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Maximum Throughput Analysis for RTS/CTS-used IEEE 802.11 DCF in Wireless Multi-hop Networks
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622bc0753d2fbb000799d386/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/622bc0753d2fbb000799d386/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Maximum<span class="_ _0"> </span>Throughput<span class="_ _0"> </span>Analysis<span class="_ _0"> </span>for<span class="_ _0"> </span>R<span class="_ _1"></span>TS/CTS-used</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _0"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _0"> </span>DCF</div><div class="t m0 x3 h2 y3 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _0"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless<span class="_ _0"> </span>Multi-hop<span class="_ _0"> </span>Networks</div><div class="t m0 x4 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _2"></span>akuya<span class="_ _3"> </span>SUGIMO<span class="_ _4"></span>TO</div><div class="t m0 x5 h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 x6 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Nob<span class="_ _4"></span>uyoshi<span class="_ _3"> </span>KOMUR<span class="_ _4"></span>O</div><div class="t m0 x7 h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 x8 h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Hiroo<span class="_ _3"> </span>SEKIY<span class="_ _1"></span>A</div><div class="t m0 x9 h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 xa h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Shiro<span class="_ _3"> </span>SAKA<span class="_ _1"></span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>A</div><div class="t m0 xb h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 xc h3 y4 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _3"> </span>K<span class="_ _4"></span>engo<span class="_ _3"> </span>Y<span class="_ _1"></span>A<span class="_ _4"></span>GYU</div><div class="t m0 xd h4 y5 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8225;</div><div class="t m0 xe h4 y6 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8224;</div><div class="t m0 xf h5 y7 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _5"> </span>Graduate<span class="_ _5"> </span>School<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>Advanced<span class="_ _5"> </span>Inte<span class="_ _4"></span>gration<span class="_ _5"> </span>Science,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Chiba<span class="_ _5"> </span>Univ<span class="_ _4"></span>ersity</div><div class="t m0 x10 h5 y8 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1-33,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>ayoi-cho,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Inage-ku,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Chiba,<span class="_ _5"> </span>263-8522<span class="_ _5"> </span>Japan</div><div class="t m0 x11 h4 y9 ff2 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8225;</div><div class="t m0 x12 h5 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Research<span class="_ _5"> </span>Laboratories,<span class="_ _5"> </span>NTT<span class="_ _5"> </span>DOCOMO,<span class="_ _5"> </span>INC.</div><div class="t m0 x13 h5 yb ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">3-6,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Hikari-no-oka,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>okosuka-shi,<span class="_ _5"> </span>Kanaga<span class="_ _4"></span>wa,<span class="_ _5"> </span>239-8536<span class="_ _5"> </span>Japan</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 yc ff3 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff4">&#8212;The<span class="_ _3"> </span>purpose<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>paper<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _3"> </span>analyze<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>maxi-</span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 yd ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">mum<span class="_ _5"> </span>thr<span class="_ _4"></span>oughput<span class="_ _5"> </span>when<span class="_ _5"> </span>using<span class="_ _7"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _5"> </span>(Request<span class="_ _7"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _5"> </span>Send/Clear</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 ye ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">T<span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _8"> </span>Send)<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _9"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _9"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _8"> </span>Coordination<span class="_ _9"> </span>Function</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 yf ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">(DCF)<span class="_ _a"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _a"> </span>networks<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>novel<span class="_ _a"> </span>appr<span class="_ _4"></span>oach.<span class="_ _a"> </span>Wireless</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y10 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">multi-hop<span class="_ _8"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _8"> </span>in<span class="_ _8"> </span>which<span class="_ _8"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _8"> </span>communicate<span class="_ _8"> </span>with<span class="_ _a"> </span>each</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y11 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">other<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>conv<span class="_ _4"></span>ey<span class="_ _6"> </span>packets<span class="_ _6"> </span>via<span class="_ _6"> </span>intermediate<span class="_ _b"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _6"> </span>without<span class="_ _6"> </span>cen-</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y12 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">tralized<span class="_ _8"> </span>control,<span class="_ _8"> </span>have<span class="_ _8"> </span>gained<span class="_ _8"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _8"> </span>attention<span class="_ _8"> </span>because<span class="_ _a"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y13 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _9"> </span>extension<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _b"> </span>communication<span class="_ _9"> </span>range<span class="_ _c"> </span>associated</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y14 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _3"> </span>such<span class="_ _3"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _3"> </span>In<span class="_ _3"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _3"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _3"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y15 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">802.11<span class="_ _6"> </span>DCF<span class="_ _6"> </span>based<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>Carrier<span class="_ _6"> </span>Sense<span class="_ _6"> </span>Multiple<span class="_ _b"> </span>Access<span class="_ _6"> </span>with</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y16 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Collision<span class="_ _c"> </span>A<span class="_ _2"></span>voidance<span class="_ _c"> </span>(CSMA/CA)<span class="_ _9"> </span>has<span class="_ _c"> </span>been<span class="_ _9"> </span>commonly<span class="_ _c"> </span>used<span class="_ _c"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y17 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _6"> </span>Medium<span class="_ _6"> </span>Access<span class="_ _6"> </span>Control<span class="_ _6"> </span>(MA<span class="_ _4"></span>C)<span class="_ _3"> </span>protocol.