><div class="t m1d x2d h1c y36 ff2 fs16 fc0 sc0 ls2a ws0">llus </div><div class="t m1e x2e h19 y36 ff1 fs14 fc0 sc0 ls2b ws0">work </div><div class="t m1b x19 h1a y37 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2c ws0">was <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls27">supported <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls2d">by <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2e">the <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls2">Naval <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls27">Postgraduate School <span class="_ _c"></span>Direct Research <span class="ls2">Fund <span class="_ _6"></span>under </span></span></span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m1b x19 h1a y38 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">the <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls27">technical sponsorship </span></div><div class="t m1f x2f h1d y39 ff2 fs17 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">of </div><div class="t m1b x30 h1a y39 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">the <span class="_ _8"> </span>Office </div><div class="t m1f x31 h1d y39 ff2 fs17 fc0 sc0 ls2f ws0">of </div><div class="t m1b x32 h1a y39 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Naval <span class="_ _0"></span>Technology. </div><div class="t m1b x17 h1a y3a ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">The <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls27">authors <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls2e">are <span class="_"> </span></span>with <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span>Department </span></div><div class="t m20 x33 h1e y3b ff2 fs18 fc0 sc0 ls30 ws0">of </div><div class="t m1b x34 h1a y3b ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Mechanical <span class="_ _8"></span>Engineering, <span class="_ _6"></span>Naval </div><div class="t m1b x19 h1a y3c ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Postgraduate </div><div class="t m0 x35 h1f y3d ff2 fs14 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws0">School, </div><div class="t m1b x36 h1a y3d ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">Monterey, </div><div class="t m0 x37 h1f y3d ff2 fs14 fc0 sc0 ls31 ws0">CA </div><div class="t m1b x38 h1a y3d ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">93943. </div><div class="t m21 x17 h20 y3e ff2 fs19 fc0 sc0 ls32 ws0">IEEE </div><div class="t m1b x39 h1a y3e ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2e ws0">Log <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">Number <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls33">921 <span class="_ _12"></span><span class="ls2">1042. </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y3f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">AUV&#8217;s <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _3"> </span></span>the <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">class <span class="_"> </span></span>considered <span class="_"> </span>here, <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls2">fall <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>between <span class="_ _1"> </span>the <span class="_ _1"> </span>two </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y40 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">extremes <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span></span>underwater <span class="_ _8"></span>vehicles <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">(the <span class="_ _6"></span></span>ROV&#8217;s <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _9"></span></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>torpedo </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y41 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">type), <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">are <span class="_ _0"></span></span></span>difficult <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">to <span class="_ _8"></span></span>control <span class="_ _8"></span>having <span class="_ _9"> </span>highly <span class="_ _9"></span>variable <span class="_ _8"></span>and </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y42 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">uncertain <span class="_ _6"></span>dynamics. Recent <span class="ls1c">work <span class="_ _d"></span></span>concerned with <span class="_ _d"></span>the modeling </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y43 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">and <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1b">control </span></div><div class="t m16 x3b h16 y44 ff2 fs11 fc0 sc0 ls22 ws0">of </div><div class="t m0 x3c h13 y44 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">ROV <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1b">vehicles <span class="_ _9"></span></span>includes <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1b">Lewis, <span class="_ _8"></span>Lipscomb, <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">and </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y45 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">Thompson <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">[14] <span class="_ _0"></span></span>who <span class="_ _2"> </span>described </div><div class="t m22 x3d h21 y46 ff2 fs1a fc0 sc0 ls34 ws0">an </div><div class="t m0 x3e h13 y46 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">ROV <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">simulation <span class="_ _9"></span>program </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y47 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">using <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">linear <span class="_ _d"></span></span>hydrodynamic <span class="_ _8"></span>coefficients. <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">ROV <span class="_ _8"></span></span>vehicles <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">do <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1c">not </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y48 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">possess <span class="_"> </span>hydrodynamically <span class="_ _1"> </span>shaped <span class="_ _9"> </span>profiles <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _9"> </span></span></span>hydrody- </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y49 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">namic <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls2">forces <span class="_"> </span>are <span