mean shift 图像分割

  • v5_941888
    了解作者
  • 5MB
    文件大小
  • zip
    文件格式
  • 0
    收藏次数
  • VIP专享
    资源类型
  • 0
    下载次数
  • 2022-03-31 06:06
    上传日期
Mean Shift算法,一般是指一个迭代的步骤,即先算出当前点的偏移均值,移动该点到其偏移均值,然后以此为新的起始点,继续移动,直到满足一定的条件结束.
图像分割-MS(商业).zip
  • MS(C)
  • ms.h
    41.7KB
  • tdef.h
    1.4KB
  • rlist.cpp
    13.5KB
  • Example.cpp
    889B
  • msSys.h
    10KB
  • RAList.cpp
    5.9KB
  • rlist.h
    14.5KB
  • msSys.cpp
    9.2KB
  • RAList.h
    2.3KB
  • msImageProcessor.cpp
    137.4KB
  • ms.cpp
    74.6KB
  • msImageProcessor.h
    36.4KB
  • M Sh.doc
    1.8MB
  • filelog.txt
    775B
  • EDISON.exe
    1.3MB
  • 2002 PAMI M S- A Robust Approach toward Feature Space Analysis.pdf
    3.2MB
内容介绍
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/base.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/base/css/fancy.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6244dcfd6cd7507199bf81c5/raw.css"> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/compatibility.min.js"></script> <script src="https://static.pudn.com/base/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script> <script> try{ pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({}); }catch(e){} </script> <title></title> </head> <body> <div id="sidebar" style="display: none"> <div id="outline"> </div> </div> <div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://static.pudn.com/prod/directory_preview_static/6244dcfd6cd7507199bf81c5/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Mean<span class="_ _0"> </span>Shift:<span class="_ _0"> </span>A<span class="_ _0"> </span>Robust<span class="_ _0"> </span>Approach</div><div class="t m0 x2 h2 y2 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Toward<span class="_ _0"> </span>Feature<span class="_ _0"> </span>Space<span class="_ _0"> </span>Analysis</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls1 ws0">Dorin<span class="_ _1"> </span>Comaniciu,<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff2 ls2">Member</span><span class="ls3">,<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff2 ls4">IEEE</span><span class="ls5">,<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>Peter<span class="_ _1"> </span>Meer,<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff2 ls6">Senior<span class="_ _1"> </span>Member</span></span>,<span class="_ _1"> </span><span class="ff2 ls5">IEEE</span></span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y4 ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Abstract<span class="ff1">&#208;A<span class="_ _2"> </span>general<span class="_ _2"> </span>nonparametric<span class="_ _2"> </span>technique<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>proposed<span class="_ _2"> </span>for<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>complex<span class="_ _2"> </span>multimodal<span class="_ _2"> </span>feature<span class="_ _2"> </span>space<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>delineate</span></div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y5 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">arbitrarily<span class="_ _2"> </span>shaped<span class="_ _2"> </span>clusters<span class="_ _2"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"> </span>it.<span class="_ _2"> </span>The<span class="_ _3"> </span>basic<span class="_ _2"> </span>computational<span class="_ _2"> </span>module<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>technique<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>an<span class="_ _2"> </span>old<span class="_ _3"> </span>pattern<span class="_ _2"> </span>recognition<span class="_ _2"> </span>procedure,<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>mean</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y6 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">shift.<span class="_ _4"> </span>We<span class="_ _4"> </span>prove<span class="_ _4"> </span>for<span class="_ _4"> </span>discrete<span class="_ _4"> </span>data<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>convergence<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>a<span class="_ _4"> </span>recursive<span class="_ _4"> </span>mean<span class="_ _4"> </span>shift<span class="_ _4"> </span>procedure<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>nearest<span class="_ _4"> </span>stationary<span class="_ _4"> </span>point<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>underlying</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y7 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws1">density<span class="_ _2"> </span>function<span class="_ _4"> </span>and,<span class="_ _2"> </span>thus,<span class="_ _2"> </span>its<span class="_ _4"> </span>utility<span class="_ _2"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"> </span>detecting<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>modes<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>density.<span class="_ _2"> </span>The<span class="_ _2"> </span>relation<span class="_ _4"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>mean<span class="_ _4"> </span>shift<span class="_ _2"> </span>procedure<span class="_ _2"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>Nadaraya-</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y8 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Watson<span class="_ _5"> </span>estimator<span class="_ _5"> </span>from<span class="_ _5"> </span>kernel<span class="_ _5"> </span>regression<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>robust<span class="_ _5"> </span>M-estimators<span class="_ _5"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>location<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>also<span class="_ _5"> </span>established.