<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _6"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _6"> </span>DCF</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y18 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_ _a"> </span>speci&#64257;cally<span class="_ _a"> </span>designed<span class="_ _d"> </span>for<span class="_ _a"> </span>single-hop<span class="_ _a"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _a"> </span>LANs,<span class="_ _a"> </span>which</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y19 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">makes<span class="_ _e"> </span>quantitative<span class="_ _e"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>contention<span class="_ _f"> </span>behaviors<span class="_ _e"> </span>occurring</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1a ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">at<span class="_ _a"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>typical<span class="_ _a"> </span>network<span class="_ _a"> </span>topologies<span class="_ _a"> </span>important.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Although</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1b ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">several<span class="_ _5"> </span>quantitative<span class="_ _3"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _3"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _3"> </span>f<span class="_ _4"></span>or<span class="_ _3"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _3"> </span>multi-hop</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1c ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks<span class="_ _3"> </span>have<span class="_ _3"> </span>been<span class="_ _6"> </span>reported,<span class="_ _3"> </span>few<span class="_ _6"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _6"> </span>hav<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>examined<span class="_ _6"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1d ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">use<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _10"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _10"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _10"> </span>DCF<span class="_ _10"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _10"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _10"> </span>While</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1e ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _c"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>effective<span class="_ _b"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>avoiding<span class="_ _b"> </span>packet<span class="_ _b"> </span>collisions<span class="_ _c"> </span>caused<span class="_ _c"> </span>by</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y1f ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">hidden<span class="_ _e"> </span>terminals,<span class="_ _f"> </span>an<span class="_ _f"> </span>overhead<span class="_ _e"> </span>problem<span class="_ _e"> </span>occurs<span class="_ _f"> </span>due<span class="_ _f"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>increase</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y20 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>number<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>RTS/CTS<span class="_ _c"> </span>control<span class="_ _9"> </span>packets.<span class="_ _8"> </span>As<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>number</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y21 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _9"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _9"> </span>control<span class="_ _9"> </span>packets<span class="_ _9"> </span>increases,<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>collisions<span class="_ _9"> </span>between</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y22 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _6"> </span>control<span class="_ _6"> </span>packets<span class="_ _6"> </span>occur<span class="_ _b"> </span>more<span class="_ _6"> </span>frequently<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _b"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>analysis</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y23 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _9"> </span>networks<span class="_ _8"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>use<span class="_ _8"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _9"> </span>has<span class="_ _8"> </span>been<span class="_ _9"> </span>considered<span class="_ _9"> </span>dif&#64257;cult</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y24 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">because<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>complex<span class="_ _8"> </span>behaviors<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _9"> </span>The<span class="_ _8"> </span>present</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y25 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">paper<span class="_ _7"> </span>intr<span class="_ _4"></span>oduces<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _10"> </span>novel<span class="_ _7"> </span>approach<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>thr<span class="_ _4"></span>oughput</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y26 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _7"> </span>networks<span class="_ _5"> </span>that<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _5"> </span>RTS/CTS<span class="_ _7"> </span>by<span class="_ _5"> </span>considering<span class="_ _7"> </span>one-way<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#64258;ow<span class="_ _5"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y27 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">string<span class="_ _6"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _b"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _b"> </span>The<span class="_ _6"> </span>end-to-end<span class="_ _b"> </span>network<span class="_ _b"> </span>maximum</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y28 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">throughput<span class="_ _f"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>obtained<span class="_ _10"> </span>by<span class="_ _f"> </span>analyzing<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>maximum<span class="_ _f"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _f"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y29 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">bottleneck<span class="_ _7"> </span>nodes.