Optimum receiver design for OFDM-based broadband transmission

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关于OFDM接收机的经典文章,第一篇讲各种信道损伤对于OFDM信号的影响,第二篇结合DVBT(欧洲数字电视地面广播标准)介绍了设计接收机的实例。推荐对OFDM原理有一定了解的同志进阶使用
Optimum receiver design for OFDM-based broadband transmission.rar
  • Optimum receiver design for OFDM-based broadband transmission II A case study.pdf
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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta charset="utf-8"><meta name="generator" content="pdf2htmlEX"><meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/css/base.min.css"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/css/fancy.min.css"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/1148472/raw.css"><script src="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/js/compatibility.min.js"></script><script src="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/js/pdf2htmlEX.min.js"></script><script>try{pdf2htmlEX.defaultViewer = new pdf2htmlEX.Viewer({});}catch(e){}</script><title></title></head><body><div id="sidebar" style="display: none"><div id="outline"></div></div><div id="pf1" class="pf w0 h0" data-page-no="1"><div class="pc pc1 w0 h0"><img class="bi x0 y0 w1 h1" alt="" src="https://csdnimg.cn/release/download_crawler_static/1148472/bg1.jpg"><div class="t m0 x1 h2 y1 ff1 fs0 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1668<span class="_ _0"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _1"> </span>TRANSACTIONS<span class="_ _1"> </span>ON<span class="_ _1"> </span>COMMUNICA<span class="_ _2"></span>TIONS,<span class="_ _1"> </span>VOL.<span class="_ _1"> </span>47,<span class="_ _1"> </span>NO.<span class="_ _1"> </span>11,<span class="_ _1"> </span>NOVEMBER<span class="_ _1"> </span>1999</div><div class="t m0 x2 h3 y2 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Optimum<span class="_ _3"> </span>Receiver<span class="_ _3"> </span>Design<span class="_ _3"> </span>for<span class="_ _3"> </span>W<span class="_ _2"></span>ireless</div><div class="t m0 x3 h3 y3 ff1 fs1 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Broad-Band<span class="_ _3"> </span>Systems<span class="_ _4"> </span>Using<span class="_ _5"> </span>OFDM&#8212;Part<span class="_ _5"> </span>I</div><div class="t m0 x1 h4 y4 ff1 fs2 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Michael<span class="_ _6"> </span>Speth,<span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2 fs3">Student<span class="_ _7"> </span>Member,<span class="_ _7"> </span>IEEE,<span class="_"> </span></span>Stefan<span class="_ _6"> </span>A.<span class="_ _6"> </span>Fechtel,<span class="_ _6"> </span><span class="ff2 fs3">Member,<span class="_ _7"> </span>IEEE,<span class="_"> </span></span>Gunnar<span class="_ _6"> </span>Fock,<span class="_ _6"> </span>and<span class="_ _6"> </span>Heinrich<span class="_ _6"> </span>Meyr,</div><div class="t m0 x4 h5 y5 ff2 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Fellow,<span class="_ _7"> </span>IEEE</div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y6 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Abstract<span class="_ _8"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _9"> </span><span class="ff4">Orthogonal<span class="_ _a"> </span>frequency-division<span class="_ _a"> </span>multiplexing</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y7 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">(OFDM)<span class="_ _b"> </span>is<span class="_ _b"> </span>the<span class="_ _b"> </span>technique<span class="_ _b"> </span>of<span class="_ _b"> </span>choice<span class="_ _b"> </span>in<span class="_ _b"> </span>digital<span class="_ _b"> </span>br<span class="_ _c"></span>oad-band</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y8 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">applications<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _d"> </span>must<span class="_ _d"> </span>cope<span class="_ _d"> </span>with<span class="_ _d"> </span>highly<span class="_ _d"> </span>dispersive<span class="_ _d"> </span>transmission</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y9 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">media<span class="_ _e"> </span>at<span class="_ _e"> </span>low<span class="_ _e"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _e"> </span>implementation<span class="_ _e"> </span>cost.<span class="_ _e"> </span>In<span class="_ _e"> </span>this<span class="_ _e"> </span>paper,<span class="_ _e"> </span>we</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ya ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">focus<span class="_ _1"> </span>on<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>inner<span class="_ _1"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _6"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>its<span class="_ _1"> </span>functions<span class="_ _1"> </span>necessary<span class="_ _1"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yb ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">demodulate<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>received<span class="_ _f"> </span>signal<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>deliver<span class="_ _f"> </span>soft<span class="_ _f"> </span>information<span class="_ _f"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yc ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_"> </span>outer<span class="_ _6"> </span>receiver<span class="_"> </span>for<span class="_"> </span>decoding.