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Algorithms<span class="_ _5"> </span>for<span class="_ _5"> </span>two<span class="_ _5"> </span>low-level<span class="_ _5"> </span>vision</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 y9 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">tasks,<span class="_ _2"> </span>discontinuity<span class="_ _4"> </span>preserving<span class="_ _2"> </span>smoothing<span class="_ _4"> </span>and<span class="_ _2"> </span>image<span class="_ _2"> </span>segmentation,<span class="_ _4"> </span>are<span class="_ _2"> </span>described<span class="_ _2"> </span>as<span class="_ _2"> </span>applications.<span class="_ _4"> </span>In<span class="_ _2"> </span>these<span class="_ _2"> </span>algorithms,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>only<span class="_ _2"> </span>user</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 ya ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">set<span class="_ _2"> </span>parameter<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>resolution<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _2"> </span>and<span class="_ _2"> </span>either<span class="_ _2"> </span>gray<span class="_ _2"> </span>level<span class="_ _2"> </span>or<span class="_ _3"> </span>color<span class="_ _2"> </span>images<span class="_ _2"> </span>are<span class="_ _2"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _2"> </span>as<span class="_ _2"> </span>input.<span class="_ _2"> </span>Extensive<span class="_ _2"> </span>experimental</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 yb ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">results<span class="_ _2"> </span>illustrate<span class="_ _2"> </span>their<span class="_ _2"> </span>excellent<span class="_ _2"> </span>performance.</div><div class="t m0 x4 h4 yc ff3 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Index<span class="_ _2"> </span>Terms<span class="ff1">&#208;Mean<span class="_ _2"> </span>shift,<span class="_ _2"> </span>clustering,<span class="_ _2"> </span>image<span class="_ _2"> </span>segmentation,<span class="_ _2"> </span>image<span class="_ _2"> </span>smoothin<span class="_ _6"></span>g,<span class="_ _2"> </span>feature<span class="_ _2"> </span>space,<span class="_ _2"> </span>low-level<span class="_ _2"> </span>vision.</span></div><div class="t m0 x5 h5 yd ff4 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">&#230;</div><div class="t m0 x6 h6 ye ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls7 ws0">1I<span class="_ _7"></span><span class="fs5 ls3">NTRODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 yf ff5 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">L</div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y10 ff5 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">OW-LEVEL<span class="_ _3"> </span><span class="fs8 ls3">computer<span class="_ _8"> </span>vision<span class="_ _1"> </span>tasks<span class="_ _8"> </span>are<span class="_ _1"> </span>misleadingly<span class="_ _8"> </span>diffi-</span></div><div class="t m0 x7 h8 y11 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">cult.<span class="_ _8"> </span>Incorrect<span class="_ _8"> </span>results<span class="_ _8"> </span>can<span class="_ _8"> </span>be<span class="_ _8"> </span>easily<span class="_ _1"> </span>obtained<span class="_ _8"> </span>since<span class="_ _9"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y12 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">employed<span class="_ _a"> </span>techniques<span class="_ _a"> </span>often<span class="_ _a"> </span>rely<span class="_ _a"> </span>upon<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>user<span class="_ _a"> </span>correctly</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y13 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">guessing<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>values<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>tuning<span class="_ _b"> </span>parameters.<span class="_ _b"> </span>To<span class="_ _3"> </span>improve</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y14 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws2">performance,<span class="_ _4"> </span>the<span class="_ _4"> </span>execution<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _5"> </span>low-level<span class="_ _2"> </span>tasks<span class="_ _4"> </span>should<span class="_ _4"> </span>be<span class="_ _4"> </span>task</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y15 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws3">driven,<span class="_ _b"> </span>i.e.,<span class="_ _1"> </span>supported<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _1"> </span>independent<span class="_ _b"> </span>high-level<span class="_ _1"> </span>informa-</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y16 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws4">tion.