<span class="_ _10"> </span>This<span class="_ _7"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _7"> </span>provides<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>transmission<span class="_ _7"> </span>failure</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y2a ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">probability<span class="_ _10"> </span>considering<span class="_ _7"> </span>not<span class="_ _10"> </span>only<span class="_ _7"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS-R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS<span class="_ _7"> </span>collisions<span class="_ _7"> </span>b<span class="_ _4"></span>ut<span class="_ _7"> </span>also<span class="_ _10"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y2b ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">in&#64258;uence<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>Network<span class="_ _7"> </span>Allocation<span class="_ _5"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>ector<span class="_ _7"> </span>(NA<span class="_ _1"></span>V).<span class="_ _7"> </span>A<span class="_ _5"> </span>simulation</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y2c ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_ _7"> </span>carried<span class="_ _7"> </span>out,<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>a<span class="_ _7"> </span>comparison<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>analytical<span class="_ _7"> </span>and<span class="_ _7"> </span>simulated</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y2d ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">results<span class="_ _7"> </span>validates<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _7"> </span>analytical<span class="_ _5"> </span>expressions.</div><div class="t m0 x14 h6 y2e ff3 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _10"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>erms<span class="ff4">&#8212;IEEE<span class="_ _10"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _f"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _10"> </span>Coordination<span class="_ _f"> </span>Function</span></div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y2f ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">(DCF),<span class="_ _3"> </span>Request<span class="_ _3"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>o<span class="_ _3"> </span>Send/Clear<span class="_ _3"> </span>T<span class="_ _4"></span>o<span class="_ _5"> </span>Send<span class="_ _3"> </span>(RTS/CTS),<span class="_ _3"> </span>Maximum</div><div class="t m0 x15 h7 y30 ff4 fs4 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">throughput<span class="_ _7"> </span>analysis,<span class="_ _5"> </span>bottleneck<span class="_ _7"> </span>node</div><div class="t m0 x16 h5 y31 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls2 ws0">I.<span class="_ _9"> </span>I<span class="fs2 ls3">NTR<span class="_ _4"></span>ODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x14 h5 y32 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">W<span class="_ _4"></span>ireless<span class="_ _7"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _5"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>which<span class="_ _7"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _5"> </span>communicate</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y33 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _6"> </span>each<span class="_ _b"> </span>other<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>con<span class="_ _4"></span>vey<span class="_ _6"> </span>packets<span class="_ _6"> </span>via<span class="_ _6"> </span>intermediate<span class="_ _b"> </span>nodes,</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y34 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls1 ws0">hav<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _6"> </span>gained<span class="_ _3"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _6"> </span>attention<span class="_ _3"> </span>because<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>extension<span class="_ _3"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y35 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _5"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _3"> </span>communication<span class="_ _3"> </span>range<span class="_ _5"> </span>that<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>possible<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"> </span>these</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y36 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">networks.<span class="_ _b"> </span>In<span class="_ _b"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _b"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _c"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _c"> </span>802.11</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y37 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">DCF<span class="_ _7"> </span>[1]<span class="_ _10"> </span>based<span class="_ _7"> </span>on<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>CSMA/CA<span class="_ _10"> </span>has<span class="_ _7"> </span>been<span class="_ _10"> </span>commonly<span class="_ _7"> </span>used<span class="_ _7"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x15 h5 y38 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _7"> </span>MA<span class="_ _4"></span>C<span class="_ _7"> </span>layer<span class="_ _10"> </span>protocol.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Howe<span class="_ _4"></span>ver<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>applying<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _10"> </span>802.11</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y39 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">DCF<span class="_ _7"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _5"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _7"> </span>networks,<span class="_ _7"> </span>various<span class="_ _7"> </span>problems<span class="_ _7"> </span>occur,</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y3a ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">including<span class="_ _a"> </span>hidden<span class="_ _d"> </span>terminal<span class="_ _a"> </span>problems<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>exposed<span class="_ _a"> </span>terminal</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y3b ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">problems.