Object Detection in 20 Years A Survey.zip

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survey of object detection.
Object Detection in 20 Years A Survey.zip
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625ec03c8cbeb85d572611b1/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/625ec03c8cbeb85d572611b1/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Object<span class="_"> </span>Detection<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>20<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _0"></span>ears:<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>Sur<span class="_ _1"></span>v<span class="_ _2"></span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>y</div><div class="t m0 x3 h4 y3 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Zhengxia<span class="_"> </span>Zou,<span class="_"> </span>Zhenwei<span class="_"> </span>Shi,<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff2">Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>IEEE<span class="ff1">,<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _3"></span>uhong<span class="_"> </span>Guo<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>Jieping<span class="_"> </span>Y<span class="_ _3"></span>e<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_"> </span><span class="ff2">Senior<span class="_"> </span>Member<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>IEEE</span></span></span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y4 ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff1">&#8212;Object<span class="_"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>one<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>most<span class="_"> </span>fundamental<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>challenging<span class="_"> </span>problems<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>computer<span class="_"> </span>vision,<span class="_"> </span>has<span class="_"> </span>receiv<span class="_ _2"></span>ed<span class="_"> </span>great</span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y5 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">attention<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>recent<span class="_"> </span>y<span class="_ _2"></span>ears.<span class="_"> </span>Its<span class="_"> </span>de<span class="_ _4"></span>velopment<span class="_ _5"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>past<span class="_"> </span>tw<span class="_ _4"></span>o<span class="_"> </span>decades<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_ _5"> </span>be<span class="_"> </span>regarded<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_ _5"> </span>epitome<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>computer<span class="_"> </span>vision<span class="_ _5"> </span>histor<span class="_ _6"></span>y<span class="_ _2"></span>.<span class="_ _5"> </span>If<span class="_"> </span>we<span class="_"> </span>think</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y6 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_"> </span>today&#8217;<span class="_ _2"></span>s<span class="_"> </span>object<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>technical<span class="_"> </span>aesthetics<span class="_"> </span>under<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>power<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>deep<span class="_"> </span>learning,<span class="_"> </span>then<span class="_"> </span>turning<span class="_"> </span>back<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>clock<span class="_"> </span>20<span class="_"> </span>y<span class="_ _4"></span>ears<span class="_"> </span>we<span class="_"> </span>would</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y7 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">witness<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>wisdom<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>cold<span class="_"> </span>weapon<span class="_"> </span>era.<span class="_"> </span>This<span class="_"> </span>paper<span class="_"> </span>e<span class="_ _2"></span>xtensively<span class="_"> </span>revie<span class="_ _2"></span>ws<span class="_"> </span>400+<span class="_"> </span>papers<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>object<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>light<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>its<span class="_"> </span>technical</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y8 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">ev<span class="_ _2"></span>olution,<span class="_"> </span>spanning<span class="_"> </span>over<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>quarter-centur<span class="_ _6"></span>y&#8217;<span class="_ _4"></span>s<span class="_"> </span>time<span class="_"> </span>(from<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>1990s<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_"> </span>2019).<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>number<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>topics<span class="_"> </span>ha<span class="_ _4"></span>ve<span class="_"> </span>been<span class="_"> </span>co<span class="_ _4"></span>vered<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_"> </span>paper<span class="_ _2"></span>,</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y9 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">including<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>milestone<span class="_"> </span>detectors<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>history<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>datasets,<span class="_"> </span>metrics,<span class="_"> </span>fundamental<span class="_"> </span>building<span class="_"> </span>b<span class="_ _2"></span>locks<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>system,<span class="_"> </span>speed<span class="_"> </span>up</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 ya ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">techniques,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>recent<span class="_"> </span>state<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>art<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>methods.