<span class="_ _1"> </span>This<span class="_ _1"> </span>approach,<span class="_ _b"> </span>however,<span class="_ _1"> </span>requires<span class="_ _1"> </span>that,<span class="_ _1"> </span>first,<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>low-</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y17 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">level<span class="_ _3"> </span>stage<span class="_ _3"> </span>provides<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>reliable<span class="_ _3"> </span>enough<span class="_ _3"> </span>representation<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y18 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">input<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>that<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>feature<span class="_ _b"> </span>extraction<span class="_ _1"> </span>process<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _1"> </span>controlled</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y19 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">only<span class="_ _c"> </span>by<span class="_ _c"> </span>very<span class="_ _c"> </span>few<span class="_ _c"> </span>tuning<span class="_ _c"> </span>parameters<span class="_ _c"> </span>corresponding<span class="_ _c"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">intuitive<span class="_ _b"> </span>measures<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>input<span class="_ _3"> </span>domain.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y1b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Feature<span class="_ _d"> </span>space-based<span class="_ _d"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>images<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>paradigm</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">which<span class="_"> </span>can<span class="_"> </span>achieve<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>above-stated<span class="_"> </span>goals.<span class="_"> </span>A<span class="_"> </span>feature<span class="_"> </span>space<span class="_ _2"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">a<span class="_ _3"> </span>mapping<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>input<span class="_ _3"> </span>obtained<span class="_ _b"> </span>through<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>processing<span class="_ _b"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws5">the<span class="_ _a"> </span>data<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _a"> </span>small<span class="_ _a"> </span>subsets<span class="_ _a"> </span>at<span class="_ _a"> </span>a<span class="_ _e"> </span>time.<span class="_ _a"> </span>For<span class="_ _a"> </span>each<span class="_ _a"> </span>subset,<span class="_ _a"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y1f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">para<span class="_ _f"></span>metri<span class="_ _f"></span>c<span class="_ _10"> </span>repre<span class="_ _f"></span>sent<span class="_ _f"></span>ation<span class="_ _10"> </span>o<span class="_ _f"></span>f<span class="_ _c"> </span>t<span class="_ _f"></span>he<span class="_ _10"> </span>feat<span class="_ _f"></span>ure<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>int<span class="_ _f"></span>ere<span class="_ _f"></span>st<span class="_ _c"> </span>i<span class="_ _f"></span>s</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y20 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">obtained<span class="_ _e"> </span>and<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>result<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>mapped<span class="_ _e"> </span>into<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _e"> </span>point<span class="_ _e"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y21 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">multidimensional<span class="_ _8"> </span>space<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>parameter.<span class="_ _8"> </span>After<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>entire</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y22 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws6">input<span class="_ _4"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>processed,<span class="_ _4"> </span>significant<span class="_ _4"> </span>features<span class="_ _2"> </span>correspond<span class="_ _4"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>denser</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y23 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws7">regions<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>feature<span class="_ _3"> </span>space,<span class="_ _3"> </span>i.e.,<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _2"> </span>clusters,<span class="_ _3"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>goal<span class="_ _3"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y24 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>analysis<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>delineation<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>these<span class="_ _3"> </span>clusters.</div><div class="t m0 x8 h8 y25 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">The<span class="_"> </span>nature<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>feature<span class="_ _2"> </span>space<span class="_ _2"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>application<span class="_ _2"> </span>dependent.