<span class="_ _6"> </span>These<span class="_ _6"> </span>problems<span class="_ _6"> </span>cause<span class="_ _6"> </span>high<span class="_ _6"> </span>packet<span class="_ _3"> </span>drop<span class="_ _6"> </span>rates<span class="_ _6"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y3c ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">throughput<span class="_ _9"> </span>degradation[2][3],<span class="_ _8"> </span>which<span class="_ _8"> </span>makes<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>quantitati<span class="_ _4"></span>ve</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y3d ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">analysis<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>contention<span class="_ _c"> </span>behaviors<span class="_ _b"> </span>that<span class="_ _c"> </span>occur<span class="_ _c"> </span>at<span class="_ _c"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _9"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y3e ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">typical<span class="_ _5"> </span>network<span class="_ _5"> </span>topologies<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>traf<span class="_ _4"></span>&#64257;c<span class="_ _5"> </span>&#64258;ows<span class="_ _5"> </span>important.</div><div class="t m0 x18 h5 y3f ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Although<span class="_ _3"> </span>quantitative<span class="_ _3"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _3"> </span>analyses<span class="_ _6"> </span>hav<span class="_ _4"></span>e<span class="_ _3"> </span>been<span class="_ _6"> </span>con-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y40 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ducted<span class="_ _8"> </span>for<span class="_ _9"> </span>various<span class="_ _8"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _9"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _8"> </span>networks[4]-[8],<span class="_ _8"> </span>few</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y41 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">analyses<span class="_ _7"> </span>ha<span class="_ _4"></span>ve<span class="_ _10"> </span>considered<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>use<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _10"> </span>in<span class="_ _7"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _10"> </span>802.11</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y42 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">DCF<span class="_ _a"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _d"> </span>networks.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Although<span class="_ _a"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>effecti<span class="_ _4"></span>ve</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y43 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _8"> </span>av<span class="_ _4"></span>oiding<span class="_ _8"> </span>packet<span class="_ _9"> </span>collisions<span class="_ _8"> </span>caused<span class="_ _8"> </span>by<span class="_ _8"> </span>hidden<span class="_ _8"> </span>terminals,</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y44 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ov<span class="_ _4"></span>erhead<span class="_ _7"> </span>problems<span class="_ _7"> </span>occur<span class="_ _7"> </span>due<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>increase<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>number<span class="_ _7"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y45 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _10"> </span>control<span class="_ _7"> </span>pack<span class="_ _4"></span>ets.<span class="_ _7"> </span>As<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>number<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>R<span class="_ _2"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _7"> </span>control</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y46 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">packets<span class="_ _f"> </span>increases,<span class="_ _f"> </span>collisions<span class="_ _f"> </span>between<span class="_ _10"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _e"> </span>control<span class="_ _10"> </span>packets</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y47 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">occur<span class="_ _a"> </span>more<span class="_ _8"> </span>frequently<span class="_ _4"></span>.<span class="_ _8"> </span>The<span class="_ _a"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>networks<span class="_ _a"> </span>that<span class="_ _8"> </span>use</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y48 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS<span class="_ _f"> </span>has<span class="_ _f"> </span>been<span class="_ _10"> </span>considered<span class="_ _f"> </span>dif&#64257;cult<span class="_ _f"> </span>because<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>complex</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y49 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">behaviors<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _9"> </span>It<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>important<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>obtain<span class="_ _9"> </span>analytical</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y4a ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">expressions<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>maximum<span class="_ _7"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _7"> </span>for<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>networks<span class="_ _7"> </span>that</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y4b ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">use<span class="_ _5"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.</div><div class="t m0 x18 h5 y4c ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _8"> </span>present<span class="_ _a"> </span>paper<span class="_ _8"> </span>quantitatively<span class="_ _8"> </span>analyzes<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>maximum</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y4d ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">throughput<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>one-way<span class="_ _3"> </span>traf&#64257;c<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _6"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _6"> </span>DCF<span class="_ _6"> </span>net-</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y4e ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">work<span class="_ _6"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>uses<span class="_ _b"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Comparison<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _6"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>analytical<span class="_ _b"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y4f ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">simulation<span class="_ _b"> </span>results<span class="_ _b"> </span>demonstrates<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>validity<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>proposed</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y50 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">analytical<span class="_ _5"> </span>expressions.