<span class="_"> </span>This<span class="_"> </span>paper<span class="_"> </span>also<span class="_"> </span>revie<span class="_ _4"></span>ws<span class="_"> </span>some<span class="_"> </span>impor<span class="_ _6"></span>tant<span class="_"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>applications,<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_"> </span>as</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 yb ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">pedestrian<span class="_"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>face<span class="_"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>te<span class="_ _2"></span>xt<span class="_"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>etc,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>makes<span class="_"> </span>an<span class="_"> </span>in-deep<span class="_"> </span>analysis<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>their<span class="_"> </span>challenges<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>well<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>technical</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 yc ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">improv<span class="_ _4"></span>ements<span class="_"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>recent<span class="_"> </span>years<span class="_ _4"></span>.</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 yd ff3 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>erms<span class="ff1">&#8212;Object<span class="_"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>Computer<span class="_"> </span>vision,<span class="_"> </span>Deep<span class="_"> </span>learning,<span class="_"> </span>Convolutional<span class="_"> </span>neural<span class="_"> </span>netw<span class="_ _4"></span>orks,<span class="_"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>echnical<span class="_"> </span>ev<span class="_ _2"></span>olution.</span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 ye ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">F</div><div class="t m0 x6 h4 yf ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1<span class="_ _8"> </span>I<span class="_ _1"></span><span class="fs5">N<span class="_ _6"></span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>R<span class="_ _6"></span>O<span class="_ _1"></span>D<span class="_ _6"></span>U<span class="_ _1"></span>C<span class="_ _6"></span>T<span class="_ _1"></span>I<span class="_ _1"></span>O<span class="_ _6"></span>N</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y10 ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">O</div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y11 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">B<span class="_ _6"></span>J<span class="_ _1"></span>E<span class="_ _6"></span>C<span class="_ _1"></span>T<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="fs8">detection<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>an<span class="_ _a"> </span>important<span class="_ _a"> </span>computer<span class="_ _9"> </span>vision<span class="_ _9"> </span>task</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y12 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">that<span class="_ _b"> </span>deals<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>detecting<span class="_ _b"> </span>instances<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>visual<span class="_ _b"> </span>objects</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y13 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _c"> </span>a<span class="_ _c"> </span>certain<span class="_ _c"> </span>class<span class="_ _c"> </span>(such<span class="_ _c"> </span>as<span class="_ _c"> </span>humans,<span class="_ _c"> </span>animals,<span class="_ _c"> </span>or<span class="_ _c"> </span>cars)<span class="_ _c"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y14 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">digital<span class="_ _5"> </span>images.<span class="_"> </span>The<span class="_ _5"> </span>objective<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>object<span class="_ _5"> </span>detection<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>to<span class="_ _5"> </span>develop</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y15 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">computational<span class="_ _9"> </span>models<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _9"> </span>provide<span class="_ _d"> </span>one<span class="_ _9"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y16 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>most<span class="_ _d"> </span>basic<span class="_ _d"> </span>pieces<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>information<span class="_ _d"> </span>needed<span class="_ _9"> </span>by<span class="_ _d"> </span>computer</div><div class="t m0 x6 h9 y17 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vision<span class="_ _e"> </span>applications:<span class="_ _f"> </span><span class="ff6">What<span class="_ _e"> </span>objects<span class="_ _e"> </span>are<span class="_"> </span>where?</span></div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y18 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">As<span class="_"> </span>one<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>fundamental<span class="_"> </span>problems<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>computer<span class="_"> </span>vision,</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y19 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">object<span class="_ _b"> </span>detection<span class="_ _10"> </span>forms<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>basis<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>many<span class="_ _10"> </span>other<span class="_ _b"> </span>computer</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">vision<span class="_ _c"> </span>tasks,<span class="_ _c"> </span>such<span class="_ _c"> </span>as<span class="_ _b"> </span>instance<span class="_ _c"> </span>segmentation<span class="_ _c"> </span>[1&#8211;4],<span class="_ _c"> </span>image</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">captioning<span class="_ _b"> </span>[5&#8211;7],<span class="_ _b"> </span>object<span class="_ _b"> </span>tracking<span class="_ _c"> </span>[8],<span class="_ _10"> </span>etc.