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y26 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">The<span class="_ _e"> </span>subsets<span class="_ _e"> </span>employed<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>mapping<span class="_ _11"> </span>can<span class="_ _e"> </span>range<span class="_ _11"> </span>from</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y27 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws8">individual<span class="_ _3"> </span>pixels,<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>in<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>color<span class="_ _3"> </span>space<span class="_ _b"> </span>representation<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>an</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y28 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws9">image,<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>set<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>quasi-randomly<span class="_ _3"> </span>chosen<span class="_ _3"> </span>data<span class="_ _b"> </span>points,<span class="_ _3"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y29 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">the<span class="_ _3"> </span>probabilistic<span class="_ _3"> </span>Hough<span class="_ _3"> </span>transform.<span class="_ _3"> </span>Both<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>advantage<span class="_ _3"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y2a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">the<span class="_ _b"> </span>disadvantage<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>feature<span class="_ _b"> </span>space<span class="_ _b"> </span>paradigm<span class="_ _b"> </span>arise<span class="_ _b"> </span>from</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y2b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">the<span class="_ _2"> </span>global<span class="_ _2"> </span>nature<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>derived<span class="_"> </span>representation<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _2"> </span>input.</div><div class="t m0 x6 h8 y2c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wsa">On<span class="_ _c"> </span>one<span class="_ _10"> </span>hand,<span class="_ _c"> </span>all<span class="_ _10"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>evidence<span class="_ _10"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _10"> </span>presence<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>a</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y2d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wsb">significant<span class="_ _9"> </span>feature<span class="_ _9"> </span>is<span class="_ _9"> </span>pooled<span class="_ _9"> </span>together,<span class="_ _d"> </span>providing<span class="_ _9"> </span>excellent</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y2e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">tolerance<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>a<span class="_ _3"> </span>noise<span class="_ _3"> </span>level<span class="_ _b"> </span>which<span class="_ _3"> </span>may<span class="_ _b"> </span>render<span class="_ _3"> </span>local<span class="_ _3"> </span>decisions</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y2f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wsc">unreliable.<span class="_ _3"> </span>On<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>other<span class="_ _b"> </span>hand,<span class="_ _b"> </span>features<span class="_ _3"> </span>with<span class="_ _b"> </span>lesser<span class="_ _3"> </span>support</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y30 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">in<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>feature<span class="_ _1"> </span>space<span class="_ _1"> </span>may<span class="_ _1"> </span>not<span class="_ _1"> </span>be<span class="_ _b"> </span>detected<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"> </span>spite<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>being</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y31 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">salient<span class="_ _11"> </span>for<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>task<span class="_ _c"> </span>to<span class="_ _11"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>executed.<span class="_ _e"> </span>This<span class="_ _c"> </span>disadvantage,</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y32 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wsd">however,<span class="_ _b"> </span>can<span class="_ _b"> </span>be<span class="_ _b"> </span>largely<span class="_ _b"> </span>avoided<span class="_ _b"> </span>by<span class="_ _b"> </span>either<span class="_ _b"> </span>augmenting<span class="_ _b"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y33 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">feature<span class="_ _3"> </span>space<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _3"> </span>additional<span class="_ _3"> </span>(spatial)<span class="_ _b"> </span>parameters<span class="_ _3"> </span>from<span class="_ _3"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y34 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">input<span class="_ _a"> </span>domain<span class="_ _e"> </span>or<span class="_ _a"> </span>by<span class="_ _e"> </span>robust<span class="_ _a"> </span>postprocessing<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _a"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>input</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y35 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">domain<span class="_ _3"> </span>guided<span class="_ _3"> </span>by<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>results<span class="_ _3"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>feature<span class="_ _3"> </span>space<span class="_ _3"> </span>analysis.