<span class="_ _6"> </span>In<span class="_"> </span>Part<span class="_ _6"> </span>I<span class="_ _6"> </span>of<span class="_"> </span>this<span class="_ _6"> </span>paper,<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _6"> </span>effects</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yd ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _10"> </span>relevant<span class="_ _10"> </span>nonideal<span class="_ _10"> </span>transmission<span class="_ _10"> </span>conditions<span class="_ _10"> </span>ar<span class="_ _c"></span>e<span class="_ _10"> </span>thoroughly</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 ye ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">analyzed:<span class="_ _11"> </span>imperfect<span class="_ _11"> </span>channel<span class="_ _11"> </span>estimation,<span class="_ _11"> </span>symbol<span class="_ _11"> </span>frame<span class="_ _11"> </span>offset,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 yf ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">carrier<span class="_ _b"> </span>and<span class="_ _12"> </span>sampling<span class="_ _b"> </span>clock<span class="_ _12"> </span>frequency<span class="_ _b"> </span>offset,<span class="_ _12"> </span>time-selective</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y10 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">fading,<span class="_ _1"> </span>and<span class="_ _13"> </span>critical<span class="_ _1"> </span>analog<span class="_ _13"> </span>components.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Through<span class="_ _1"> </span>an<span class="_ _1"> </span>appropriate</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y11 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">optimization<span class="_ _12"> </span>criterion<span class="_ _12"> </span>(signal-to-noise<span class="_ _12"> </span>ratio<span class="_ _14"> </span>loss),<span class="_ _12"> </span>minimum</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y12 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">requir<span class="_ _c"></span>ements<span class="_ _10"> </span>on<span class="_ _10"> </span>each<span class="_ _10"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _10"> </span>synchronization<span class="_ _10"> </span>function<span class="_ _10"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y13 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">systematically<span class="_ _6"> </span>derived.<span class="_ _1"> </span>An<span class="_ _6"> </span>equivalent<span class="_ _6"> </span>signal<span class="_ _1"> </span>model<span class="_ _6"> </span>encompassing</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y14 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _e"> </span>effects<span class="_ _e"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>all<span class="_ _e"> </span>relevant<span class="_ _e"> </span>imperfections<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>then<span class="_ _e"> </span>formulated<span class="_ _e"> </span>in</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y15 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _e"> </span>generalized<span class="_ _15"> </span>framework.<span class="_ _15"> </span>Part<span class="_ _e"> </span>I<span class="_ _15"> </span>concludes<span class="_ _e"> </span>with<span class="_ _15"> </span>an<span class="_ _e"> </span>outline<span class="_ _15"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 x1 h6 y16 ff4 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">synchronization<span class="_ _13"> </span>strategies<span class="_ _13"> </span>to<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _13"> </span>detailed<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _1"> </span>Part<span class="_ _d"> </span>II.</div><div class="t m0 x5 h6 y17 ff3 fs4 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Index<span class="_ _1"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>erms<span class="_ _8"></span>&#8212;<span class="_ _8"></span><span class="ff4">OFDM,<span class="_ _1"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _13"> </span>design,<span class="_ _13"> </span>synchronization.</span></div><div class="t m0 x6 h7 y18 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">I.<span class="_ _10"> </span>I<span class="fs5">NTRODUCTION</span></div><div class="t m0 x1 h8 y19 ff4 fs6 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y1a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">HE<span class="_ _5"> </span>MODULA<span class="_ _16"></span>TION<span class="_ _4"> </span>scheme<span class="_ _3"> </span>orthogonal<span class="_ _5"> </span>frequency-</div><div class="t m0 x7 h7 y1b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">division<span class="_ _12"> </span>multiplexing<span class="_ _12"> </span>(OFDM),<span class="_ _12"> </span>chosen<span class="_ _12"> </span>for<span class="_ _12"> </span>the<span class="_ _14"> </span>two</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">European<span class="_ _12"> </span>terrestrial<span class="_ _12"> </span>broadcasting<span class="_ _12"> </span>standards&#8212;digital<span class="_ _12"> </span>audio</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">broadcasting<span class="_ _11"> </span>(DAB)<span class="_ _11"> </span>and<span class="_ _11"> </span>digital<span class="_ _11"> </span>video<span class="_ _11"> </span>broadcasting<span class="_ _11"> </span>(DVB-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">T)<span class="_ _f"> </span>[2],<span class="_ _f"> </span>[3],<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>now<span class="_ _f"> </span>considered<span class="_ _f"> </span>a<span class="_ _f"> </span>mature<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>well-established</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y1f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">technology<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _13"> </span>digital<span class="_ _13"> </span>broadcasting<span class="_ _13"> </span>applications.