</div><div class="t m0 x18 h5 y51 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls1 ws0">The<span class="_ _7"> </span>remainder<span class="_ _7"> </span>of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>present<span class="_ _7"> </span>paper<span class="_ _7"> </span>is<span class="_ _10"> </span>organized<span class="_ _7"> </span>as<span class="_ _7"> </span>follo<span class="_ _4"></span>ws.</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y52 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Section<span class="_ _6"> </span>2<span class="_ _b"> </span>describes<span class="_ _b"> </span>related<span class="_ _b"> </span>research.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Section<span class="_ _b"> </span>3<span class="_ _b"> </span>analyzes<span class="_ _b"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y53 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">maximum<span class="_ _b"> </span>throughput<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>multi-hop<span class="_ _c"> </span>networks<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>one-way</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y54 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#64258;ow<span class="_ _c"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>use<span class="_ _9"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Section<span class="_ _9"> </span>4<span class="_ _9"> </span>compares<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>analytical</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y55 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">results<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>simulated<span class="_ _a"> </span>results.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Section<span class="_ _a"> </span>5<span class="_ _a"> </span>discusses<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y56 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">number<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>nodes<span class="_ _a"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>which<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>presented<span class="_ _a"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _a"> </span>be</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y57 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">applied<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>also<span class="_ _9"> </span>discusses<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>ef<span class="_ _4"></span>fect<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Finally<span class="_ _4"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y58 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Section<span class="_ _5"> </span>6<span class="_ _5"> </span>concludes<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>paper<span class="_ _4"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x19 h5 y59 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls4 ws0">II.<span class="_ _9"> </span>R</div><div class="t m0 x1a h5 y5a ff1 fs2 fc1 sc0 ls3 ws0">ELA<span class="_ _2"></span>TED<span class="_ _10"> </span><span class="fs3 ls0">R<span class="_ _11"></span></span>ESEARCH</div><div class="t m0 x17 h8 y5b ff5 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">A.<span class="_ _9"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>RTS/CTS<span class="_ _5"> </span>mechanism<span class="_ _7"> </span>in<span class="_ _5"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _3"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _7"> </span>DCF</div><div class="t m0 x18 h5 y5c ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Figure<span class="_ _3"> </span>1<span class="_ _3"> </span>shows<span class="_ _3"> </span>an<span class="_ _3"> </span>example<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>channel<span class="_ _3"> </span>access<span class="_ _3"> </span>method</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y5d ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _7"> </span>802.11<span class="_ _7"> </span>DCF<span class="_ _7"> </span>with<span class="_ _10"> </span>R<span class="_ _4"></span>TS/CTS.<span class="_ _7"> </span>Node<span class="_ _10"> </span>3<span class="_ _7"> </span>(transmitter)</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y5e ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">senses<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>channel<span class="_ _10"> </span>before<span class="_ _7"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>R<span class="_ _12"></span>TS<span class="_ _10"> </span>transmission.<span class="_ _10"> </span>If<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>channel</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y5f ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">is<span class="_ _f"> </span>idle<span class="_ _10"> </span>during<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>Distributed<span class="_ _f"> </span>Inter<span class="_ _10"> </span>Frame<span class="_ _10"> </span>Space<span class="_ _f"> </span>(DIFS)<span class="_ _10"> </span>period,</div><div class="t m0 x17 h5 y60 ff1 fs3 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Node<span class="_ _10"> </span>3<span class="_ _10"> </span>starts<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>R<span class="_ _12"></span>TS<span class="_ _10"> </span>transmission<span class="_ _10"> </span>process.<span class="_ _10"> </span>When<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>channel</div><div class="t m0 x1b h9 y61 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws1">International Conference on Computer and Communication En</div><div class="c x1b y62 w2 ha"><div class="t m0 x1c h9 y63 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">g</div></div><div class="t m0 x1d h9 y61 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">ineerin</div><div class="c x1b y62 w2 ha"><div class="t m0 x1e h9 y63 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">g</div></div><div class="t m0 x1f h9 y61 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws2"> (ICCCE 2010), 11-13 Ma</div><div class="c x1b y62 w2 ha"><div class="t m0 x9 h9 y63 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">y</div></div><div class="t m0 x20 h9 y61 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws3"> 2010, Kuala Lumpur, Mala</div><div class="c x1b y62 w2 ha"><div class="t m0 x21 h9 y63 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">y</div></div><div class="t m0 x22 h9 y61 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">sia</div><div class="t m0 x23 h9 y64 ff6 fs5 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws2">978-1-4244-6235-3/10/$26.00 &#169;2010 IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x24 hb y65 ff7 fs6 fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">Authorized licensed use limited to: Yuan Ze University. Downloaded on April 20,2021 at 18:49:53 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. </div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
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