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  • 2022-05-07 01:46
This directory contains two AI (Artificial Intelligence) examples that are mentioned but not covered in any sort of depth in the text. PLEASE NOTE: The portions of these examples that are used and named in the 4th Edition of the book have been ported to Python 3.X, but others might not have been. PyToe was ported to 3.X, but holmes was not. Holmes dates back to pre-1.0 Python, and would be substantially different if coded today--see its own README for more details. 1) PyToe ======== A ticTacToe GUI program, described but not fully listed in the _Larger GUI Examples_ chapter. This is a new program (developed in the 1999-2000 timeframe) written for the 2nd edition of this book. It demonstrates basic game search strategies (you play the program). 2) Holmes ========= The holmes expert system is briefly mentioned to show its rule parser logic in the _Text and Language_ chapter. I don't maintain holmes anymore, but it seems to still work as advertised under Python 1.5.2. If memory serves, holmes dates back to 1993 and pre-1.0 Python releases, so please note that it is very old code, and not necessarily a good coding style example (e.g., it does not use class constructor methods, as they weren't available when holmes was written). Below are example Holmes sessions to get you started (this was all run under Python 1.5.2). It uses the following holmes interactive commands: += adds a rule @@ prints the rulebase ?- does backward chaining to prove a query +- does forward chaining with a set of facts @= loads a rulebase file stop exits holmes help prints all commands ================================================================== C:\...\PP2E\Ai\ExpertSystem\holmes\holmes>python -Holmes inference engine- holmes> += rule pylike if ?X likes coding, ?X likes spam then ?X likes Python holmes> @@ rule pylike if ?X likes coding, ?X likes spam then ?X likes Python. holmes> holmes> ?- mel likes Python is this true: "mel likes coding" ? y is this true: "mel likes spam" ? y yes: (no variables) show proof ? yes "mel likes Python" by rule pylike "mel likes coding" by your answer "mel likes spam" by your answer more solutions? n holmes> +- ann likes spam, ann likes coding I deduced these facts... ann likes Python I started with these facts... ann likes spam ann likes coding time: 0.0 holmes> ?- ann likes ?X is this true: "ann likes coding" ? y is this true: "ann likes spam" ? y yes: ann likes Python holmes> stop ================================================================== holmes> += rule 1 if thinks ?x then human ?x holmes> += rule 2 if human ?x then mortal ?x holmes> ?- mortal bob is this true: "thinks bob" ? y yes: (no variables) holmes> +- thinks bob I deduced these facts... human bob mortal bob I started with these facts... thinks bob time: 0.0 =================================================================== holmes> @= ..\kbases\zoo.kb holmes> ?- it is a penguin is this true: "has feathers" ? y is this true: "able to fly" ? n is this true: "black color" ? y yes: (no variables) holmes> ?- it is a ?What is this true: "lives in saltwater" ? n is this true: "lives in freshwater" ? n is this true: "has feathers" ? n is this true: "live births" ? y is this true: "is omnivorous" ? y is this true: "is intelligent" ? y is this true: "technologically advanced" ? n yes: it is a monkey show proof ? y "it is a monkey" by rule 20 "subclass primate" by rule 19 "class mammal" by rule d "live births" by your answer "is omnivorous" by your answer "is intelligent" by your answer "not technologically advanced" by failure to prove "technologically advanced" ====================================================================== C:\...\PP2E\Ai\ExpertSystem\holmes\holmes>python -Holmes inference engine- holmes> @= ..\kbases\fixit.kb holmes> ?- go toaster ?P ?S is this true: "toaster works" ? no is this true: "switch turned on" ? yes is this true: "toaster runs on batteries" ? no is this true: "toaster firmly plugged in" ? yes is this true: "used toaster before" ? yes is this true: "toaster makes sizzle sound" ? yes yes: go toaster unit-is-wet dry-it-out show proof ? yes "go toaster unit-is-wet dry-it-out" by rule 1 "fixit toaster unit-is-wet dry-it-out" by rule t2 "appliance abuse toaster unit-is-wet dry-it-out" by rule a1 "toaster makes sizzle sound" by your answer more solutions?
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