<span class="_ _13"> </span>Thanks<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _13"> </span>its</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y20 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">virtues,<span class="_ _15"> </span>it<span class="_ _15"> </span>is<span class="_ _15"> </span>currently<span class="_ _15"> </span>under<span class="_ _15"> </span>investigation<span class="_ _e"> </span>for<span class="_ _15"> </span>further<span class="_ _15"> </span>broad-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y21 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">band<span class="_"> </span>applications<span class="_"> </span>such<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _17"> </span>asynchronous<span class="_"> </span>transfer<span class="_"> </span>mode</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y22 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _13"> </span>wireless<span class="_ _d"> </span>networks<span class="_ _13"> </span>[4].<span class="_ _13"> </span>For<span class="_ _d"> </span>an<span class="_ _13"> </span>introduction<span class="_ _13"> </span>into<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>basics</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y23 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _f"> </span>OFDM,<span class="_ _f"> </span>refer<span class="_ _15"> </span>to<span class="_ _f"> </span>[5]<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>[6].</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y24 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">The<span class="_ _1"> </span>main<span class="_"> </span>advantage<span class="_ _1"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>OFDM<span class="_"> </span>is<span class="_ _1"> </span>that<span class="_ _1"> </span>it<span class="_ _1"> </span>allows<span class="_ _1"> </span>transmission</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y25 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">over<span class="_ _11"> </span>highly<span class="_ _11"> </span>frequency-selective<span class="_ _18"> </span>channels<span class="_ _18"> </span>at<span class="_ _11"> </span>a<span class="_ _11"> </span>low<span class="_ _18"> </span>receiver</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y26 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">implementation<span class="_ _e"> </span>cost.<span class="_ _18"> </span>In<span class="_ _e"> </span>particular,<span class="_ _18"> </span>costly<span class="_ _18"> </span>equalizers<span class="_ _e"> </span>needed</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y27 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">in<span class="_ _f"> </span>single-carrier<span class="_ _15"> </span>systems<span class="_ _15"> </span>are<span class="_ _15"> </span>dramatically<span class="_ _15"> </span>simpli&#64257;ed<span class="_ _15"> </span>or<span class="_ _15"> </span>even</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y28 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">obsolete<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>case<span class="_ _d"> </span>that<span class="_ _f"> </span>dif<span class="_ _c"></span>ferential<span class="_ _f"> </span>modulation<span class="_ _d"> </span>schemes<span class="_ _f"> </span>are</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y29 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">used<span class="_ _e"> </span>[7].</div><div class="t m0 x8 h7 y2a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">A<span class="_ _18"> </span>well-known<span class="_ _11"> </span>problem<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _11"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _18"> </span>is<span class="_ _11"> </span>its<span class="_ _11"> </span>vulnerability<span class="_ _18"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">synchronization<span class="_"> </span>errors.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Many<span class="_ _1"> </span>publications<span class="_"> </span>have<span class="_ _1"> </span>therefore<span class="_"> </span>been</div><div class="t m0 x1 h7 y2c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">concerned<span class="_"> </span>with<span class="_ _1"> </span>this<span class="_ _1"> </span>topic.<span class="_"> </span>Nevertheless,<span class="_ _1"> </span>two<span class="_ _1"> </span>questions<span class="_"> </span>remain.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h9 y2d ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Paper<span class="_ _1"> </span>approved<span class="_ _1"> </span>by<span class="_ _13"> </span>Y.<span class="_ _1"> </span>Li,<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>Editor<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _1"> </span>Wireless<span class="_ _1"> </span>Communication<span class="_ _1"> </span>Theory</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2e ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>IEEE<span class="_ _1"> </span>Communications<span class="_ _1"> </span>Society.<span class="_ _13"> </span>Manuscript<span class="_ _1"> </span>received<span class="_ _13"> </span>August<span class="_ _1"> </span>3,<span class="_ _13"> </span>1998;</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y2f ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">revised<span class="_ _6"> </span>February<span class="_ _1"> </span>3,<span class="_ _6"> </span>1999.</div><div class="t m0 x9 h9 y30 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">M.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Speth,<span class="_ _15"> </span>G.<span class="_ _15"> </span>Fock,<span class="_ _15"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>H.<span class="_ _15"> </span>Meyr<span class="_ _15"> </span>are<span class="_ _f"> </span>with<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>Institute<span class="_ _f"> </span>for<span class="_ _15"> </span>Integrated</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y31 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Systems<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>Signal<span class="_ _d"> </span>Processing<span class="_ _d"> </span>(ISS),<span class="_ _d"> </span>Aachen<span class="_ _d"> </span>University<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>echnology,<span class="_ _d"> </span>D-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y32 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">52056<span class="_ _1"> </span>Aachen,<span class="_ _13"> </span>Germany<span class="_ _13"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _1"> </span>speth@ert.rwth-aachen.de;<span class="_ _13"> </span>fock@ert.rwth-</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y33 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">aachen.de;<span class="_ _6"> </span>meyr@ert.rwth-aachen.de).