<span class="_ _b"> </span>From<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>appli-</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cation<span class="_ _d"> </span>point<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>view<span class="_ _7"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>object<span class="_ _d"> </span>detection<span class="_ _9"> </span>can<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>gr<span class="_ _4"></span>ouped<span class="_ _9"> </span>into</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">two<span class="_ _9"> </span>research<span class="_ _9"> </span>topics<span class="_ _d"> </span>&#8220;general<span class="_ _9"> </span>object<span class="_ _d"> </span>detection&#8221;<span class="_ _9"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>&#8220;detec-</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tion<span class="_ _10"> </span>applications&#8221;,<span class="_ _10"> </span>where<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>former<span class="_ _10"> </span>one<span class="_ _10"> </span>aims<span class="_ _10"> </span>to<span class="_ _10"> </span>explore</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _10"> </span>methods<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>detecting<span class="_ _10"> </span>differ<span class="_ _4"></span>ent<span class="_ _10"> </span>types<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>objects<span class="_ _10"> </span>under</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y20 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _c"> </span>uni&#64257;ed<span class="_ _f"> </span>framework<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _c"> </span>simulate<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>human<span class="_ _f"> </span>vision<span class="_ _c"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y21 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">cognition,<span class="_ _10"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>later<span class="_ _10"> </span>one<span class="_ _10"> </span>refers<span class="_ _d"> </span>to<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>detection<span class="_ _10"> </span>under</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y22 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _a"> </span>application<span class="_ _a"> </span>scenarios,<span class="_ _a"> </span>such<span class="_ _e"> </span>as<span class="_ _a"> </span>pedestrian<span class="_ _a"> </span>detection,</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y23 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">face<span class="_ _a"> </span>detection,<span class="_ _a"> </span>text<span class="_ _a"> </span>detection,<span class="_ _a"> </span>etc.<span class="_ _a"> </span>In<span class="_ _a"> </span>recent<span class="_ _a"> </span>years,<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>rapid</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y24 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">development<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>deep<span class="_ _d"> </span>learning<span class="_ _d"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _10"> </span>[9]<span class="_ _d"> </span>has<span class="_ _10"> </span>brought</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y25 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">new<span class="_ _11"> </span>blood<span class="_ _11"> </span>into<span class="_ _11"> </span>object<span class="_ _11"> </span>detection,<span class="_ _11"> </span>leading<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>remarkable</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y26 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">breakthr<span class="_ _4"></span>oughs<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>pushing<span class="_ _5"> </span>it<span class="_"> </span>forwar<span class="_ _4"></span>d<span class="_"> </span>t<span class="_ _4"></span>o<span class="_"> </span>a<span class="_ _5"> </span>resear<span class="_ _4"></span>ch<span class="_ _5"> </span>hot-spot</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y27 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">with<span class="_ _c"> </span>unprecedented<span class="_ _c"> </span>attention.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Object<span class="_ _c"> </span>detection<span class="_ _c"> </span>has<span class="_ _f"> </span>now</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y28 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been<span class="_ _b"> </span>widely<span class="_ _c"> </span>used<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>many<span class="_ _b"> </span>real-world<span class="_ _b"> </span>applications,<span class="_ _c"> </span>such</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y29 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _c"> </span>autonomous<span class="_ _c"> </span>driving,<span class="_ _b"> </span>robot<span class="_ _c"> </span>vision,<span class="_ _c"> </span>video<span class="_ _c"> </span>surveillance,</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y2a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">etc.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Fig.<span class="_ _9"> </span>1<span class="_ _d"> </span>shows<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>growing<span class="_ _9"> </span>number<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>publications<span class="_ _9"> </span>that</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y2b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _b"> </span>associated<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>&#8220;object<span class="_ _b"> </span>detection&#8221;<span class="_ _c"> </span>over<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>past<span class="_ _b"> </span>two</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y2c ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Corresponding<span class="_ _e"> </span>Author:<span class="_ _e"> </span>Zhengxia<span class="_ _e"> </span>Zou<span class="_ _e"> </span>(zzhengxi@umich.edu)<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>Jieping<span class="_ _12"> </span>Y<span class="_ _2"></span>e</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y2d ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(jpye@umich.edu).