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y36 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Analysis<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _2"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>feature<span class="_ _2"> </span>space<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _2"> </span>application<span class="_ _2"> </span>independent.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y37 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">While<span class="_ _1"> </span>there<span class="_ _8"> </span>are<span class="_ _1"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>plethora<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>published<span class="_ _8"> </span>clustering<span class="_ _1"> </span>techni-</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y38 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wse">ques,<span class="_ _d"> </span>most<span class="_ _a"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>them<span class="_ _12"> </span>are<span class="_ _d"> </span>not<span class="_ _12"> </span>adequate<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>analyze<span class="_ _12"> </span>feature</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y39 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">spaces<span class="_ _8"> </span>derived<span class="_ _8"> </span>from<span class="_ _9"> </span>real<span class="_ _8"> </span>data.<span class="_ _9"> </span>Methods<span class="_ _8"> </span>which<span class="_ _9"> </span>rely<span class="_ _8"> </span>upon</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">a<span class="_ _c"> </span>priori<span class="_ _c"> </span>knowledge<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>number<span class="_ _c"> </span>of<span class="_ _c"> </span>clusters<span class="_ _c"> </span>present</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls9 ws0">(including<span class="_ _10"> </span>those<span class="_ _10"> </span>which<span class="_ _10"> </span>use<span class="_ _10"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _10"> </span>of<span class="_ _10"> </span>a<span class="_ _10"> </span>glo<span class="_ _f"></span>bal</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 wsf">criterion<span class="_ _8"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>find<span class="_ _8"> </span>this<span class="_ _9"> </span>number),<span class="_ _9"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>well<span class="_ _9"> </span>as<span class="_ _9"> </span>methods<span class="_ _9"> </span>which</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">implicitly<span class="_ _3"> </span>assume<span class="_ _3"> </span>the<span class="_ _3"> </span>same<span class="_ _3"> </span>shape<span class="_ _3"> </span>(most<span class="_ _3"> </span>often<span class="_ _3"> </span>elliptical)<span class="_ _b"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws10">all<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>clusters<span class="_ _12"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>space,<span class="_ _12"> </span>are<span class="_ _12"> </span>not<span class="_ _a"> </span>able<span class="_ _12"> </span>to<span class="_ _12"> </span>handle<span class="_ _12"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y3f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _8"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>a<span class="_ _8"> </span>real<span class="_ _8"> </span>feature<span class="_ _1"> </span>space.<span class="_ _8"> </span>For<span class="_ _8"> </span>a<span class="_ _1"> </span>recent<span class="_ _8"> </span>survey<span class="_ _8"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y40 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws11">such<span class="_ _3"> </span>methods,<span class="_ _b"> </span>see<span class="_ _b"> </span>[29,<span class="_ _3"> </span>Section<span class="_ _b"> </span>8].</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y41 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws12">In<span class="_ _2"> </span>Fig.<span class="_ _3"> </span>1,<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _2"> </span>typical<span class="_ _3"> </span>example<span class="_ _3"> </span>is<span class="_ _3"> </span>shown.<span class="_ _2"> </span>The<span class="_ _3"> </span>color<span class="_ _3"> </span>image<span class="_ _2"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y42 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Fig.<span class="_ _1"> </span>1a<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>mapped<span class="_ _1"> </span>into<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>three-dimensional<span class="_ _1"> </span>L*u*v*<span class="_ _1"> </span>color</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y43 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">space<span class="_ _b"> </span>(to<span class="_ _1"> </span>be<span class="_ _b"> </span>discussed<span class="_ _1"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>Section<span class="_ _1"> </span>4).