</div><div class="t m0 x9 h9 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">S.<span class="_ _13"> </span>A.<span class="_ _13"> </span>Fechtel<span class="_ _13"> </span>is<span class="_ _13"> </span>with<span class="_ _13"> </span>In&#64257;neon<span class="_ _13"> </span>T<span class="_ _2"></span>echnologies<span class="_ _d"> </span>AG<span class="_ _1"> </span>i.Gr.,<span class="_ _13"> </span>D81541<span class="_ _13"> </span>M</div><div class="t m0 xa h9 y35 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#168;</div><div class="t m0 xb h9 y34 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">unchen,</div><div class="t m0 x1 h9 y36 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Germany<span class="_ _6"> </span>(e-mail:<span class="_ _1"> </span>fechtel@hl.siemens.de).</div><div class="t m0 x9 h9 y37 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">Publisher<span class="_ _6"> </span>Item<span class="_ _1"> </span>Identi&#64257;er<span class="_ _6"> </span>S<span class="_ _1"> </span>0090-6778(99)08924-2.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y6 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">1)<span class="_ _10"> </span>How<span class="_ _18"> </span>much<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _18"> </span>the<span class="_ _18"> </span>theoretical<span class="_ _18"> </span>performance<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _18"> </span>OFDM</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y38 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">can<span class="_ _1"> </span>be<span class="_ _13"> </span>actually<span class="_ _1"> </span>realized,<span class="_ _13"> </span>taking<span class="_ _13"> </span>into<span class="_ _1"> </span>account<span class="_ _13"> </span><span class="ff2">all<span class="_ _13"> </span></span>receiver</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y39 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">components?</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">2)<span class="_ _10"> </span>How<span class="_ _1"> </span>much<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>implementation<span class="_ _1"> </span>bene&#64257;ts<span class="_ _13"> </span>remain<span class="_ _13"> </span>when</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y3b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">taking<span class="_ _1"> </span>into<span class="_ _13"> </span>account<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span><span class="ff2">complexity<span class="_ _1"> </span></span>of<span class="_ _13"> </span>algorithms<span class="_ _13"> </span>needed</div><div class="t m0 xd h7 y3c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">for<span class="_ _15"> </span>synchronization?</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y3d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">This<span class="_ _f"> </span>paper<span class="_ _e"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>divided<span class="_ _15"> </span>into<span class="_ _15"> </span>two<span class="_ _15"> </span>parts.<span class="_ _15"> </span>In<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>&#64257;rst<span class="_ _15"> </span>part,<span class="_ _15"> </span>we</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y3e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">thoroughly<span class="_"> </span>analyze<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_"> </span>impact<span class="_"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>receiver<span class="_"> </span>imperfections<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y3f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">system<span class="_ _d"> </span>performance<span class="_ _f"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>show<span class="_ _f"> </span>how<span class="_ _d"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _f"> </span>components<span class="_ _d"> </span>can</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y40 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">be<span class="_ _d"> </span>optimized<span class="_ _f"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>systematic<span class="_ _f"> </span>manner.<span class="_ _d"> </span>In<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>second<span class="_ _d"> </span>part,<span class="_ _f"> </span>we</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y41 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">demonstrate<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _13"> </span>methodology<span class="_ _13"> </span>for<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>example<span class="_ _13"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y42 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _7"> </span>based<span class="_"> </span>on<span class="_"> </span>the<span class="_ _7"> </span>European<span class="_"> </span>digital<span class="_"> </span>terrestrial<span class="_ _7"> </span>TV<span class="_"> </span>standard</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y43 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">DVB-T<span class="_"> </span>and<span class="_ _1"> </span>analyze<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _1"> </span>achievable<span class="_ _1"> </span>performance<span class="_"> </span>as<span class="_ _1"> </span>well<span class="_ _1"> </span>as<span class="_ _1"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y44 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">resulting<span class="_ _15"> </span>complexity.