</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y2e ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Zhengxia<span class="_ _b"> </span>Zou<span class="_ _c"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>Department<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>Computational<span class="_ _c"> </span>Medicine<span class="_ _b"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y2f ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Bioinformatics,<span class="_"> </span>University<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>Michigan,<span class="_"> </span>Ann<span class="_ _12"> </span>Arbor<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _12"> </span>MI<span class="_"> </span>48109,<span class="_ _12"> </span>U.S.A.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y30 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Zhenwei<span class="_ _9"> </span>Shi<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>Image<span class="_ _9"> </span>Processing<span class="_ _9"> </span>Center<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_ _d"> </span>School<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _9"> </span>Astronautics,</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y31 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Beihang<span class="_"> </span>University<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>Beijing<span class="_ _13"> </span>100191,<span class="_"> </span>China,<span class="_ _13"> </span>and<span class="_ _13"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>State<span class="_"> </span>Key<span class="_ _13"> </span>Laboratory</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y32 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _e"> </span>V<span class="_ _2"></span>irtual<span class="_ _a"> </span>Reality<span class="_ _a"> </span>T<span class="_ _3"></span>echnology<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>Systems,<span class="_ _a"> </span>School<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>Astronautics,<span class="_ _e"> </span>Beihang</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y33 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">University<span class="_ _4"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>Beijing<span class="_ _12"> </span>100191,<span class="_ _12"> </span>China.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y34 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Y<span class="_ _2"></span>uhong<span class="_ _a"> </span>Guo<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _a"> </span>with<span class="_ _9"> </span>the<span class="_ _9"> </span>School<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _9"> </span>Science,<span class="_ _9"> </span>Carleton<span class="_ _a"> </span>University,</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y35 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Ottawa,<span class="_"> </span>HP5167,<span class="_ _12"> </span>Canada,<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>DiDi<span class="_"> </span>Labs,<span class="_ _12"> </span>T<span class="_ _7"></span>oronto,<span class="_"> </span>Canada.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y36 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Jieping<span class="_ _e"> </span>Y<span class="_ _7"></span>e<span class="_ _a"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>with<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>Department<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>Computational<span class="_ _e"> </span>Medicine<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>Bioinfor-</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y37 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">matics,<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>Department<span class="_ _12"> </span>of<span class="_ _12"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _12"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _12"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _12"> </span>Science,</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y38 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">University<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>Michigan,<span class="_"> </span>Ann<span class="_"> </span>Arbor<span class="_ _2"></span>,<span class="_"> </span>MI<span class="_"> </span>48109,<span class="_"> </span>U.S.A.,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>DiDi<span class="_"> </span>AI</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y39 ff6 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Labs,<span class="_"> </span>DiDi<span class="_ _12"> </span>Chuxing,<span class="_ _12"> </span>Beijing,<span class="_"> </span>100085,<span class="_ _12"> </span>China.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y3a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fig.<span class="_ _a"> </span>1.<span class="_ _e"> </span>The<span class="_ _a"> </span>increasing<span class="_ _a"> </span>number<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>publications<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>object<span class="_ _a"> </span>detection<span class="_ _a"> </span>from</div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y3b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1998<span class="_ _9"> </span>to<span class="_ _9"> </span>2018.<span class="_ _9"> </span>(Data<span class="_ _a"> </span>from<span class="_ _9"> </span>Google<span class="_ _9"> </span>scholar<span class="_ _9"> </span>advanced<span class="_ _9"> </span>search:<span class="_ _a"> </span><span class="ff2">allintitle:</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h5 y3c ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8220;object<span class="_"> </span>detection&#8221;<span class="_"> </span>AND<span class="_"> </span>&#8220;detecting<span class="_"> </span>objects&#8221;<span class="ff1">.)</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">decades.</div><div class="t m0 xa hb y3e ff7 fs9 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _8"> </span><span class="ff8 fs8">Dif<span class="_ _4"></span>ference<span class="_ _e"> </span>from<span class="_ _a"> </span>other<span class="_ _e"> </span>related<span class="_ _a"> </span>reviews</span></div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y3f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _d"> </span>number<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>reviews<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>general<span class="_ _d"> </span>object<span class="_ _10"> </span>detection<span class="_ _10"> </span>have</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y40 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">been<span class="_ _e"> </span>published<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_"> </span>recent<span class="_ _e"> </span>years<span class="_ _a"> </span>[24&#8211;28].