<span class="_ _b"> </span>There<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>continuous</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y44 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">transition<span class="_ _1"> </span>between<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>clusters<span class="_ _8"> </span>arising<span class="_ _8"> </span>from<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _8"> </span>dominant</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y45 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">colors<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>decomposition<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>space<span class="_ _3"> </span>into<span class="_ _b"> </span>elliptical<span class="_ _b"> </span>tiles</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y46 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 lsa ws0">will<span class="_ _10"> </span>introduce<span class="_ _10"> </span>severe<span class="_ _c"> </span>artifacts.<span class="_ _10"> </span>Enforcing<span class="_ _10"> </span>a<span class="_ _10"> </span>Gaussian</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y47 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws13">mixture<span class="_ _b"> </span>model<span class="_ _1"> </span>over<span class="_ _b"> </span>such<span class="_ _b"> </span>data<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>doomed<span class="_ _b"> </span>to<span class="_ _1"> </span>fail,<span class="_ _b"> </span>e.g.,<span class="_ _1"> </span>[49],<span class="_ _b"> </span></div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y48 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">and<span class="_ _b"> </span>even<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>use<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>a<span class="_ _b"> </span>robust<span class="_ _1"> </span>approach<span class="_ _b"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>contaminated</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y49 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Gaussian<span class="_ _c"> </span>densities<span class="_ _11"> </span>[67]<span class="_ _c"> </span>cannot<span class="_ _11"> </span>be<span class="_ _c"> </span>satisfactory<span class="_ _c"> </span>for<span class="_ _11"> </span>such</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4a ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">complex<span class="_ _1"> </span>cases.<span class="_ _8"> </span>Note<span class="_ _1"> </span>also<span class="_ _1"> </span>that<span class="_ _8"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>mixture<span class="_ _8"> </span>models<span class="_ _1"> </span>require</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4b ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws14">the<span class="_ _2"> </span>number<span class="_ _2"> </span>of<span class="_ _3"> </span>clusters<span class="_ _2"> </span>as<span class="_ _3"> </span>a<span class="_ _2"> </span>parameter,<span class="_ _2"> </span>which<span class="_ _3"> </span>raises<span class="_ _2"> </span>its<span class="_ _3"> </span>own</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4c ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws15">challenges.<span class="_ _c"> </span>For<span class="_ _11"> </span>example,<span class="_ _c"> </span>the<span class="_ _c"> </span>method<span class="_ _c"> </span>described<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _c"> </span>[45]</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4d ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">proposes<span class="_ _3"> </span>several<span class="_ _b"> </span>different<span class="_ _b"> </span>ways<span class="_ _3"> </span>to<span class="_ _b"> </span>determine<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _3"> </span>number.</div><div class="t m0 xa h8 y4e ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Arbitrarily<span class="_ _a"> </span>structured<span class="_ _a"> </span>feature<span class="_ _a"> </span>spaces<span class="_ _a"> </span>can<span class="_ _a"> </span>be<span class="_ _a"> </span>analyzed</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y4f ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">only<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>nonparametric<span class="_ _2"> </span>methods<span class="_ _2"> </span>since<span class="_"> </span>these<span class="_ _2"> </span>methods<span class="_"> </span>do<span class="_ _2"> </span>not</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y50 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">have<span class="_ _c"> </span>embedded<span class="_ _11"> </span>assumptions.<span class="_ _c"> </span>Numerous<span class="_ _11"> </span>nonparametric</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y51 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">clustering<span class="_ _12"> </span>methods<span class="_ _a"> </span>were<span class="_ _12"> </span>described<span class="_ _a"> </span>in<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _a"> </span>literature<span class="_ _a"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y52 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">they<span class="_ _9"> </span>can<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span>classified<span class="_ _9"> </span>into<span class="_ _d"> </span>two<span class="_ _d"> </span>large<span class="_ _d"> </span>classes:<span class="_ _9"> </span>hierarchical</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y53 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">clustering<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _9"> </span>density<span class="_ _d"> </span>estimation.