class="_"> </span></span>uncertain <span class="_ _a"> </span>and <span class="_ _1"> </span>difficult <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">to <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>predict <span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ls2">[4]. </span></div><div class="t m23 x3f h18 y4a ff2 fs13 fc0 sc0 ls35 ws0">To </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y4b ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">overcome <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls1b">the <span class="_ _8"></span>widely <span class="_ _0"></span>varying <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _8"></span></span>uncertain <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1e">behavior <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">these </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y4c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">vehicles <span class="_ _8"></span>Russel <span class="_ _8"></span>and <span class="_ _6"></span>Bugge <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">[22] <span class="ls1c">had <span class="_ _8"></span></span></span>considered <span class="_ _8"></span>the <span class="_ _0"></span>use <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">an </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y4d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">adaptive <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls1e">automatic <span class="_ _12"></span>guidance <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls1b">system <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls2">including <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls1b">modeling <span class="_ _d"></span>strong </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y4e ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">measurement <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">noise <span class="_ _6"></span>of <span class="_ _0"></span></span>uncertain <span class="_"> </span>spectral <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">nature, <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls20">Yoerger <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">and </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y4f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">Slotine <span class="_ _9"> </span>[28], <span class="_ _2"> </span>[30] <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">proposed <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span>successfully <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">used <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>a <span class="_"> </span>sliding </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y50 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">mode <span class="ls2">controller <span class="_ _f"></span>for <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1c">an <span class="_ _d"></span>ROV <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1b">maneuvering <span class="_ _d"></span>around </span></span>large objects </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y51 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">at <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1c">very <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">slow <span class="ls2">speed; <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls1b">and <span class="_ _d"></span>Goheen, <span class="_ _c"></span>Jefferys, <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1c">and </span>Broome </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m24 x40 h22 y52 ff3 fs1b fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">[ </div><div class="t m0 x41 h13 y52 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls36 ws0">121 <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls2">de- </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y53 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">scribed <span class="_ _d"></span>a <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1c">&#8220;self <span class="_ _8"></span></span>testing&#8221; <span class="ls1e">procedure <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls2">for <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1b">evaluation <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _8"></span></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span>vehicle </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y54 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">dynamic <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">response <span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _9"> </span></span></span>a <span class="_ _8"></span>corresponding <span class="_ _8"></span>automatic <span class="_ _9"></span>gain <span class="_ _8"></span>selec- </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y55 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">tion. <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">In <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>a <span class="_ _9"> </span>useful <span class="_ _1"> </span>summary <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>underwater <span class="_"> </span>vehicle <span class="_ _2"> </span>modeling, </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y56 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls37 ws0">Yuh <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">[32] <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls1e">has <span class="ls1b">described the <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls2">functional <span class="_ _f"></span><span class="ls1b">form <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _8"></span></span>vehicle <span class="_ _d"></span>dynamic </span></span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y57 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">equations <span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1b">motion, <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _9"></span></span>nature <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>of <span class="_ _7"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls1b">loadings <span class="_ _9"> </span>and <span class="_ _9"></span></span>the <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">use </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y58 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1a ws0">of <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1e">adaptive <span class="ls2">control <span class="_ _8"></span>via <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls20">on <span class="_"> </span></span>line <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">parameter <span class="_ _2"> </span>identification. <span class="_ _8"></span></span></span>The </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y59 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1c ws0">work <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls20">Yoerger <span class="_ _8"></span></span></span>and <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">Slotine <span class="ls1b">with <span class="_ _6"></span>robust <span class="_ _8"></span>control <span class="_ _6"></span>using <span class="_ _8"></span>sliding </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y5a ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">modes <span class="_ _6"></span>is most <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls1e">encouraging, <span class="_ _12"></span><span class="ls1b">and, <span class="_ _d"></span>although the <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">extra </span>time taken </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y5b ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">to <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">perform <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>self-test <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">Goheen </span></span></div><div class="t m25 x42 h23 y5c ff4 fse fc0 sc0 ls38 ws0">et </div><div class="t m26 x43 h24 y5c ff4 fs12 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">al. </div><div class="t m0 x44 h13 y5c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls20 ws0">may <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">not <span class="_ _9"> </span>always <span class="_ _8"></span>be </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y5d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">available, <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">it <span class="_"> </span>still <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls1e">has <span class="_ _9"></span></span></span>merit. <span class="_"> </span>Recently, <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls20">Yoerger <span class="_ _3"> </span></span>[30] <span class="_ _9"> </span>showed </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y5e ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">that <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1e">dynamics <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _1"> </span></span></span>torque <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">controlled <span class="_ _0"></span></span>thruster <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1e">elements <span class="ls2">are </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y5f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">problematic <span class="_ _1"> </span>in <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">ROV <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>positioning <span class="_ _a"> </span>because <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">lags <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>in <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _2"> </span></span>thrust </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y60 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">response, <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls2">if <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">not <span class="_"> </span></span></span>taken <span class="_ _8"></span>into <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls2">account, <span class="_ _6"></span></span>can <span class="_ _8"></span>lead <span class="_ _9"></span><span class="ls2">to <span class="_ _0"></span>limit <span class="_ _8"></span></span>cycling </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y61 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">behavior. <span class="_ _1"> </span>Fossen <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls1c">[SI, <span class="_"> </span>and <span class="_ _7"> </span></span>Fossen <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _1"> </span></span>Satagun <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls36">[91 <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls2">describe </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y62 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">the <span class="_ _a"> </span>use <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _3"> </span></span>multivariable <span class="_ _3"> </span>sliding <span class="_ _1"> </span>mode <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls2">control <span class="_"> </span></span>in <span class="_ _b"> </span>dynamic </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y63 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">positioning </div><div class="t m27 x3b h25 y64 ff2 fs1c fc0 sc0 ls39 ws0">of </div><div class="t m0 x45 h13 y64 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">ROV&#8217;s <span class="_ _2"> </span>and <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">show <span class="_"> </span></span>that <span class="_"> </span>this <span class="_"> </span>method <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1e">has <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">great </span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y65 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">potential <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">for <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>controlling <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1c">ROV <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">attitude <span class="_ _8"></span></span>and <span class="_ _9"></span></span>position <span class="_ _2"> </span><span class="ls1c">with </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y66 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">excellent <span class="_ _11"></span><span class="ls1b">robustness <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">properties against <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1b">parametric <span class="_ _8"></span>uncertainty. </span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x46 h13 y67 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">For <span class="_ _a"> </span>higher <span class="_ _3"> </span>speed <span class="_ _1"> </span>vehicles <span class="_ _b"> </span>than <span class="_ _13"> </span>ROV&#8217;s, <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _13"> </span></span>those <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls1c">with </span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y68 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">more <span class="_"> </span>streamlined <span class="_ _8"></span>hydrodynamic <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls2">characteristics, <span class="_ _d"></span>the <span class="_ _9"> </span></span>situation </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y69 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">is <span class="_ _d"></span><span class="ls1b">different, <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1e">previous <span class="_ _e"></span><span class="ls1c">work <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1e">has <span class="_ _c"></span><span class="ls1c">been <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">reported <span class="_ _6"></span></span>by <span class="_ _0"></span><span class="ls1b">Lindgren </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m28 x3a h26 y6a ff5 fs14 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">et </div><div class="t m29 x47 h27 y6a ff4 fs1d fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">al. </div><div class="t m0 x48 h13 y6a ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">[17], <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1b">who <span class="_"> </span>addressed <span class="_ _9"> </span>the <span class="_"> </span></span>issues <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _13"> </span><span class="ls1b">steering <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">and <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1e">depth </span></span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y6b ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">control <span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ls1a">of </span></div><div class="t m2a x49 h28 y6c ff1 fs1e fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">a </div><div class="t m0 x4a h13 y6c ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">torpedo <span class="_ _3"> </span>pointing <span class="_ _3"> </span>out <span class="_ _3"> </span>the <span class="_ _3"> </span>importance <span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _4"> </span></span>the </div><div class="t mf x3a he y35 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">nonlinear </div><div class="t m2b x4b h29 y35 ff6 fsc fc0 sc0 ls3a ws0">hydrodynamic </div><div class="t m2c x4c he y35 ff1 fsa fc0 sc0 ls13 ws0">behavior </div><div class="t m2d x42 h2a y35 ff6 fs1f fc0 sc0 ls3b ws0">and </div><div class="t m2e x4d h2b y35 ff1 fs20 fc0 sc0 ls3c ws0">the </div><div class="t m2f x4e h10 y35 ff1 fsc fc0 sc0 ls3a ws0">stroke <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls2">limits </span></div><div class="t m30 x4f h2c y35 ff2 fs21 fc0 sc0 ls3d ws0">of </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y6d ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">the <span class="_"> </span>surfaces; <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls20">Young <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls1b">[31] <span class="_ _9"> </span>described <span class="_"> </span></span></span>the <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1b">stability <span class="_"> </span></span>derivatives </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y6e ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1a ws0">of <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls2">the <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1b">Navy&#8217;s <span class="_"> </span></span></span>DSRV <span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ls1b">vehicle, <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls20">and <span class="_ _a"> </span></span>Smith </span></div><div class="t m31 x50 h2d y6f ff4 fs1c fc0 sc0 ls3e ws0">et </div><div class="t m32 x51 h2e y6f ff4 fsb fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">al. </div><div class="t m33 x52 h2f y6f ff7 fs22 fc0 sc0 ls3f ws0">[25] </div><div class="t m0 x41 h13 y6f ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">gave <span class="_ _2"> </span>a </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y70 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">comparison <span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_"> </span></span>the <span class="_ _6"></span>performance <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1a">of </span></div><div class="t m34 x53 h13 y71 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">a </div><div class="t m0 x54 h13 y71 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">simulator <span class="_ _6"></span><span class="ls2">for <span class="_ _6"></span></span>a <span class="_ _8"></span>swimmer </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y72 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1b ws0">delivery <span class="_"> </span>vehicle <span class="_"> </span><span class="ls1c">with <span class="_"> </span></span>field <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1e">response <span class="_ _d"></span></span>data. <span class="_ _9"> </span>Dobeck </div><div class="t m35 x55 h30 y73 ff8 fs1b fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">et </div><div class="t m32 x56 h2e y73 ff4 fsb fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">al. </div><div class="t m0 x3f h13 y73 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">[6] </div><div class="t m0 x3a h13 y74 ff2 fsf fc0 sc0 ls1e ws0">provided <span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ls1c">an <span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ls1b">unclassified <span class="_ _1"> </span>description <span class="_ _b"> </span><span class="ls1a">of <span class="_ _3"> </span></span>tests <span class="_ _a"> </span>conducted <span class="_ _a"> </span>on </span></span></div><div class="t m1b x57 h1a y75 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">0364-9059/93$03.00 </div><div class="t m36 x58 h31 y75 ff9 fs18 fc0 sc0 ls2 ws0">0 </div><div class="t m1b x59 h1a y75 ff2 fs15 fc0 sc0 ls27 ws0">1993 </div><div class="t m37 x5a h20 y75 ff2 fs19 fc0 sc0 ls40 ws0">IEEE </div><div class="t m0 x5b h32 y76 ffa fs23 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: Yuan Ze University. Downloaded on August 09,2020 at 18:04:36 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.546195,0.000000,0.000000,1.546195,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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