<span class="_ _e"> </span>The<span class="_ _e"> </span>main<span class="_ _e"> </span>difference</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y41 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">between<span class="_ _a"> </span>this<span class="_ _e"> </span>paper<span class="_ _a"> </span>and<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>above<span class="_ _a"> </span>reviews<span class="_ _e"> </span>are<span class="_ _a"> </span>summarized</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y42 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _e"> </span>follows:</div><div class="t m0 xa hb y43 ff8 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1.<span class="_ _b"> </span>A<span class="_ _b"> </span>comprehensive<span class="_ _b"> </span>review<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>light<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>technical</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y44 ff8 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">evolutions<span class="ff5">:<span class="_ _9"> </span>This<span class="_ _9"> </span>paper<span class="_ _9"> </span>extensively<span class="_ _9"> </span>reviews<span class="_ _a"> </span>400+<span class="_ _9"> </span>papers<span class="_ _9"> </span>in</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y45 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _5"> </span>development<span class="_"> </span>history<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>object<span class="_ _5"> </span>detection,<span class="_"> </span>spanning<span class="_ _5"> </span>over<span class="_ _5"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y46 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">quarter-century&#8217;s<span class="_"> </span>time<span class="_ _a"> </span>(fr<span class="_ _4"></span>om<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>1990s<span class="_"> </span>to<span class="_ _a"> </span>2019).<span class="_ _e"> </span>Most<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y47 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">previous<span class="_ _a"> </span>reviews<span class="_ _a"> </span>merely<span class="_ _9"> </span>focus<span class="_ _9"> </span>on<span class="_ _9"> </span>a<span class="_ _a"> </span>short<span class="_ _9"> </span>historical<span class="_ _9"> </span>period</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y48 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">or<span class="_ _e"> </span>on<span class="_ _a"> </span>some<span class="_ _e"> </span>speci&#64257;c<span class="_ _a"> </span>detection<span class="_ _e"> </span>tasks<span class="_ _a"> </span>without<span class="_ _e"> </span>considering<span class="_ _a"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y49 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">technical<span class="_ _9"> </span>evolutions<span class="_ _9"> </span>over<span class="_ _d"> </span>their<span class="_ _9"> </span>entire<span class="_ _9"> </span>lifetime.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Standing<span class="_ _9"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>highway<span class="_ _9"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>history<span class="_ _9"> </span>not<span class="_ _d"> </span>only<span class="_ _d"> </span>helps<span class="_ _9"> </span>readers<span class="_ _9"> </span>build<span class="_ _d"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complete<span class="_ _e"> </span>knowledge<span class="_ _e"> </span>hierarchy<span class="_ _e"> </span>but<span class="_ _e"> </span>also<span class="_ _a"> </span>helps<span class="_ _e"> </span>to<span class="_ _e"> </span>&#64257;nd<span class="_ _e"> </span>future</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">directions<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>this<span class="_ _e"> </span>fast<span class="_ _e"> </span>developing<span class="_ _e"> </span>&#64257;eld.</div><div class="t m0 xa hb y4d ff8 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2.<span class="_"> </span>An<span class="_ _e"> </span>in-depth<span class="_ _e"> </span>exploration<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>key<span class="_"> </span>technologies<span class="_ _e"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4e ff8 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>recent<span class="_ _c"> </span>state<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>arts<span class="ff5">:<span class="_ _d"> </span>After<span class="_ _10"> </span>years<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>development,</span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _f"> </span>state<span class="_ _11"> </span>of<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>art<span class="_ _11"> </span>object<span class="_ _f"> </span>detection<span class="_ _11"> </span>systems<span class="_ _f"> </span>have<span class="_ _f"> </span>been</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y50 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">integrated<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"> </span>a<span class="_"> </span>lar<span class="_ _2"></span>ge<span class="_"> </span>number<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _13"> </span>such<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_ _13"> </span>&#8220;multi-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y39 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">scale<span class="_ _10"> </span>detection&#8221;,<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#8220;hard<span class="_ _b"> </span>negative<span class="_ _10"> </span>mining&#8221;,<span class="_ _b"> </span>&#8220;bounding<span class="_ _b"> </span>box</div><div class="t m1 xb hc y51 ff9 fsa fc1 sc0 ls0 ws0">arXiv:1905.05055v2 [cs.CV] 16 May 2019</div><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return false;'><div class="d m2"></div></a><a class="l" rel='nofollow' onclick='return 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