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y45 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">One<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>major<span class="_ _e"> </span>features<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _15"> </span>is<span class="_ _e"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>possibility<span class="_ _e"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y46 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">sacri&#64257;ce<span class="_ _f"> </span>some<span class="_ _d"> </span>bandwidth<span class="_ _f"> </span>(thus<span class="_ _f"> </span>optimality)<span class="_ _f"> </span>for<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>bene&#64257;t<span class="_ _d"> </span>of</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y47 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">a<span class="_ _13"> </span>simple<span class="_ _13"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _13"> </span>implementation.<span class="_ _13"> </span>However,<span class="_ _13"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>order<span class="_ _1"> </span>to<span class="_ _13"> </span>apply</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y48 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _d"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _13"> </span>principle,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>following<span class="_ _d"> </span>requirements<span class="_ _13"> </span>must<span class="_ _d"> </span>hold.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y49 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _10"> </span>The<span class="_ _19"> </span>channel<span class="_ _19"> </span>must<span class="_ _10"> </span>be<span class="_ _19"> </span><span class="ff2">quasi-static<span class="_ _19"> </span></span>within<span class="_ _10"> </span>one<span class="_ _19"> </span>symbol</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y4a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">duration.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _10"> </span>The<span class="_ _d"> </span>channel<span class="_ _d"> </span>dispersion<span class="_ _13"> </span>must<span class="_ _d"> </span>be<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff2">limited<span class="_ _d"> </span></span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>time.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y4c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _10"> </span>The<span class="_ _d"> </span>analog<span class="_ _d"> </span>components<span class="_ _d"> </span>must<span class="_ _d"> </span>have<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff2">near-ideal<span class="_ _f"> </span></span>character-</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y4d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">istics<span class="_ _f"> </span>(e.g.,<span class="_ _e"> </span>linearity).</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y4e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">While<span class="_ _18"> </span>it<span class="_ _11"> </span>is<span class="_ _18"> </span>possible<span class="_ _11"> </span>to<span class="_ _18"> </span>relax<span class="_ _11"> </span>these<span class="_ _18"> </span>requirements<span class="_ _11"> </span>somewhat</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y4f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">and<span class="_ _15"> </span>compensate<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>detrimental<span class="_ _15"> </span>effects<span class="_ _f"> </span>by<span class="_ _15"> </span>appropriate<span class="_ _15"> </span>algo-</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y50 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">rithms<span class="_ _e"> </span>(see<span class="_ _e"> </span>e.g.,<span class="_ _e"> </span>[8],<span class="_ _e"> </span>[9]),<span class="_ _e"> </span>such<span class="_ _e"> </span>schemes<span class="_ _e"> </span>are<span class="_ _e"> </span>not<span class="_ _e"> </span>considered</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y51 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">here<span class="_ _f"> </span>since&#8212;at<span class="_ _15"> </span>least<span class="_ _15"> </span>for<span class="_ _15"> </span>the<span class="_ _15"> </span>relevant<span class="_ _f"> </span>case<span class="_ _15"> </span>of<span class="_ _15"> </span>a<span class="_ _15"> </span>large<span class="_ _f"> </span>number</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y52 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">of<span class="_ _e"> </span>subcarriers&#8212;they<span class="_ _18"> </span>counteract<span class="_ _18"> </span>the<span class="_ _e"> </span>notion<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>OFDM<span class="_ _18"> </span>being</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y53 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">the<span class="_ _18"> </span>technique<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _18"> </span>choice<span class="_ _18"> </span>when<span class="_ _18"> </span>it<span class="_ _18"> </span>comes<span class="_ _e"> </span>to<span class="_ _18"> </span>implement<span class="_ _18"> </span>low-</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y54 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">complexity<span class="_ _f"> </span>broad-band<span class="_ _f"> </span>receivers.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y55 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">In<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _d"> </span>design,<span class="_ _13"> </span>we<span class="_ _d"> </span>follow<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>principle<span class="_ _d"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>synchro-</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y56 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">nized<span class="_ _d"> </span>detection<span class="_ _f"> </span>[10].