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  • 2022-04-24 04:28
Pry,一个用于Ruby的强大的可替代标准 IRB shell 的工具,也是运行时开发者控制台。具有以下特性:查看源代码浏览文档在线帮助系统语法高亮集成 Gist强大的灵活的命令行系统
Pry === [![Circle Build Status](]( [![Code Climate](]( [![Gem Version](]( [![Documentation Status](]( [![Downloads](]( ![Pry logo]( * * [YARD API documentation]( * [Wiki]( Introduction ------------ Pry is a runtime developer console and IRB alternative with powerful introspection capabilities. Pry aims to be more than an IRB replacement. It is an attempt to bring REPL driven programming to the Ruby language. Key features ------------ * Source code browsing (including core C source with the pry-doc gem) * Documentation browsing * Live help system * Open methods in editors (`edit Class#method`) * Syntax highlighting * Command shell integration (start editors, run git, and rake from within Pry) * Gist integration * Navigation around state (`cd`, `ls` and friends) * Runtime invocation (use Pry as a developer console or debugger) * Exotic object support (BasicObject instances, IClasses, ...) * A powerful and flexible command system * Ability to view and replay history * Many convenience commands inspired by IPython, Smalltalk and other advanced REPLs * A wide-range number of [plugins]( that provide remote sessions, full debugging functionality, and more. Installation ------------ ### Bundler ```ruby gem 'pry', '~> 0.12.2' ``` ### Manual ```sh gem install pry ``` Overview -------- Pry is fairly flexible and allows significant user [customization]( It is trivial to read from any object that has a `readline` method and write to any object that has a `puts` method. Many other aspects of Pry are also configurable, making it a good choice for implementing custom shells. Pry comes with an executable so it can be invoked at the command line. Just enter `pry` to start. A `pryrc` file in `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/pry/` or the user's home directory will be loaded if it exists. Type `pry --help` at the command line for more information. ### Commands Nearly every piece of functionality in a Pry session is implemented as a command. Commands are not methods and must start at the beginning of a line, with no whitespace in between. Commands support a flexible syntax and allow 'options' in the same way as shell commands, for example the following Pry command will show a list of all private instance methods (in scope) that begin with 'pa' ```ruby pry(YARD::Parser::SourceParser):5> ls -Mp --grep ^pa YARD::Parser::SourceParser#methods: parse parser_class parser_type parser_type= parser_type_for_filename ``` ### Navigating around state Pry allows us to pop in and out of different scopes (objects) using the `cd` command. This enables us to explore the run-time view of a program or library. To view which variables and methods are available within a particular scope we use the versatile [ls command.]( Here we will begin Pry at top-level, then Pry on a class and then on an instance variable inside that class: ```ruby pry(main)> class Hello pry(main)* @x = 20 pry(main)* end => 20 pry(main)> cd Hello pry(Hello):1> ls -i instance variables: @x pry(Hello):1> cd @x pry(20):2> self + 10 => 30 pry(20):2> cd .. pry(Hello):1> cd .. pry(main)> cd .. ``` The number after the `:` in the pry prompt indicates the nesting level. To display more information about nesting, use the `nesting` command. E.g ```ruby pry("friend"):3> nesting Nesting status: 0. main (Pry top level) 1. Hello 2. 100 3. "friend" => nil ``` We can then jump back to any of the previous nesting levels by using the `jump-to` command: ```ruby pry("friend"):3> jump-to 1 => 100 pry(Hello):1> ``` ### Runtime invocation Pry can be invoked in the middle of a running program. It opens a Pry session at the point it's called and makes all program state at that point available. It can be invoked on any object using the `my_object.pry` syntax or on the current binding (or any binding) using `binding.pry`. The Pry session will then begin within the scope of the object (or binding). When the session ends the program continues with any modifications you made to it. This functionality can be used for such things as: debugging, implementing developer consoles and applying hot patches. code: ```ruby # test.rb require 'pry' class A def hello() puts "hello world!" end end a = # start a REPL session binding.pry # program resumes here (after pry session) puts "program resumes here." ``` Pry session: ```ruby pry(main)> a.hello hello world! => nil pry(main)> def a.goodbye pry(main)* puts "goodbye cruel world!" pry(main)* end => nil pry(main)> a.goodbye goodbye cruel world! => nil pry(main)> exit program resumes here. ``` ### Command Shell Integration A line of input that begins with a '.' will be forwarded to the command shell. This enables us to navigate the file system, spawn editors, and run git and rake directly from within Pry. Further, we can use the `shell-mode` command to incorporate the present working directory into the Pry prompt and bring in (limited at this stage, sorry) file name completion. We can also interpolate Ruby code directly into the shell by using the normal `#{}` string interpolation syntax. In the code below we're going to switch to `shell-mode` and edit the `pryrc` file. We'll then cat its contents and reload the file. ```ruby pry(main)> shell-mode pry main:/home/john/ruby/projects/pry $ .cd ~ pry main:/home/john $ .emacsclient .pryrc pry main:/home/john $ .cat .pryrc def hello_world puts "hello world!" end pry main:/home/john $ load ".pryrc" => true pry main:/home/john $ hello_world hello world! ``` We can also interpolate Ruby code into the shell. In the example below we use the shell command `cat` on a random file from the current directory and count the number of lines in that file with `wc`: ```ruby pry main:/home/john $ .cat #{Dir['*.*'].sample} | wc -l 44 ``` ### Code Browsing You can browse method source code with the `show-source` command. Nearly all Ruby methods (and some C methods, with the pry-doc gem) can have their source viewed. Code that is longer than a page is sent through a pager (such as less), and all code is properly syntax highlighted (even C code). The `show-source` command accepts two syntaxes, the typical ri `Class#method` syntax and also simply the name of a method that's in scope. You can optionally pass the `-l` option to `show-source` to include line numbers in the output. In the following example we will enter the `Pry` class, list the instance methods beginning with 're' and display the source code for the `rep` method: ```ruby pry(main)> cd Pry pry(Pry):1> ls -M --grep re Pry#methods: re readline refresh rep repl repl_epilogue repl_prologue retrieve_line pry(Pry):1> show-source rep -l From: /home/john/ruby/projects/pry/lib/pry/pry_instance.rb:143 Number of lines: 6 143: def rep(target=TOPLEVEL_BINDING) 144: target = Pry.binding_for(target) 145: result = re(target) 146: 147: show_result(result) if should_print? 148: end ``` Note that we can also view C methods (from Ruby Core) using the `pry-doc` plugin; we also show off the alternate syntax for `show-source`: ```ruby pry(main)> show-source Array#select From: array.c in Ruby Core (C Method): Number of lines: 15 static VALUE rb_ary_select(VALUE ary) { VALUE result; long i; RETURN_ENUMERATOR(ary, 0, 0); result = rb_ary_new2(RARRAY_LEN(ary)); for (i = 0;
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