<span class="_ _d"> </span>Hierarchical<span class="_ _d"> </span>clustering</div><div class="t m0 x9 h8 y54 ff5 fs8 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">techniques<span class="_ _d"> </span>either<span class="_ _12"> </span>aggregate<span class="_ _d"> </span>or<span class="_ _12"> </span>divide<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _12"> </span>data<span class="_ _12"> </span>based<span class="_ _d"> </span>on</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y55 ff1 fs7 fc0 sc0 ls8 ws0">IEEE<span class="_ _4"> </span>TRANSAC<span class="_ _f"></span>TIONS<span class="_ _4"> </span>ON<span class="_ _2"> </span>PATTERN<span class="_ _4"> </span>ANALYSI<span class="_ _f"></span>S<span class="_ _4"> </span>AND<span class="_ _2"> </span>MACHINE<span class="_ _4"> </span>INTELLIGEN<span class="_ _f"></span>CE,<span class="_ _13"> </span>VOL.<span class="_ _2"> </span>24,<span class="_ _13"> </span>NO.<span class="_ _4"> </span>5,<span class="_ _13"> </span>MAY<span class="_ _2"> </span>2002<span class="_ _14"> </span>603</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y56 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">.<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ff7">D.<span class="_ _5"> </span>Comanici<span class="_ _6"></span>u<span class="_ _5"> </span>is<span class="_ _5"> </span>with<span class="_ _5"> </span>the<span class="_ _5"> </span>Imaging<span class="_ _5"> </span>and<span class="_ _5"> </span>Visualization<span class="_ _5"> </span>Department,<span class="_ _1"> </span>Siemens</span></div><div class="t m0 xc ha y57 ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws16">Corporate<span class="_ _2"> </span>Research,<span class="_ _2"> </span>755<span class="_ _2"> </span>College<span class="_ _2"> </span>Road<span class="_ _2"> </span>East,<span class="_ _2"> </span>Princeton,<span class="_ _2"> </span>NJ<span class="_ _2"> </span>08540.</div><div class="t m0 xc ha y58 ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">E-mail:<span class="_"> </span>comanici@scr.siemens.com.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y59 ff6 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">.<span class="_ _c"> </span><span class="ff7">P.<span class="_ _b"> </span>Meer<span class="_ _1"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>Electrical<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _b"> </span>Computer<span class="_ _1"> </span>Engineering<span class="_ _1"> </span>Department,</span></div><div class="t m0 xc ha y5a ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws16">Rutgers<span class="_ _2"> </span>University,<span class="_ _2"> </span>94<span class="_ _2"> </span>Brett<span class="_ _2"> </span>Road,<span class="_ _2"> </span>Piscataway,<span class="_ _2"> </span>NJ<span class="_ _2"> </span>08854-8058.</div><div class="t m0 xc ha y5b ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">E-mail:<span class="_"> </span>meer@caip.rutgers.edu.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y5c ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Manuscript<span class="_ _b"> </span>received<span class="_ _b"> </span>17<span class="_ _b"> </span>Jan.<span class="_ _b"> </span>2001;<span class="_ _b"> </span>revised<span class="_ _b"> </span>16<span class="_ _b"> </span>July<span class="_ _1"> </span>2001;<span class="_ _b"> </span>accepted<span class="_ _b"> </span>21<span class="_ _b"> </span>Nov.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y5d ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">2001.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y5e ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">Recommended<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>acceptance<span class="_"> </span>by<span class="_"> </span>V.<span class="_"> </span>Solo.</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y5f ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">For<span class="_ _b"> </span>information<span class="_ _b"> </span>on<span class="_ _b"> </span>obtaining<span class="_ _b"> </span>reprints<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>this<span class="_ _b"> </span>article,<span class="_ _b"> </span>please<span class="_ _b"> </span>send<span class="_ _b"> </span>e-mail<span class="_ _b"> </span>to:</div><div class="t m0 x6 ha y60 ff7 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls3 ws0">tpami@computer.org,<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_"> </span>reference<span class="_"> </span>IEEECS<span class="_ _4"> </span>Log<span class="_"> </span>Number<span class="_"> </span>113483.</div><div class="t m0 xd hb y61 ff1 fs9 fc0 sc0 lsb ws0">0162-8828/02/$17.00<span class="_ _5"> </span><span class="ff8 ls3">&#223;<span class="_ _5"> </span></span>2002<span class="_ _4"> </span>IEEE</div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div> </body> </html>
评论
    相关推荐
    • 程序员算法
      这是一个算法文档压缩包,其中包括《可能与不可能的边界》、《具体数学》、《算法的乐趣》、《啊哈!算法》。这些书很适合对算法感兴趣的朋友,书籍讲解算法非常有趣。注意,其中有些文档是试读版本。
    • 算法实验
      算法实验算法实验算法实验算法实验算法实验算法实验算法实验算法实验
    • 大数据算法
      本书共分为10章,第1章概述大数据算法,第2章介绍时间亚线性算法,第3章介绍空间亚线性算法,第4章概述外存算法,第5章介绍大数据外存查找结构,第6章讲授外存图数据算法,第7章概述MapReduce算法,第8章通过一系列...
    • 算法
      算法 算法
    • SIFT 算法
      SIFT 算法SIFT 算法SIFT 算法SIFT 算法
    • RSA算法
      RSA算法是公钥加密算法中重要的算法之一,本算法即实现RSA的加解密过程。
    • 分词算法介分词算法
      算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语分词介绍分词算法 汉语...
    • unify算法
      unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法unify算法
    • 寻路算法
      寻路算法 寻路封装
    • dsp算法算法算法算法
      dsp各种算法