<span class="_ _d"> </span>The<span class="_ _f"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>divided<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>an<span class="_ _d"> </span>inner<span class="_ _d"> </span>and</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y57 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">outer<span class="_ _11"> </span>part.<span class="_ _11"> </span>The<span class="_ _19"> </span>transmission<span class="_ _11"> </span>parameters&#8212;carrier<span class="_ _19"> </span>frequency</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y58 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">offset,<span class="_ _d"> </span>sampling<span class="_ _f"> </span>clock<span class="_ _d"> </span>offset,<span class="_ _f"> </span>timing<span class="_ _d"> </span>offset&#8212;and<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>channel</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y59 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">are<span class="_ _d"> </span>estimated<span class="_ _d"> </span>in<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>inner<span class="_ _d"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>then<span class="_ _f"> </span>compensated<span class="_ _d"> </span>for</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5a ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">as<span class="_ _1"> </span>if<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>estimates<span class="_ _1"> </span>were<span class="_ _13"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>true<span class="_ _1"> </span>parameters.<span class="_ _13"> </span>The<span class="_ _1"> </span>compensated</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5b ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">signal<span class="_ _11"> </span>is<span class="_ _19"> </span>then<span class="_ _19"> </span>used<span class="_ _19"> </span>to<span class="_ _19"> </span>decode<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _19"> </span>transmitted<span class="_ _19"> </span>data<span class="_ _11"> </span>in<span class="_ _19"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5c ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">outer<span class="_ _d"> </span>receiver.<span class="_ _f"> </span>Of<span class="_ _d"> </span>course,<span class="_ _d"> </span>the<span class="_ _f"> </span>parameter<span class="_ _d"> </span>estimates<span class="_ _d"> </span>bear<span class="_ _f"> </span>some</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5d ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">estimation<span class="_ _d"> </span>errors,<span class="_ _d"> </span>resulting<span class="_ _13"> </span>in<span class="_ _d"> </span>a<span class="_ _d"> </span>performance<span class="_ _d"> </span>loss.<span class="_ _d"> </span>In<span class="_ _13"> </span>order<span class="_ _d"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5e ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">arrive<span class="_ _d"> </span>at<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>best<span class="_ _f"> </span>compromise<span class="_ _d"> </span>between<span class="_ _f"> </span>the<span class="_ _d"> </span>con&#64258;icting<span class="_ _f"> </span>objec-</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y5f ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">tives<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _d"> </span>minimizing<span class="_ _13"> </span>this<span class="_ _d"> </span>performance<span class="_ _13"> </span>loss<span class="_ _13"> </span>and<span class="_ _d"> </span>simultaneously</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y60 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">minimizing<span class="_ _11"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _18"> </span>complexity,<span class="_ _11"> </span>the<span class="_ _11"> </span>following<span class="_ _11"> </span>approach<span class="_ _11"> </span>is</div><div class="t m0 xe h7 y61 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">taken.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y62 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _10"> </span>A<span class="_ _e"> </span>system<span class="_ _18"> </span>model<span class="_ _e"> </span>comprising<span class="_ _18"> </span>all<span class="_ _e"> </span>relevant<span class="_ _18"> </span>ef<span class="_ _c"></span>fects<span class="_ _18"> </span>of<span class="_ _e"> </span>the</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y63 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">inner<span class="_ _d"> </span>and<span class="_ _f"> </span>outer<span class="_ _f"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _d"> </span>is<span class="_ _f"> </span>developed.</div><div class="t m0 xc h7 y64 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#8226;<span class="_ _10"> </span>An<span class="_ _18"> </span>optimization<span class="_ _18"> </span>criterion<span class="_ _11"> </span>is<span class="_ _11"> </span>formulated<span class="_ _18"> </span>that<span class="_ _11"> </span>allows<span class="_ _18"> </span>to</div><div class="t m0 xf h7 y65 ff1 fs3 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">evaluate<span class="_ _1"> </span>the<span class="_ _13"> </span>quality<span class="_ _13"> </span>of<span class="_ _1"> </span>each<span class="_ _13"> </span>relevant<span class="_ _13"> </span>receiver<span class="_ _1"> </span>component.</div><div class="t m0 x10 h9 y66 ff1 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">0090&#8211;6778/99$10.00</div><div class="t m0 x11 ha y67 ff5 fs5 fc0 sc0 ls0 ws0">&#63721;<span class="_ _d"> </span><span class="ff1">1999<span class="_ _d"> </span>IEEE</span></div></div><div class="pi" data-data='{"ctm":[1.568627,0.000000,0.000000,1.568627,0.000000,0.000000]}'></div></div></body></html>
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